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Domingo, 16 / 02 / 20

Mirror-Touch Synesthesia: the Extreme Version of Empathy

Mirror-Touch Synesthesia: 

The Extreme Version of Empathy.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

February 14th, 2020.

 
mirror-touch synesthesia.
 


 
 
When a person says ‘I feel your pain,’ you take it to mean emotionally, not physically. But people that suffer from mirror-touch synesthesia feel exactly that; other people’s physical pain.
What Is Mirror-Touch Synesthesia?
 
The Condition of Synesthesia
 
Before we discuss this strange condition, let’s get some background on the basics of synesthesia.
 
The word ‘synesthesia’ comes from Greek and means ‘joined perception’. It’s a condition whereby one sense, such as seeing or hearing, triggers another overlapping sense. People with synesthesia are able to perceive the world through multiple senses.
 
For instance, those with synesthesia experience seeing music as colourful swirls. Or they might associate letters or numbers with different colours. Smells are linked to colours or sounds.
 
Mirror-Touch Synesthesia
 
It is a condition whereby the sufferer feels the sensations another person is experiencing. It’s called mirror-touch because the feelings occur on the opposite side of the body; as if you’re looking in a mirror.
 
For example, if I were to stroke the palm of my left hand, a sensation would occur on the sufferer’s right palm. Sights and sounds trigger feelings that can be painful or pleasurable.
 
Mirror-touch synesthesia is incredibly rare. It occurs in just 2% of the world’s population. Experts have described it as ‘an extreme form of empathy’. This is because the sufferer feels exactly what the other person is experiencing on and in their own body.
 
Meet Dr. Joel Salinas – the doctor who can feel your pain
 
One person that knows all about mirror-touch synesthesia is Dr. Joel Salinas. This doctor is a Harvard neurologist and a clinical researcher at Massachusetts University. He comes into contact with sick and ailing patients on a daily basis. But it’s not just their pain and discomfort he feels.
 
Dr. Salinas describes the pressure on the bridge of his nose as he watches someone walk past wearing glasses. The sensation of vinyl against the backs of his legs as he glances at a woman seated on a plastic chair in the waiting room. How her hat fits snugly around his head. The way his hip automatically contracts to mimic a volunteer shifting from one leg to another while taking a break from pushing a wheelchair.
 
“Through mirror-touch synesthesia, my body physically feels the experiences I see others have.” Dr. Joel Salinas
 
What Causes Mirror-Touch Synesthesia?
 
Experts believe it’s all to do with neurons and the part of our brain which is responsible for forward-thinking and planning. For instance, I look at my coffee and want to drink some of it. The neurons in my premotor cortex spring into action. This prompts me to reach out and take the cup.
 
Scientists in Italy discovered something interesting whilst researching macaque monkeys and neurons in the premotor cortex. They noticed high activity in this part of the brain when the monkeys reached to take an object, but also when they observed another monkey reaching out for an object. They called these particular neurons ‘mirror-touch’ neurons.
 
I find this all pretty incredible; it’s almost like a superpower built into our brains. But more importantly, it suggests a deeper connection between us.
 
What’s It Like to Experience This Type of Synesthesia?
 
People with mirror-touch synesthesia can have very different experiences. For some, it can be incredibly intense and disturbing. In fact, it’s not uncommon to hear this condition described as: “shocking electricity – like bolts of fire.”
 
One woman referred to a particularly distressing incident as: “It was a moment of trauma for me.” Another talks about his partner and how exhausted she felt on a daily basis: “Sometimes after being out in the world with everyone else’s feelings pulsing through her body, she’d come home and just pass out.”
 
Of course, we cannot forget there are also good feelings as well as bad. Moreover, some people with this condition seem able to focus on positive experiences.
 
One woman talks about the sense of freedom she goes through: “When I watch a bird in the sky, I feel like I’m flying. That’s a joy.” Another recalls the pleasure he senses: “When I see people hug, I feel like my body is getting hugged.”
 
Is Mirror-Touch Synesthesia a More Extreme Form of Empathy?
 
For some people, having this condition could be seen as a benefit. Certainly in Dr. Salinas’ view, it is.
 
“It is up to me to reason through that experience so that I can then respond to my patients from a truer, more enduring place of compassion and kindness. Or, I can respond with whatever else is needed: Sometimes that means prescribing a medication.” Dr. Salinas
 
However, anyone with empathic traits will know just how exhausting it can be. Putting yourself in another’s person’s situation and feeling their emotions is physically draining in its self. Regardless of actually physically experiencing pain or discomfort, empaths have a hard enough time as it is.
 
Final Thoughts
 
Dr. Salinas believes there are good reasons for some of us to be able to feel what others feel. And it’s all about curiosity and understanding another person.
 
“Being curious about where another human being is coming from, and wondering why they might think, feel, or do what they do.”
 
Because it’s the fear of the unknown that can lead to prejudice, radicalisation, stereotyping minority groups and hate crimes. Surely, the more we know about a person, the better for all of society.
 
 
References:
  1. www.bbc.co.uk
  2. www.vice.com
  3. www.sciencedirect.com
  4. www.theguardian.com
 

 

 
Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 02:49
Domingo, 09 / 02 / 20

Spiral of Silence Theory Explains Why You’d Rather Stay Quiet.

Spiral of Silence Theory Explains Why You’d Rather Stay Quiet.

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted February 8th, 2020.

 
spiral of silence theory.

 


 
 
 
During the 1970s, Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann, a German political scientist, developed the spiral of silence theory. Working in the context of post-World War Two Germany, Noelle-Neumann coined the theory. She sought to explain why individuals choose to remain silent when they believe their view isn’t held by the majority.
 
In this post, we look at how the spiral of silence can explain human behavior. We will also consider whether or not the theory is still relevant today.
 
Spiral of silence theory explained
 
The theory was coined by Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann in 1974. It was partly designed in an attempt to explain the lack of resistance to the Nazi regime. The idea of the spiral of silence suggests that people remain silent when they think their views are different from majority viewpoints.
 
According to the theory, this unwillingness to speak out is due to fear of social isolation. It is also due to the expected negative consequences of going against the perceived status quo. On the other hand, those confident their beliefs and opinions meet ‘public opinion’ can voice their thoughts without fear. This also perpetuates the silencing effect on those in the minority.
 
We are all able to determine what the prevailing ‘public opinion’ actually is, according to the theory. In Noelle-Neumann’s words, we all have a ‘quasi statistical sense’ of whether our own opinions are either popular or unpopular. This is based on the cues we have had from the mass media and our environment. In other words, we have a ‘sixth sense’ of the popular public consensus on a range of issues.
 
The spiral effect begins to occur as those who feel validated about their beliefs become more and more vocal. Concurrently, those in the minority lose confidence in expressing their opinions. This loss of confidence is built on the fear of rejection and subsequent social isolation.
 
As a result, the minority are silenced. In this way, predominating public opinion is seen as a form of social control in the spiral of silence theory.
 
Research into the theory
 
Since the theory of the spiral of silence was developed, there have been numerous studies that have tested it. These studies have sought to either prove or disprove its legitimacy. The majority of these studies have focused on the effect of the theory in political environments.
 
Most recently, a meta-analysis conducted by Matthes et al (2017) revisited the theory and the effect of the spiral of silence on either restricting or enabling the expression of political opinions. They analyzed 66 studies exploring this topic which collectively contained 27,000 participants.
 
The analysis found that there was a significant positive relationship between one’s perception of the prevailing opinion and the subsequent suppression of their own opinions. This was seen to be particularly acute when amongst family, friends, and neighbors.
 
Despite this result, there are critics of the theory. Some have criticized the assumption that we all have an in-built understanding of what the prevailing climate of opinion is, and whether there can actually be something that can be defined as such.
 
Others have questioned the theoretical underpinning that fear of isolation is a strong enough deterrent for silencing a minority opinion. There have also been criticisms of the theory’s failure to take into account cross-cultural differences. Others have noted that the nature of the issue itself can impact on the spiral of silence effect.
 
How relevant is the spiral of silence today?
 
With the rise of alternative online media channels and social media, critics of the spiral of silence are suggesting that the theory is no longer relevant. The theory was proposed pre-internet and was based on a mass-media that was relatively uniform.
 
Today, the mainstream media often follows the same trajectory. However, the internet has provided people the opportunity to seek alternative opinions. It has also given voice to those who have previously been disadvantaged by unequal power relations.
 
If an individual does not wish to publicly express their opinion amongst friends, family, or colleagues they may well do so anonymously via the internet. This is sometimes known as the online disinhibition effect. This itself creates its own spiral effect.
 
However, within this context, a minority opinion may no longer be felt as such. This is due to the fact that the World Wide Web enables the participation of many within the political domain.
 
The birth of the internet, therefore, has shifted the conversation around the spiral of silence into a new trajectory. While some believe the theory has had its day, others still see the theoretical concept as a useful means of exploring behavior.
 
Using it as a starting point for many studies into whether a climate of opinion can still be said to exist, and how this affects our willingness to speak out about controversial opinions that we deem to go against the grain.
Does it ring true for you?
 
The spiral of silence, therefore, may have struck a chord with your own behavior and responses. Ever felt silenced during a political conversation? Fear of isolation or rejection is certainly something we can all relate to.
 
So, while the spiral of silence theory may need some modern re-jigging, as a concept, it can certainly serve to explain those occasions where we ponder about what we could have said, only when it is too late to say it.
 
 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


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publicado por achama às 03:25
Sábado, 08 / 02 / 20

Dunbar’s Number or Why Most of Your Social Connections Are Not Your Friends

Dunbar’s Number or Why Most of Your Social Connections Are Not Your Friends.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

February 7th, 2020.

 
Dunbar’s Number.
 
 
 
Have you heard of Dunbar’s number? My sister certainly has. Years ago, when her new neighbour asked her if she wanted to pop round for a coffee, she said: “No thanks, I’ve got enough friends.”
 
Now, before you start judging my sis for being unnecessarily blunt, she does have a point. And that’s where Dunbar’s number comes in. You see, it suggests that a person can only maintain a maximum of 150 social connections at once. So why is this and where does the idea come from?
 
The Origin of Dunbar’s Number
 
Robin Dunbar is a British anthropologist and an evolutionary psychologist. Back in the 1990s, he was interested in the number of social connections a person could have.
 
For instance, how many people do we know; how many do we actually care about and is there a common link to this number? Do some people have more connections, others less? Now, remember, this was the 90s so well before social media and ‘likes’ and ‘friends’ and all of that.
 
Dunbar began his research by examining the patterns of sending Christmas cards.
Dunbar and the Christmas Card List
 
Sending cards at Christmas seems fairly innocuous, but there is a certain amount of investment involved. You make the list of people, you choose and buy the cards, the stamps, and you look up the addresses. Then you write them all out and post them. It all takes time and effort. Dunbar reckoned that most of us would not go to all this trouble and effort for just anyone.
 
After collecting data from thousands of households, Dunbar found a remarkable coincidence. Of every household he collected data from, the average number of cards sent was always around 150. There was also a fairly unanimous split in who the cards went to. For example, around a quarter were sent to close relatives, two-thirds to friends and the remaining small percentage to colleagues.
 
But why did the number 150 keep cropping up? It was a mystery. Dunbar carried on researching. But this time he turned his attention to primates and social groups.
Why Is Dunbar’s Number 150?
 
Dunbar discovered a link between a primate’s brain and the size of their social groups. Specifically, their brain mass and the primate’s preferred group sizes. He looked at different primate species and catalogued social activity.
 
In particular, time spent grooming (the equivalent of socialising for humans), the size of the neocortex (the area of the brain related to language and cognition) and group size. He found that in primates, the smaller the size of the brain, the smaller the size of the groups were formed. As brain mass increased, so did group size.
 
 
Dunbar proposed that brain size was the overriding factor in deciding the number of social connections a primate could successfully manage. Dunbar then collected data across all primate species, including humans.
 
He proposed that humans can only comfortably maintain 150 social connections. Larger numbers require stricter social rules and larger neocortical processing capacity.
So what exactly does Dunbar mean by 150 and social connections?
 
Dunbar characterises the number 150 as:
 
 
“..the number of people you would not feel embarrassed about joining uninvited for a drink if you happened to bump into them in a bar.”
 
There is strong evidence, throughout history, that shows 150 is an average size for social groups. Indeed, it is the optimum number for a group. For when numbers start to exceed this size things tend to collapse or fail to function effectively.
Dunbar’s Number applies to many social groups
 
Even our earliest ancestors, the cave-dwellers, the hunter-gatherers, lived in groups consisting, on average, of 150 people. The earliest villages consisted of around 150 people. From African tribes to Roman legions, we are always drawn back to this magic number of 150.
 
Perhaps stranger still, Dunbar and his magic number of 150 can be seen in many other aspects of human social groups, not just our personal lives. For example, offices, campsites, hotels, military organisations, even book-clubs. Indeed, research proves time and time again that if numbers exceed 150 the group fails.
150 only applies to primates and humans
 
So why 150? It appears that 150 is the prime number for evolutionary survival. Primates, in particular, live in social groups, and this helps them to survive. In our ancestor’s time, humans were prey, not predators. We didn’t have sharp teeth, razor-like claws or strong muscles.
 
 
Whereas it suited other predators to hunt alone, for humans to stay alive, we needed to form groups. We used our shared knowledge and cunning. We planned and formulated ways of attack. For us, staying in strong, social groups was a matter, literally, of survival.
 
Now, look at other animals. For instance, the tiger, a predator at the top of the food chain, or a penguin, prey and near the bottom. Tigers are solitary animals. They survive without the need of a group and therefore hunt alone.
 
On the other hand, penguins are at risk from many predators, including extreme weather conditions. As a result, it is in their best interest to form huge groups. In fact, some of the largest penguin colonies have consisted of up to 180,000 to 200,000 birds.
 
Of course, tigers and penguins are very different from primates and humans. Penguins may form groups but they are not social in the way that human groups are. For the penguins, it is all about staying alive. For humans, it is more about emotional, psychological and spiritual connections.
 
And this is where it gets interesting. Because it takes a lot of effort to maintain all this emotion, and our brain can only manage so much. However, have we changed in the 21st century?
Has Social Media Changed Dunbar’s Number?
 
Now, in today’s society, there is nothing unusual for a person to have hundreds, if not thousands of friends on Facebook. So is it possible that Dunbar’s number no longer applies in our modern world?
 
Dunbar first proposed the number 150 in the 1990s. The 2020s is a very different place. We communicate online. We meet for the first time online. We date online. Surely, Dunbar’s number must have increased a little to keep up with our modern society?
 
 
I mean, this doesn’t make sense for a modern age. People communicate in seconds across the globe. Our social reach has expanded as our grasp of technology has stretched our imaginations. Also, I would have thought that our brain capacity would have increased substantially since our ancestors first set up villages over 250,000 years ago.
 
Well, not really. And that’s because it is all to do with our emotional capacity.
 
 
“It is as though we each have a limited amount of social capital and we can choose to invest it thinly in more people, or thickly in fewer people. But you can’t exceed these limits.” Dunbar
 
So what do these social connections look like? Dunbar arranges them in ever-decreasing circles. Our closest friends are in our inner circle and our acquaintances are in the furthest circle.
Most people, on average, have:
5 loved ones
15 best friends
50 good friends
150 meaningful contacts
500 acquaintances
1500 people you recognise
 
So we may know thousands of people, but Dunbar states that the 150 number is the important cut-off.
 
 
“The 150 layer is the important one: this defines the people you have real reciprocated relationships with, those where you feel obligations and would willingly do favours.” Dunbar
 
Because humans are complex creatures, maintaining these relationships take effort and time. And that’s why we only have the capacity for 150 social connections.
 
Of course, people move in and out of our lives at any given point. There are also huge differences between the social connections of an extrovert and an introvert. An extrovert may have a larger social network. However, they tend to spread themselves out thinly across a wide network of people. Introverts have a smaller social pool of contacts. But they like to spend more quality time with a few special friends.
 
 
There are also interesting differences between the genders. For example, men have a wider spread of contacts throughout their social circles. Whereas women have more contacts within their inner circles.
Final Thoughts
 
So is there really any advantage to knowing that humans have a limited capacity for maintaining social connections? Well, I think so yes. I realise it is all about time and effort. If we only have space for 150 connections then we should make sure those connected to us are worth the effort, and that we make the effort to preserve them.
 
Oh, and my sister? She did pop round for that coffee after all. They’ve been good friends ever since.
References:
  1. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  2. www.forbes.com
  3. www.bbc.com
 

 

 
Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 02:45
Sexta-feira, 31 / 01 / 20

The Friendship Paradox Reveals the Weird Reason You Are Less Popular Than Your Friends

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted January 30th, 2020.

 
friendship paradox.

 
 
 
Have you ever noticed that the people you hang out with always seem to be more popular than you? Whether it’s down at the gym, on social media, or even at work, it is common for people to notice that their friends seem fitter, more popular, and more successful. According to researchers in the field of social networks, this is due to something known as the friendship paradox. But what is this paradox and why does it make it seem like we are less popular than our friends?
 
In this post, we’ll explore the reasons the friendship paradox exists, the different ways it manifests itself, and why you don’t need to worry about this strange phenomenon.
 
What is the friendship paradox?
 
According to the sociologist of social networks Scott Feld, the reason our friends are likely to be more popular than we are is simply down to maths and sampling. He found that, if you were to ask someone who their friends were and then met the friends of that person and asked them the same question, then, on average, you would find that the friends are better connected than that first person.
 
This is perhaps most apparent on social networks online where our behavior affects our self-image greatly, with one study finding 98% of Twitter followers following people were being followed by more people than them.
 
The friendship paradox also has wide-ranging effectsbeyond the internet and friendship circles and can potentially be used to explain why people you see in the gym are always much fitter than you, or noticing that your sexual partners are typically more experienced than you are. Indeed, a new study has found that this paradox may hold for additional characteristics, such as income, happiness, and sexual partners.
 
Effectively, the friendship paradox stems from a sampling bias built on the fact that people with more friends tend to be observed more by their friends. Equally, if you take the gym example, the reason everyone at the gym seems fitter than you is because they spend more time there.
 
When it comes to sexual partners, people who are actively dating are more likely to be sexually active with more people. When it comes to income, only certain friends can afford to do certain activities, bringing in higher earners to social networks and making the activities they do more noticeable. This broader phenomenon is sometimes called the “Generalized Friendship Paradox”.
Why does it exist?
 
As Scott Feld explained the concept, the reason the friendship paradox exists is because of maths and sampling. Whilst everyone’s friendship group might be different, everyone’s sample is always likely to be skewed. This will tend towards your friends being likely to be more popular than you are on average. This is due to the fact that within any friendship group, people with more friends are more likely to be in the sample.
 
The simple act of taking a sample of friends inevitably leads to something known as a biased sample in statistics. Namely, this is due to the fact that those without connections and with less friends are less likely to be included in the sample. People can also be double-counted across the network. This leads to a situation where the majority of people have fewer friends that only the most popular within their network.
 
Samples can also be majorly skewed with the existence of particularly popular friends. If you happen to be connected with Barack Obama, who has the most Twitter followers of anybody with over 112 million, then your network will have its average popularity increase compared to the general population.
 
By virtue of their appearance in multiple networks, connections feed into the friendship paradox that makes us all feel less popular than our own personal network.
 
Why you don’t need to worry about the friendship paradox
 
The concept of the friendship paradox can all seem quite depressing. The fact that science seems to back up the findings beyond basic friendships, can make things seem even worse. However, there is no need to despair because the phenomenon doesn’t necessarily drop off as you move up the social pyramid. It is down to the natural result of social connections through networks.
 
Take, for example, the aforementioned twitter study which found 98% of users followed accounts followed by more people than themselves. This study actually found that even the top 0.5 percent of Twitter users fell into the friendship paradox.
 
This is because they found that those who have more followers also tended towards following people with more influence and activity than they themselves mustered. That’s why too much social media could be secretly making you feel bad.
 
This all means that feeling down when comparing yourself to your friends is futile. Indeed, the more we compare ourselves to others, be it on social media or in our daily lives, the more likely we are to come up against this phenomenon.
 
It is a statistical reality that, on average, the people in our social networks will be getting more of whatever lens we look through. As such we either have to accept and embrace that fact or avoid seeking comparisons within a network that is likely to leave you feeling blue.
 
 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 03:56
Domingo, 26 / 01 / 20

Spectacular Super Snow Moon Phenomenon Not to Miss This February

Sherrie Hurd.

learning-mind.com

Posted January 25th, 2020.

 
 

 
The celestial beauty of the heavens wouldn’t be complete without the allure of the Super snow moon in February. You don’t want to miss it!
 
Ever since I was a small child, I would gaze into the heavens in amazement. I would reach up and try to grasp the stars in my hand. Also, I would trace the moon with my finger and yes, I did imagine the craters as little indentions on cheese.
 
 
My imagination was fueled by the beauty of the skies. I even heard the story of the man in the moon. If I looked close enough, I could make out his features. But it would be years before I learned the names of the moons according to the months, including the supermoon coming as 2020’s February full moon.
 
What Is the Super Snow Moon?
 
On February 9, 2020, our full moon will rise and be known by many people as the super snow moon. It will be bright, and illuminate deep snowfall in some areas of the world, hence the name.
 
It will also be at its perigee, meaning it will be larger than usual, this is where the “super” part of the title applies. To me, this special full moon will add warm feelings to this darkened cold and sometimes heavy time of the year.
 
There’s another fascinating fact about the special February moon, as well. Every 19 years, it doesn’t exist. That’s right, after almost two decades of February full moons, both January and March have two full moons and February is void of this magic. It sounds kind of sad, but also extremely interesting. So, every now and then, we won’t see the super snow moon, so we should enjoy its beauty when we can.
 
But on the other hand, we witness a phenomenon called the dark moon, which is just as exciting as it is ominous. The wonders of the world never cease to amaze me.
 
Here’s a secret – not everyone calls the February full moon the super snow moon. No, not at all. This moon has many names, deriving from many areas around the world.
 
For instance, the English call this full moon, the “Wolf Moon”. From long ago both in Medieval England and among Pagans, this moon was called “the storm moon”. So, although the February full moon names have similarities, they are different from region to region. In the U.S., there are numerous names for this supermoon phenomenon.
 
Native American Origins
 
So, I guess you’re wondering why the February 9th full moon is called the super snow moon, aren’t you? Well, that is because according to weather reports and the farmer’s almanac, February receives the most snowfall in the United States. Now you can see the obvious correlation.
 
However, the native Americans had many names for this deep winter moon. These names varied according to the different tribes in the U.S.
 
Many names for the February full moon:
 
1. Wishram of the Pacific Northwest
 
The native people of the Pacific Northwest called the February moon the “Shoulder to shoulder around the Fire moon” because they literally had to sit tightly side by side around the fire to stay warm.
 
2. Cherokee of the Southeast
 
The Cherokee natives considered the full moon of February the “bone moon”. This name came about because of the scarcity of food during the deep winter. Usually, the majority of nutrition came from the marrow of bones or bone broth.
 
3. Lakota of the Southwest
 
The February supermoon was also called the “Moon when the trees crack because of the cold”. Wow! Can you imagine the deep cold that inspires such a name?
 
4. Arapaho in the Mid-West
 
Natives of this area called the February full moon, “Frost sparkling in the sun” because even though February is one of the coldest months in the U.S., the snow which covers many areas seems tosparkle under the moonlight as if it was light from the sun. When observed, this kind of beauty couldn’t possibly be easily forgotten.
 
There are many other notable Native American full moon names such as the “Coyote moon”originating from the Shoshone people’s story about fox and coyote both wanting to be the moon. It’s an interesting and fanciful story. Then there is the Cree who considered the February moon, “the old moon”.
 
The list goes on and on, with most names either representing the frigid cold or the lack of food for the native people. One of the most memorable ones is “the hunger moon” because it represents the simple fact that February was a month when everyone, even though they were starving, remained strong with whatever resources they had available.
 
But, I will say that the super snow moon remains a favorite, simply because it invokes a feeling of power. Now, that’s a much better way to look at this beautiful phenomenon.
 
So, when can you see the February super snow moon?
 
 
As with all the other magnificent full moons each month, the February moon shouldn’t be missed either. The moon will be at its fullest on Sunday, February 9, 2020, at 2:34 a.m. EST.
 
If you live in the U.S., this time or any hour close to this time may be a little late or too early for some. The alternative would be to view the fullest part of the full moon as late as you can on Saturday night.
 
Use these opportunities to get great images of the super snow moon. In fact, each month, don’t miss a capture of the full moon, compare them and notice changes in position, coloration, size, and beauty.
 
It’s been a while since I lay in the grass and stared up into the heavens, but I think I might wrap uptight and lay under the super snow moon for a while, careful not to fall asleep and freeze. After all, I’ve also heard this moon represents changes as well. We’ll see!
 

Sherrie Hurd

 

 

Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us. 

 

 

 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 18:59
Sexta-feira, 24 / 01 / 20

4 Examples of Sublimation That Demonstrate How It Works in Daily Life

Lauren Edwards-Fowle.

learning-mind.com

Posted January 23rd, 2020.

 
 
 
 
We all have thoughts and feelings which we know are ‘not okay’ by society’s standards. It’s a natural element of the human condition. What sets humans apart from animals is not a lack of animal impulses, but rather how we manage our animal impulses. One of the techniques we subconsciously use is sublimation. Following is a brief discussion of the theory and a set of examples of sublimation in progress, to help crystallise the concept in your minds.

The Theory of Sublimation

The concept of psychological sublimation finds its roots in the work of Sigmund Freud. Although his theories are contentious these days, there are some fascinating facets to his beliefs about the human mind.

Freud divided the human psyche into three distinct aspects. The Id, our ‘animal brain,’ is home to impulses and urges. The superego, which is the expression of society’s morality, engineers our behaviour to comply with morals, laws and expectations. Last but not least, the ego, which continually works to find the balance between the two.

One of the ways in which the ego balances out the Id’s impulses and the superego’s lofty ideals is through a set of defence mechanisms. These include repression, reaction formation, projection, denial, regression, intellectualisation, rationalisation, displacement and, you guessed it, sublimation.

What Is Sublimation?

But what is sublimation? In essence, it’s the phasing of one thing into another. In chemistry, it’s the transformation of a solid into a gas, in psychology it’s the channelling of inappropriate impulses into positive and productive behaviours.

Instead of reacting in extreme anger, you might clean the house, or go for a run. Instead of sexually propositioning a person, you might write poetry or dance. This can be done consciously but happens most of the time subconsciously.

The process of sublimation protects us from the anxiety around having unacceptable thoughts and urges, preventing us from being negatively impacted by them. Channelling animalistic and primitive impulses into positive outlets preserves our social relationships, our social standing, and essential elements of our lives like jobs and our ability to support ourselves.

It can also act on positive feelings if we subconsciously believe they are too good to last, to protect us from disappointment. In this form, sublimation can become part of the self-sabotaging tendencies people often subconsciously enact when things are going well.

Examples of Sublimation

Sublimation happens mostly subconsciously. We may, therefore, be unaware that this is one of our coping mechanisms. Still, most of the following examples of sublimation apply to the majority of people at some point or another in their lives.

Physical Activity

Competitive sports is one productive way in which aggressive or dominant personality types channel their impulses. Rather than fight or dominate other people, they metaphorically crush them on the sports field. It can be seen as a human version of the ritualised challenges for territory or females that occur in the animal world. A few examples of how sublimation works in full swing might be combat or contact sports and racing.

Often if people feel frustrated, angry, and scattered, or if they are sexually aroused, they go for a run, for a walk, to the gym, use their punching bag etc. These are also sublimation examples. In this way, our mind converts the unacceptable urge to lash out or to have sex with strangers into a beneficial activity.

Chores and menial tasks

Another typical example of sublimation is the conversion of inappropriate urges into useful, menial tasks that, let’s be honest, may otherwise never get done. Instead of being unfaithful to your partner, you pull the weeds out of your flower-beds. Rather than obsessively micro-manage your children, you purge and re-organise all of your belongings.

When you feel like yelling at or confronting your boss, you tidy your desk-space. If your anxiety is causing you deeply distressing and troubling thoughts, you scrub the kitchen and bathrooms clean.

Creative Pursuits

Creativity is a prevalent alternative to inappropriate urges and impulses, most frequently when it comes to sexual sublimation. Instead of sexually accosting a particular person, an example of sublimating your sexual desire might be turning to paint, drawing, sculpting, writing, or any form of craft.

Another example of using creativity to sublimate socially frowned-upon emotions is the transferring of depression, sadness, anxiety or addiction into works of art. Through poetry, story-telling, or other artistic pursuits, negative emotions are channelled into socially valued expressions.

Life-Paths

People’s chosen life-paths can often be expressions of their sublimated urges and desires. Successful managers or administrators have a strong passion for control, micro-managing and organisation. Another example of sublimation might be leadership roles. People in positions of authority often have a need to be obeyed, listened to, feared, loved or respected, that is satisfied through the successful fulfilment of their jobs.

On the darker end of the scale, someone with an urge to cut or harm people might train to be a surgeon, or someone with aggressive tendencies might join the military or the police.

Can we consciously choose sublimation?

Sublimation is, for the most part, a mature subconscious way of dealing with inappropriate urges and impulses. Using the above examples of sublimation and with the help of mental health professionals, train yourself to recognise it. You can then try to identify the urge or impulse your ego is working to conceal.

The crucial element in sublimating consciously is to accept, recognise and validate your feelings, before determining which activity to channel them into. There is no such thing as an inappropriate feeling, only inappropriate or harmful actions. Once you are aware of the urges your ego is hiding from you, you can consciously sublimate them into the activity of your choice.

 

Lauren Edwards-Fowle
 
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 

 

 
About the Author: Lauren Edwards-Fowle


 
Lauren Edwards-Fowle is a professional copywriter based in South East England. Lauren worked within Children's Services for five years before moving into the business sector. She holds an MSc in Applied Accountancy and BSc in Corporate Law. She now volunteers within the community sport sector, helping young people to live healthier, more productive lifestyles and overcome the barriers to inclusion that they face. With a keen interest in physical wellbeing, nutrition and sports, Lauren enjoys participating in a variety of team sports in her spare time, as well as spending time with her young family and their dog Scout.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 09:36
Quarta-feira, 15 / 01 / 20

Ebooks vs Printed Books: Which Are Better for Your Brain, According to Science?

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted January 11th, 2020.

 
printed books vs ebooks.

 

Book enthusiasts have long defended the benefits of the printed word over ebooks. Yet, the arguments are frequently centered on the look and feel of a book. In a world where much of our lives are conducted on a screen, the arguments for the benefits of a printed book over an ebookare increasingly focusing on the benefits the former have on our brain.

If you’re on the fence when it comes to a preference over ebooks vs printed books, this article intends to look at the science behind the debate.

Are printed books better for your brain than ebooks and why?

5 reasons why printed books are better for your brain

1. They keep your attention

With a printed book, you simply have the pages in front of you and nothing else. Whereas, with an ebook, there are multiple temptations at your fingertips. Your e-reader might allow you to look up definitions of words, browse other readers comments on the book, or have a browse option that allows you to search the internet.

A study conducted at American University found that 92% of those surveyed found that they concentrated better when reading the printed word over an e-version. A printed book, therefore, encourages us to read more carefully and helps our brain to hold focus on the task in hand.

2. Ebooks encourage us to skim read

Whether you use an ebook to read or download titles on your phone or tablet, research has shown that reading on a screen alters the way our brain views the text.

Professor Ziming Liu, from San Jose State University, refers to ‘screen-based reading behavior’ which constitutes the tendency to browse and scan a text rather than practice in-depth and concentrated reading as we do with printed books.

The consequence of foregoing in-depth reading has been the focus of further studies. Maryanne Wolf, in her work on the evolution of the reading brain, has explored the impact reading digital text has on the cognitive functions we draw upon when reading.

While she recognizes that we still know very little about the digital reading brain, she laments the possible loss of ‘deep reading’ which printed text facilitates.

3. Printed books help us to absorb and retain more information

Another strong argument in the ebooks vs printed books debate is the capacity with which we absorb information from the printed word over its digital counterpart. Unsurprisingly, as printed books help to hold our attention and trigger more concentrated reading, we are better able to absorb and retain more information from them.

A study conducted at Stavanger University in Norway gave 50 readers the same short story to read, with half the readers using a Kindle to read the story and half reading from a printed book. Participants were then tested on their ability to remember certain aspects of the story.


The results found that those that read the story on a Kindle found it significantly harder to reconstruct the plot when asked to.

4. Printed books help us to be more emotionally engaged


Printed books not only help us to draw on more cognitive resources, they draw on our emotional responses also. Similar to the point about keeping our attention, printed books are said to help the reader to be more emotionally absorbed in the book.

Another study from the University of Stavanger, conducted by Anne Mangen, found that participants that read an upsetting story on paper reported higher levels of ‘empathy, transportation, immersion, and narrative coherence’ than those who read the same story on an iPad.

So, if you really want to get lost in a story, go for the hard copy.
5. Printed books bring more joy

Despite fears that digital books would remove the need for printed versions, these predictions have proved way off the mark. Sales of e-readers and ebooks have, in fact, slowed since reaching their peak in 2014 and printed books have enjoyed a resurgence. A lot of this has come down to the joy one feels when holding a book.



In terms of the impact this has on our brain, proponents of the printed word suggest that a printed book serves to ignite multiple senses in a way that an ebook cannot.


The feel of a book, the way it smells, the way it looks, the satisfaction one feels as they see their progression through the pages are all elements that are unique to a paper book.

Research has shown that the senses that are awakened by a paper book can, in fact, inspire individuals to do something new, make important life-decisions, reduce stress and increase happiness.
Final Words

Despite the many benefits on the brain of a printed book, there are, of course, benefits of ebooksand digital text. Ebooks have assisted with the democratization of information, in that they help to ensure books can be available in formats that make them accessible to those in a way that the printed word is not.

However, theories that predicted that ebooks would cause the death of the paperback have proved unfounded as many are drawing on the scientifically proven benefits of reading from printed books.

The ebooks vs printed books debate is sure to continue, but with studies increasingly showing that printed books draw on more of our brain’s resources it may lead you to renew that library card and stock up on the paperbacks.
References:
  1. https://www.mentalfloss.com
  2. https://www.theguardian.com

 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 21:48
Quinta-feira, 02 / 01 / 20

5 Surprising Benefits of Thinking Aloud, Backed by Science

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted December 31th, 2019.

 
Thinking Aloud benefits.

 


 
 
Talking to yourself out loud is typically seen as a social faux pas. Indeed, we get encouraged to stop guiding our behavior by talking out load as we get older. However, a recent study from Bangor University has found that thinking and talking out loud may actually offer a number of benefits and talking to yourself might even be a sign of intelligence.
 
But can thinking aloud really have benefits in terms of concentration, achieving multiple tasks, and controlling emotions as this study suggests? In this post, we will look at 5 surprising benefits of thinking aloud and the science behind why.
 
Thinking Aloud vs. Inner Thinking
 
We are often talking to ourselves silently in our own heads throughout the day, asking ourselves silent questions to find what we need to get out of the house, cook the dinner, or complete our work. This inner talk is both healthy and helpful when it comes to organizing our thoughts and emotions. However, in the study from Bangor University thinking out loud whilst completing a task was found to improve control in comparison to inner talk.
 
A separate study also found that participants told to say random words aloud repeatedly whilst trying to carry out a variety of tasks made it impossible for them to tell themselves what to do to achieve the tasks. This serves to show the power of talking out loud in a negative way, but what are the benefits of thinking thoughts out loud?
 
5 Surprising Science-Backed Benefits of Thinking Aloud
 
Here we outline five of the most surprising ways thinking out loud can be beneficial and the scientific studies that explain why.
 
Self-motivation
 
Sometimes we may find motivation elusive when it comes to approaching a challenging task. However, we can actually be great at giving ourselves our own pep-talk. Kamal’s study on positive self-talk shows that our thoughts can have huge implications over our emotions, motivations, and achievements and a greater impact can be attained by thinking aloud.
 
Indeed, when preparing for interviews, it is a great idea to not only think positively about the outcome but to actually tell yourself it is going to go well. If you are feeling low, telling yourself things will be okay and complimenting yourself on something you have done well today can also have a noticeable effect on your mood. However, you should be sure to avoid letting negative self-talk ruin your life.
 
Improved perceptual processing
 
Audio cues are much easier to process than instructions we read or think silently through inner talk. This is backed up by a study for the University of Wisconsin. Participants were either given written instructions or told to read the instructions out loud when looking at a picture. Those reading the instructions out loud were better able to find it.
 
The vocalization of the word improved participants’ ability to visualize what they were looking for, indicating an increase in their brain’s processing power. This is because, when we use inner talk, we are much more likely to jump from one thought to another and at a quicker pace than we would be able to when thinking and speaking out loud.
 
Enhanced problem-solving skills
 
Computer programmers commonly use a method known as rubber ducking to overcome the most challenging problems. It refers to talking through the problem in its most basic step-by-step form to the nearest thing on your desk, say a rubber duck for example? By explaining what they want the code to achieve and going into the line by line detail of how it will do this whilst speaking aloud, the answer soon springs to mind as if leaping from the spoken thoughts.
 
 
This is backed up by a study by Dr. Christopher Atkin for Nottingham Trent University which found participants talking through complex tasks were far better at problem-solving. In fact, participants in this study made 78 percent fewer mistakes than participants asked to complete tasks by working things out in their heads. Thinking out loud focuses your attention and improves concentration facilitating enhanced problem-solving.
 
Improved timing & precision
 
Thinking out loud has also been found to be beneficial when it comes to timing and precision. For example, one study looked at the effect of using thinking aloud as a motivational tool to improve basketball performance. They found that players instructing themselves verbally were able to pass and shoot more accurately. The study specifically noted that instructional self-talk (IST) improved precision and timing, whilst motivational self-talk (MST) helped with speed-based tasks.
 
Similarly, a study by Yannis Theodorakis found that thinking out loud using IST and MST improved timing and precision for both methods in comparison to the control group with statistically significant results. Indeed, self-talk is commonly used in sports-psychology at the highest levels and you will often see professional tennis players using this method as they move between points.
 
Boost memory
 
One way we commonly use thinking out loud naturally as we get older is to ensure we have properly memorized information. This works great with lists but has also been found to be beneficial when it comes to retaining information we read. This is because memory is improved by the brain being actively involved with what we do as it is when we speak versus when we simply read.
 
As such, thinking out loud could have potential benefits as we get older. We are commonly told that doing puzzles and crosswords can help us to stave off some of the mal effects of aging on the mind. However, making sure our brain is more actively involved in other tasks, such as reading the newspaper in the morning or a book in bed can be similarly beneficial.
 
Thinking out loud has long been much maligned. However, as more and more research shows a wide range of benefits that talking our thoughts out loud can have, it can be a good idea to try and bring this practice into your daily life. Indeed, it turns out thinking out loud can be a great way to get your mojo back.

 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 07:14
Quarta-feira, 25 / 12 / 19

Do Binaural Beats Work? Here Is What Science Has to Say

Sherrie Hurd.

learning-mind.com

Posted December 24th, 2019.

 
 



 

As humans who suffer from a multitude of disorders, we look for cures that work, so have we found healing in binaural beats?
 
Being diagnosed with an anxiety disorder among other things, I’ve tried many so-called solutions and medications to improve my quality of life. I also tried yoga, nature walks, prayer, and martial arts – you name it. Then I started to experiment with sound, mainly ambient music and things of that sort.
 
 
For a while, the sounds seemed to transport me to another place, soothing me and removing the husks of tension from my brain. But it would always come back, the anxiety, so I’m not sure what really works the best for me. Now, I’m researching binaural beats, in hopes that this will be the key to my healing. So, do binaural beats work?
Working with binaural beats
 
Many people back up the idea that binaural beats can relieve anxiety and pain. There are also those who put their faith in these sounds to correct cognitive issues, ADHD, and even mental trauma. There is such a large consensus of those that think binaural beats reduce headache pain, that Bayer, the manufacturer of aspirin, has seven files of binaural beats on its website in Austria.
 
Bayer’s statement is that it’s not necessarily used to stop headache pain, but to bring about relaxation which may help with headache pain. But all this talk about how well the beats work makes us want to understand exactly what binaural beats are.
What are binaural beats and how do they work?
 
To some, these sounds, or absences of sound, are illusions. In a way they are, but in truth, they do exist. They are beats created by opposite sounds being poured into each ear, thus the name “binaural”.
 
Here’s the basic concept: one ear hears a tone that is slightly different than the other ear. Just a few hertz difference, and your brain perceives a sort of beat that isn’t even present within the song or sound that you’re listening to. You cannot hear binaural beats with one ear. This is why it’s called an illusion.
 
What we do not know is which region generates the binaural beat sound – the sound that isn’t really there. While there are theories, it’s uncertain, and it’s also uncertain which tones and frequencieswork best for improvements.
When were binaural beats discovered?
 
In 1839, Heinrich Wilhelm Dove, a German physicist, discovered the concept of the binaural beat. However, much of what we understand about how binaural beats work only surfaced in 1973 in an article by Gerald Oster in Scientific American. Oster’s purpose was to use binaural beats in medicine, but its uncertain which area of medicine.
 
In modern times, these auditory illusions are seen as tools to improve mental wellbeing in conjunction with meditation, relaxation, and sleep – these among other mental exercises for mental health. They are also being used to alleviate pain as well. If proven to work, binaural beats could be the answer to a plethora of serious issues.
 
How these beats pertain to brain waves
 
Brain waves, or the activity of neurons, are oscillations that appear on an EEG. Two examples of brain waves are Alpha waves, which are responsible for relaxation, and Gamma waves which are responsible for attention or memory.
 
Those who stand behind the validity of binaural beats claim that these illusionary sounds can actually shift the brain waves from Gamma to Alpha or vice versa, moving you either into a state of rest or improvement of memory.
 
Most studies that focus on whether binaural beats work or not, unfortunately, are inconclusive in this area. However, as far as anxiety is concerned, there are consistent reports from those who suffered from disorders that binaural beats reduce levels of anxious feelings.
 
Studies concerning anxiety have proven to be the most promising for proving the effectiveness of binaural beats in improving life for the future. On more than one study, participants with anxiety reported being less anxious when listening to these sounds in the delta/theta range, and even more so, for longer periods in the delta range alone.
 
It’s not clear why this happens, regardless of the tests and studies on these non-sounds. While some patients reported a decrease in pain listening to beats around 10 hertz, in the alpha range, further research is needed to back up this claim.
 
Where children with ADHD are concerned, the tests show that binaural beats can improve focus for a temporary time, including during the tests themselves, but not for the long-term. There is still a bit of research that must be done in this area, including finding the right tone and frequency which seems to work after the initial effects of the study.
So do binaural beats work, according to science?
 
Joydeep Bhattacharya, professor of psychology at the University of London, states,
 
 
 
“A lot of big claims have been made without adequate verification.”
 
And he is right. While many people claim to experience an improvement in the quality of life, science hasn’t found the hard evidence it needs to produce a helpful system for the whole of society, and that’s really what we need. We can take Bhattacharya seriously due to his 20 years of study in the neuroscience of sound, which includes binaural beats, or as some are now calling auditory hallucinations.
 
Science has unearthed contradictions concerning binaural beats with different conditions. The studies to understand the localization of sound in order to treat anxiety, modulate cognition, and treat brain injuries, among other issues are, as of now, inconclusive.
 
The positive results, which point toward binaural beats being a significant cause for improvement in certain areas, are short-lived success stories. They are still without an idea of the definite region of the brain which is stimulated during these illusionary sounds. Also, most studies that produced positive results for helping anxiety or cognitive function did not use EEG measurements to do so.
 
Another factor in the study of binaural beats is tone. It seems the lower the tone and beat frequency, the more chance of positive results in this area. Each condition, each case and each level of frequency all play a part in whether binaural beats really work and improve conditions in our lives.
 
 
“In the electrophysiological neuroimaging studies, you will find the results are split. And that gives you a good indication that the story is more complicated than many of the behavioral studies want to convince you”
 
-Prof. Bhattacharya
How should we take this information?
 
Whether or not science has conclusively proven the effectiveness of binaural beats, which apparently it hasn’t, it doesn’t stop us from trying them out. I might not suggest making a large investment in a program targeted completely toward these concepts. However, if you have a chance to listen to binaural beats, then sure, it’s worth that try.
 
As a sufferer of anxiety, depression and other mental illnesses that can prove almost impossible to endure, I’m not against trying new ways to improve my life. So, as for me, I just might try binaural beats for myself, just a few options here and there that I find. If I notice any difference, I will be sure to let you know. While I’m doing that, maybe science can conclusively let us know if binaural beats are the answer to many of our problems.

 

Sherrie Hurd

 

 

Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us. 

 

 

 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 04:14
Terça-feira, 17 / 12 / 19

6 Unexpected Ways to Relieve Stress, According to Science

Becky Storey.

https://www.learning-mind.com/

December 16th, 2019.

 


 


Stress seems to be just a part of life these days. Whether it’s at work or at home, or on the commute between the two, stress can be unavoidable. A little stress is natural, but when it weighs on us heavily, it can be dangerous for our health. High stress increases our susceptibility to all sorts of dangerous health conditions. Knowing the best ways to relieve stress can be lifesaving.

Sometimes, when the usual techniques aren’t enough, you have to try some more unexpected ways to relieve that stress.

Unexpected Ways to Relieve Stress

Put on A Fake Smile


It seems there is some science behind the idea that you can “fake it ‘til you make it”. Smiling is a way to relieve stress and it works by convincing your body that you aren’t stressed at all. When you smile, you create the face shapes we naturally make when we’re happy. When you’re faking it, you trick your brain into reducing your stress levels. While it’s not recommended to hide your feelings, sometimes, you just have to get through it.

This study has proven that when we smile through stressful situations the intensity of our stress response will reduce. It is especially beneficial for our cardiovascular systems, including the heart. In this particular study, they also tested different kinds of smiles. They showed that full-face smiles, known as a Duchenne smile, are an even more beneficial way to relieve stress.

Some scientists also explain that our brains are wired for socializing. Mirror neurons in our brains make us want to recreate what other people do. This means what if we see another smile, we want to do it too. We can use our smile as a way of relieving the stress of others. By flashing someone a bright smile and letting them do it back, you might be helping them through a tough time.
Look at Fractals

Our brains love soothing patterns, but did you know they were a great, and rather unexpected, way to relieve stress? A fractal is a pattern that repeats identically or at least similarly. These could be created in paintings or drawings, like a mandala. Fractals can also be seen in nature, in places such as leaves, snowflakes, and seashells.

A number of studies have been done by tracking eye movements and using fMRI scans to show our biological response to fractals. They’ve proven that simply looking at fractals is a good way to relieve stress and can even reduce it by up to 60%.

There’s still some confusion about why this relieves stress, but some scientists suggest it should be due to the subconscious concentration that they require, or the repetition involved. Repetition is a great way to relieve stress naturally.


Use Your Thumbs
Unexpected is definitely the operative word. You can actually use your thumbs to relieve your stress. Doctors believe that if you put your thumb in your mouth and seal it, then blow, you can calm yourself down.

The theory goes that this will activate your Vagus Nerve, which is connected to your nervous system, responsible for the stress response. By blowing out in this way, you can reduce your heart rate and blood pressure, which are both heavily affected by stress. This way to relieve stress can even help to treat mild mood disorders.

If you aren’t in a position to put your whole thumb in your mouth, there is also a way to relieve stress by simply blowing on it. Your thumb has its own pulse, so by cooling it down, you can slow your heart rate and feel calmer.

Even eastern medicine has a way to relieve stress using your thumb. Apply pressure, using your thumb, on the side of your middle finger. Do this right at the base of your finger, where it meets your knuckle. This method is said to activate a nerve which loosens the muscles around the heart, helping you to relax.

Chew Gum

There have been countless studies done that show that chewing gum is a great way to relieve stress. The researched showed reduced stress, fatigue, anxiety, and depression in the participants. These studies involved collecting data and samples from volunteers, including saliva, before and after they took on stressful tasks, with and without chewing gum. The results showed measurable differences in their stress levels.

Ancient societies are also known to have chewed as a way to relieve stress. The Mayans and the Greeks would chew tree sap.
Do Some Chores

Deep down, we all know that procrastinating only creates more stress, but it doesn’t stop us from doing it. Research has now shown that putting off tasks is bad for our health! Cleaning, in particular, can be a great way to relieve stress. This study recommends washing dishes. Despite finding it hard to motivate ourselves to do it, once we start cleaning, our stress levels do decrease rapidly.

Scientists believe this could be down to the repetitive nature of the movements that cleaning requires. When we repeat an easy action over and over again, we start to do it on autopilot, allowing our minds to switch off and rest.

Sometimes, the world can seem a little out of control. Scientists have suggested that cleaning and organizing our own spaces can help us to feel some element of control. Finding a sense of control is a good way to relieve stress.

Be Near Plants


We all know that being in nature is a great way to relieve stress, but studies show that simply being in the presence of a plant is good enough. A study carried out at Washington State University proved that having plants around makes workers more productive and feel more focused on their work. They even recorded participants’ blood pressure lowering in the presence of plants.

Studies have shown that employees’ attendance rates rose when plants were introduced to the workplace and they often report feeling that the space was larger.

A study has also been carried out into the effects of plants on hospital patients’ healing. The presence of plants in a medical environment improves patients’ well-being and does help to speed up recovery. Even seeing photos of plants relieve stress.

Scientists have theorized that plants are a way to relieve stress because of their association with fractals and their ability to improve air quality.

As you have seen from the above, stress can be relieved in many ways, no matter how incredible they may sound at first. Do you have your own tricks that help you cope with daily stress and release tension? Share them with us in the comments below!

References:
  1. https://www.forbes.com
  2. https://www.scientificamerican.com

Becky Storey
 

 




 

About the Author: Becky Storey


 
Becky Storey is a professional writer who has been passionate about the way we think and the human mind since she developed chronic anxiety many years ago. Now she loves to write and educate people on mental health and wellbeing. When Becky is not writing, you’ll find her outside with her Labrador, sitting behind a jigsaw puzzle, or baking something with too much sugar.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

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publicado por achama às 05:25
Quarta-feira, 04 / 12 / 19

Foreign Accent Syndrome: a Curious and Extremely Rare Brain Condition

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted December 3rd, 2019.

 
Foreign Accent Syndrome.

 

 
 
Foreign Accent Syndrome (FAS) is a rare speech disorder that can happen after a head injury, stroke, or some other form of damage to the brain and sees you suddenly start speaking with a different accent beyond your control.
 
This condition is extremely rare, with only around 100 people known to have been diagnosed since the first recorded case in 1907. But what causes this little known condition that causes the adoption of a new accent and the loss of part of a person’s identity in the process?
 
In this post, we will look at what the different explanations for Foreign Accent Syndrome are, its symptoms, how it gets diagnosed, and what treatment options you have if FAS strikes.
 
What Is Foreign Accent Syndrome?
 
FAS is characterized by the patient taking on a new accent to their native language, with examples more common amongst speakers of English as a native language but not restricted to English speakers.
 
FAS can involve changes in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary as well as changes in phonological intonation. It is important to note that the person’s voice sounds foreign both to themselves and the person they are speaking to.
 
What Are the Causes?
 
As already mentioned, FAS is usually caused by some form of stress caused to the brain causing a brain lesion. Specifically, when there is damage to the left-hand side of the brain in the Broca’s area which is linked to speech production, there is a heightened risk of FAS.
 
However, more recently, a study by McWhirtner et al. for the BMJ found there may also be a psychological component to the disorder. Indeed, even when there has been structural damage to the brain, this study found that psychology could also be involved.
 
The medical literature breaks FAS down into 3 main types which each have unique characteristics:
  1. Neurogenic (eg. linked to structural damage caused to the brain from things like a stroke, brain injury, aneurysms, etc.)
  2. Psychogenic (eg. where there is no apparent structural damage to the brain but where the person may have suffered emotional or mental stress or psychological or psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia)
  3. Mixed (where there is structural damage to the brain but there seems to be a psychogenic component).
What Are the Symptoms of Foreign Accent Syndrome?
 
Examples of FAS include a British lady called Julia Matthias who started speaking with an accent somewhere between French and Chinese after she was involved in a car accident. An American woman suffered a headache one night and woke up speaking in a combination of British, Irish and Australian accents.
 
However, cases have also been reported of a 44-year-old Japanese lady speaking with a Korean accent and a Spanish person taking on a Hungarian one.
 
Other common symptoms include things like:
  • Difficulty pronouncing certain sound clusters, particularly consonant clusters, such as S-P-L in words like “Splash”
  • Vowels and consonants may be reduced, made simpler, or appear unarticulated or broken.
  • Intonation and stress on words may become more frequent, ie. rather than highlighting some words through stress or tone, someone with FAS may highlight every word
  • Sounds requiring the tongue to tap against the roof of your mouth can become problematic
  • The “uh” sound can frequently be added within words
 
Can This Syndrome Be Medically Diagnosed?
 
If you notice symptoms like the ones above or any other changes in your normal speech, it is a good idea to seek medical help. Changes in the way you speak can be a sign of more serious issues so you should not put off seeing a doctor when you notice a change. Doctors can diagnose FAS using a variety of tools, such as SPECT, PET, MRI or CT scans which provide detailed images of activity inside your brain.
 
As mentioned, FAS is incredibly rare. For this reason, if you do present with symptoms, you will need to see a variety of specialists to confirm a diagnosis. A speech and language pathologist can record your new accent and look into where the changes have occurred in order to rule out other types of speaking disorder.
 
A neurologist can interpret the CT and MRI scans, whilst a psychologist can help you deal with the potential emotional stress caused by the changes and seek to explore any psychological causes of FAS.
 
Going to sleep and waking up with a new accent can have a profound effect on people’s sense of self and make it feel like they have lost a vital part of their own identity. Indeed, the accent can sound strange and be unconnected to our class, educational level, and where we come from so it is easy to see how challenging this can be.
 
Can Foreign Accent Syndrome Be Treated?
 
Given the 3 different variants of FAS, there is a range of treatment options that people can try. In terms of targeting psychogenic causes and effects, these include speaking to a speech and language therapist who can give you targeted exercises targeting past pronunciation, counseling, and therapy to help you deal with your new identity.
 
You can also practice things like Psychological First Aid and positive affirmation to help you cope with the challenges thrown up by FAS.
 
On the neurogenic side, medication to prevent strokes, anti-seizure medication, and even surgery may be suitable treatment options. However, because the condition is so rare, more work needs to be done to understand the various treatment options and the causes of the condition itself.
 
Foreign Accent Syndrome is a very rare condition that can cause those who suffer it serious emotional distress due to the loss of identity associated with a change of accent.
 
It is important to seek medical advice if you notice any of the symptoms even if you are unaware that you may have suffered physical damage to the brain. Treatment is possible, as is a full recovery, however, more research needs to be done to better understand both the causes and treatments for FAS.
 

References
  1. https://www.utdallas.edu
  2. https://www.bbc.com
  3. https://www.healthline.com
  4. https://www.discovermagazine.com
 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 09:20
Quinta-feira, 28 / 11 / 19

Why Do We Laugh and Find Some Things Funny, According to Science?

Becky Storey.

https://www.learning-mind.com/

November 26th, 2019.

 

 


 
Laughter is the best medicine, they say. Endless studies have shown that laughing is good for our health, but why do we do it? Why do we laugh at all?
 
There are several scientific theories which try to explain why we laugh, and why we find some things so funny. It seems that there is a reason behind why we laugh at sneezing panda videos, painful fail compilations, and very taboo stand-up comedy. No one single theory can explain the full extent of our sense of humor, but all together we can start to build a picture.
 
So, Why Do We Laugh?
 
Superiority Theory
 
This theory is the oldest, and possibly the most cynical of the bunch. It even appears in the earliest versions of the bible. Promoted by legendary philosophers, the superiority theory suggests that we just love to feel more fortunate than others. Plato and Aristotle both agreed that we find seeing others fail absolutely hilarious.
 
Science suggests that humor is derived from situations where we get to see that we’re better off than others. Obviously, this reaction is subconscious in most of us. We don’t laugh because we genuinely enjoy the suffering of others – or at least most of us don’t – we just can’t help it.
 
This theory explains why we laugh at programs like “Funniest Home Videos” and why we can’t resist a peek when a video of someone falling appears on our Facebook feed.
 
Scientists believe that the sudden realization that we are superior to the people we see is why we laugh at the misfortune of others, even when we don’t really “enjoy” their suffering. We can feel bad for the pain a person might feel when they fall while still finding the circumstances hilarious because it didn’t happen to us. In this situation, we’re above them in a superiority chain.
Relief Theory
 
This scientific theory is based on the idea that laughing is a physiological way to relieve tension. Mentioned first in 1709, scientists have long thought of laughter as a kind of pressure release value.
 
When we laugh, they say, we let out a build-up of nervous energy and mental stress we’ve accumulated since our last laugh. This theory fits the closest with our knowledge of how laughter promotes the release of our “feel good” chemicals and endorphins, making us feel happier and calmer.
 
Relief theory also answers the question “why do we laugh when we’re uncomfortable?”. If laughter allows us to release the negativity we’ve been carrying, then we may subconsciously deploy it to calm ourselves down. Similarly, it may explain why we laugh so hard when we’re tickled. Our body is responding to the fear and tension and trying to calm us down by laughing out loud.
 
The Relief Theory can be used to undermine the superiority theory too. Some scientists, particularly Sigmund Freud, uses it to explain why we laugh at the pain or suffering of others.
 
When we see a funny video of someone falling, we become tense, fearing for their safety. When it’s revealed that they’re okay, we laugh to release that tension. The same can be applied to taboo jokes on controversial topics, such as race or gender.
 
Incongruity Theory
 
This theory on humor tries to explain why people laugh at and find certain strange thingsfunny. The incongruity theory is the most dominant modern explanation we have. It was founded in the 18th century and was even supported by impressive minds like Immanuel Kant.
 
According to this theory, we just find it hilarious when things go completely against our expectations. This applies most commonly to stand-up comedians and one-liner jokers. These both induce fits of laughter by simply building up a story then ending it in a completely incongruous (unexpected) way.
 
This theory can also be applied to the “silly” things we laugh at. We love innocent nonsensical humor, like animals doing unexpected but hilarious things. This kind of humor is harmless and doesn’t involve superiorities or a build-up of tension, it’s just pure joy created by our expectations not being met.
 
“It’s sad that a family can be torn apart by something as simple as wild dogs.”
 
– Jack Handey
 
Benign-Violations Theory
 
This final theory tries to bring all the theories together into one. It is based on the idea that all humor requires three important things:
It must violate some kind of normal expectation. This could be a social norm, a moral norm, or a physical norm. Whatever expectation is violated, it needs to be a wrongdoing.
A safe context in which this violation occurs.
Both of these things happen alongside each other. We need to know that although something bad was done, no one was harmed long-term. The violation was benign.
 
The violation also has to be appropriate to the audience. For example, if the violation occurs in church, religious people may not find it funny. If the violation involves being rude in front of children, parents may not laugh.
 
Ultimately, humor is subjective. Psychologists have yet to come up with a single theory that can explain all our bizarre jokes and the strange videos we see online and laugh at for hours. What we do know is that we love to laugh and that it’s great for our health. So, laugh as often as possible and don’t think too much about why such strange things are so funny!
 
 
References:

Becky Storey
 

 




 

About the Author: Becky Storey


 
Becky Storey is a professional writer who has been passionate about the way we think and the human mind since she developed chronic anxiety many years ago. Now she loves to write and educate people on mental health and wellbeing. When Becky is not writing, you’ll find her outside with her Labrador, sitting behind a jigsaw puzzle, or baking something with too much sugar.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 09:30
Domingo, 24 / 11 / 19

The Psychology of Obedience: Why Do Some People Obey While Others Don’t?

Becky Storey.

https://www.learning-mind.com/

November 24th, 2019.

 

 
 
Law and order keep us safe and under control. For the most part, we can all get along with that. So, what is it in our psychology that makes some people content with obedience, while others shun the whole idea?
 
Obedience and obeying the rules seem like second nature to most of us. We navigate our entire lives within the confines of the rules set by our parents, our schools, our jobs, and our country. This is not a bad thing, despite what the class clowns might want you to think.
 
The Psychology of Obedience
 
There are a whole host of reasons for why we obey. These extend from a fear of punishment to truly believing in what we’re told to do. These reasons can be personal or very general, based on our natural human psychology.
 
Status Quo Bias
 
This theory on the psychology of obedience highlights our desire to avoid change. Traditionally we tend to stick with rules and routines that we’re used to. We obey rules that are ingrained in society because deviating might mean losing what we’ve already established.
 
We feel we have less to lose if we obey the rules. This is because our lives will stay the same when we don’t deviate from tradition. Just like choosing the same meal in a restaurant with every visit, we simply try to avoid regret. This is called Loss Aversion.
 
We’re also victims of the Mere Exposure Effect. This theory suggests that we choose obedience simply because we’ve been exposed to it. This suggests that psychological obedience is actually created environmentally. If our parents and friends are obedient people, we usually are too.
 
Mass Surveillance
 
We know we’re being watched. Sometimes, our obedience isn’t psychological at all. We may disagree with the rules. We may wish we were behaving differently.
 
Unfortunately, the presence of CCTV cameras means we typically do our best to obey the rules. The risk of being caught in the act is too great when we know we could be seen.
 
Coercive Power
 
When we fear punishment, we obey the rules. Authority figures have this kind of power. The psychological element of this kind of obedience is the anxiety we feel when it comes to consequences. We are terrified of being scolded. We dread having our luxuries taken away. If we disobey at work, we lose our job.
 
Similarly, our obedience can be influenced by Reward Power. In this case, we obey the rules and demands of others because we want to be rewarded. This could be praise, a raise, or even awards. Psychologically, rewards can even be more influential on our willingness to obey than the fear of punishment.
 
Agentic State
 
Psychologists hold that The Agentic State is a mind-space we enter which influences our obedience. This especially applies when the order or rule we’ve been given is not something we like. We shift into this state to put blame on those who gave the orders, rather than ourselves.
 
A real-life application of this psychological state is seen in those who commit terrible crimes. Psychologists first noticed this phenomenon during the trials of officers who worked under Hitler. These Nazi officers would use the “I was only doing as I was told” excuse to justify their part in such heinous crimes.
 
The agentic state allowed them to hide behind their superiors, and genuinely believed they were blameless, despite carrying out monstrous acts. By convincing ourselves that we wouldn’t be to blame, we’re much more likely to obey even the evilest of commands.
But why, if we’re so psychologically prone to obedience, do we ever disobey?
 
Peer Pressure
 
When we crave popularity or acceptance into a group, we’ll do whatever it takes. Back in school, the “popular kids” tended to be the ones who broke the rules. They skipped class, drank alcohol and took drugs. They disobeyed most rules set by teachers and parents, and they were adored for it.
 
Especially in our teenage years, rebellion is considered desirable. It shows courage and a laid-back attitude that draws attention.
 
With this theory, all the psychology that goes into obedience flies out of the window. If we wanted to be liked by the “coolest” of our peers, we had to disobey. Right and wrong weren’t factors.
Intelligent Disobedience
 
Education is a strong factor in the psychology of disobedience. Simply put, the more naïve you are, the more likely you are to follow without thinking. With intelligence comes the ability to review rules, and especially government policies, for yourself.
 
The rise in protests and acts of defiance around the world recently can be blamed on new knowledge. These are known as acts of Civil Disobedience.
 
These rule-breaking, and sometimes law-breaking, protests are the result of education. As we become more knowledgeable about matters of climate change or social justice, we begin to realize that our rules and laws are incorrect. We try to rise up and get noticed by politicians, who we feel aren’t as educated on certain matters.
 
In order to have these injustices rectified, we have to break some rules. As the saying goes, you cannot make an omelet without first breaking some eggs. Psychologically, we feel our knowledge outranks the traditional hierarchies. This can include parent to child, teacher to student, or citizen to government.
 
Helper Syndrome
 
Consider the story of Robin Hood. Steal from the rich, give to the poor. This is an obvious act of disobedience; theft is a crime. However, we can often justify our actions if we think we’ve done them for the greater good.
 
If your family is poor and starving, is it okay to steal bread to feed them? If you’re under threat, is self-defense a valid excuse for murder?
 
Sometimes, we believe we must do something bad in order to rectify wrongdoing. This could be to ourselves personally, or on behalf of society as a whole.
 
References:

Becky Storey
 

 




 

About the Author: Becky Storey


 
Becky Storey is a professional writer who has been passionate about the way we think and the human mind since she developed chronic anxiety many years ago. Now she loves to write and educate people on mental health and wellbeing. When Becky is not writing, you’ll find her outside with her Labrador, sitting behind a jigsaw puzzle, or baking something with too much sugar.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 16:03
Domingo, 10 / 11 / 19

Milgram Obedience Study and What It Reveals about Human Nature

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted November 10th, 2019.

 
milgram obedience study.

 



Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram conducted his famous series of experiments widely known as Obedience Study almost 60 years ago. The ethics of the experiment have since been subject to criticism. However, it raised important questions about the power of authority in achieving obedience.
 
In this article, we take a look at the Milgram Experiment and what it reveals about human nature. We will also look at the counter-arguments which criticize Milgram’s ethics and dispute his results.
 
What Is the Milgram Obedience Study?
 
The Obedience Study refers to a set of psychology experiments conducted by Milgram. It intended to investigate the relationship between obedience to authority and personal conscience.
 
Milgram’s interest in conducting this study was sparked by the trial of Adolph Eichmann, a Nazi war criminal who was one of the main organizers of the Holocaust. Milgram wanted to find out how humans are capable of committing atrocities that go so far beyond their personal conscience.
 
Participants for Milgram’s experiments were recruited by a newspaper advert and were all male. All participants were given the role of “teacher” and were put in control of an electroshock generator.
 
They were instructed by the “experimenter” to ask the “learner” questions. If they answered them incorrectly, they should deliver a shock to them. Moreover, they would increase this shock by 15 volts with each wrong answer (with the increase leading to shocks that could be fatal).
 
The electric shocks were, in fact, fake and the “learner” in each experiment was part of the research team. So they would act out sounds of pain and plead for the experiment to stop.
 
When participants asked the experimenter whether they should stop the shocks (which the majority did) they were told these commands:
  1. Please continue.
  2. The experiment requires that you continue.
  3. It is absolutely essential that you continue.
  4. You have no other choice, you must go on.
 
What did the Milgram Obedience Study reveal about human nature?
 
The results of the Milgram Obedience Study were that two-thirds of participants (62.5%) delivered the maximum electric shock (450 volts, a shock that could have killed), and a third of participants stopped at 300 volts.
 
The observations showed that participants displayed significant signs of stress during the experiment. All participants stopped to question the experiment and some even offered to return the money they were to be paid so that the experiment would stop.
 
Milgram summed up that the results of the experiment showed that obedience is instilled in us all from an early age due to the way we are raised. Suggesting that, the instruction received by an authority figure, which the individual has deemed to be legally or morally authorized to give such instruction, would lead to obedience.
 
In the case of the Milgram Obedience Study, the authority figure was the experimental scientist and the results of the experiment, Milgram suggested, revealed that stark authority won over a participant’s strong imperative against hurting others. For many, the study revealed an illuminating aspect of human nature.
 
What is wrong with Milgram’s research?
 
Milgram’s research is widely cited and referenced within the field of psychology. Still, both the ethics and the methodology of the study have received ample criticism. Ethically, critics of the study believe that the intense stress levels that Milgram’s participants went through were unacceptable.
 
In addition to this, audio recordings of Milgram’s experiments (which were discovered by psychologist Gina Perry) demonstrate that, in some experiments, the ‘experimenter’ broke away from the set script and used bullying and coercion to force the participants to continue delivering the electric shocks. Perry also found that the majority of participants were not thoroughly debriefed after the traumatic experiment.
 
Methodologically, Milgram’s research has also received much criticism. The 62.5% statistic was used to prove Milgram’s theory of the power of authority on obedience. However, this study was based on the results of just 40 participants. This is too low a number to draw any concrete conclusions.
 
Further experiments conducted by Milgram often had conflicting methodologies with different scenarios and a variance in the severity of the experimenter. The lack of standardization makes the experiments difficult to compare. However, when looking at the 23 experiments as a whole, the average rate of obedience falls to 43%. This is significantly lower than the widely cited statistic of 62.5%.
 
What do current obedience studies say?
 
Despite the criticisms of the Milgram Obedience Study, this pioneering study did pave the way for further research into the causes of destructive obedience and the impact of this on world events and individual lives.
 
 
Research from the University of St. Andrews in Scotland suggests that human obedience to destructive activities is not solely in response to authority, an individual must also have strong ideological links with that authority figure and agree with the orders being given to them.
 
This theory does not completely dispute the work of Milgram, however. It deters from the ‘banality of evil’ idea that ordinary people are capable of committing terrible atrocities purely through following the orders of an authority figure.
 
The Milgram Obedience Study raised important questions about what leads individuals to obey orders. It also paved the way for further investigations into the power of authority on human behavior.
 
 
References:
  1. https://theconversation.com
  2. https://psycnet.apa.org
  3. Image credit: Yale University
 
Lottie Miles
 





 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


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publicado por achama às 23:06
Sábado, 09 / 11 / 19

4 Most Interesting Memory Theories That Explain How Our Brain Works

By Valerie Soleil.

learning-mind.com.

Posted November 9th, 2019. 

 

 



 
Memory has long been a concept too difficult to describe by even the smartest scholars. We have become more knowledgeable over time. However, we still do not know enough about the complexities of the human mind when it comes to theories about memory.
 
Theories That Explain Memory Encoding, Storing and Forgetting
 
“Without memory, there is no culture. Without memory, there would be no civilization, no society, no future” Elie Wiesal
 
In order for information to become a memory, it needs to have a form. At present, there are three main types: Visual (picture), Acoustic (sound), and Semantic (meaning). So, a song, a beautiful sunset, or a poem has to be manipulated into a code that the brain understands for it to become a memory.
 
The Multi-Store Memory Model
 
Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) devised one of the first memory structures and theories. In order to become a memory, information has to pass through three stores.
 
The first of which is the sensory memory store.
 
This lasts up to a quarter of a second. This holds any and all sensory experience around an individual (what they see, hear, taste). Encoding in this specific store is sensory specific. Most of the information which passes through this store decays very quickly unless the individual pays attention to it.
 
Once an individual pays attention to a specific sensory input, it then enters the short-term memory store.
 
The duration in this store can be up to 30 seconds and it can only hold 7 (+ or – 2) items (Miller, 1956) depending on the individual. Encoding in this store is mainly auditory. But, this information cannot enter the longterm memory store until it has been rehearsed.
 
The long-term memory store is mainly unlimited in terms of duration and capacity.
 
As this store cannot be tested there is no limit to how long a memory can stay in it. The majority of information in the long-term memory store has to be rehearsed from the short-term memory store. The encoding of the memories is semantic, but can also take other forms.
 
The multi-store memory model has received support due to evidence backing up the idea of a respective short-term and long-term memory store. However, some argue that the model may be oversimplified and favour other theories such as the working memory model.
 
The Working-Memory Model
 
Baddley and Hitch (1974) developed an alternative memory theory slightly more advanced and complex than its predecessor. They replaced the idea of a short-term memory store. Instead, they proposed the idea of multiple separate stores within short-term memory. The “working memory”.
 
The first aspect of the working memory model compared to other memory theories is the central executive. This has several roles. The first of which drives the whole system of working memory.
 
Furthermore, it also allocates information to the other stores within the working memory system whilst tackling cognitive tasks such as problem-solving
 
The visuospatial sketchpad essentially deals with visual or spatial information. We use this for navigation. it allows us to move around, depending on where objects are in our environment.
 
The last store within the working memory system would be the phonological loop. This refers to any auditory information and holds speech-based information for up to two seconds.
 
The articulatory process (our inner voice) is located within the phonological loop. We repeat and rehearse information using the loop. As a result, we store this information for longer.
 
The working memory model is supported by dual-task studies. Results prove that individuals can complete two tasks at the same time where each task requires different working memory systems.
 
Furthermore, the working memory model does not over-rely on placing importance on the idea of rehearsal for the retention of memories.
 
How We Forget (Based on Memory Theories)
 
These two memory theories concentrate on how memories are stored. However, there is little information on how or why we forget.
 
Ebbinghaus (1885) tested his own memory. He found that retention at the time of learning is 100%. However, this drops very quickly a couple of days after learning. After a few weeks, forgetting slows down but there remains a decline in retention.
 
He proposed that there are a few ways to increase the likelihood of retaining information for a longer period of time without forgetting. The first was the representation of the memory (e.g. people might find it easier to remember information using mnemonic techniques). Additionally, spaced out repetition also helps speed up retention dramatically.
 
However, there are various factors which are dependent on how one’s rate of forgetting is affected. This includes, but is not limited to:
  • The meaningfulness of information (we are more likely to remember personal information).
  • Second of all, the representation of information (simple, shorter chunks of information are easier to remember).
  • Thirdly, physiological factors such as stress and sleep.
 
Flashbulb Memories
 
Flashbulb memories (Brown and Kulik (1977), refer to memories which do not need rehearsal in order to be remembered. This is one of the memory theories which suggests that there is some information which is so emotionally and biologically arousing it causes immediate retention.
 
One example may be that millions of people are able to give detailed accounts of their day on 9/11. Some may include extremely mundane and repetitive tasks. These would be usually unremarkable. However, they are remembered with vivid clarity due to the significance of the date.
 
Final Thoughts on Memory Theories
 
Overall, our memories are extremely complex. Current memory theories are placing us on the right track. But the question on many people’s minds is, will we ever know about the true nature of human memory?
 
References:
 
 

Valerie Soleil

 



 
About the Author: Valerie Soleil


Valerie Soleil is a writer with over 5 years of experience and holds a bachelor degree in law and a B.A. in Psychology. She is a physical & mental health enthusiast who constantly expands her knowledge about the mysteries of the human body and mind. Some of the activities Valerie is particularly passionate about are traveling and reading because they help her broaden her horizons.
 
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 

 



 

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publicado por achama às 22:34
Sábado, 09 / 11 / 19

...

Francesca Forsythe.

https://www.learning-mind.com

November 8th, 2019.

 


 

We’ve all heard of Déjá Vu, meaning to have already seen, but déjá rêvè is an interesting phenomenon meaning already dreamed.
 
How Is Déjá Rêvè Different to Déjá Vu?
 
Déjá vu is a common phenomenon in which we think we have already lived a certain event. Usually, we experience déjá vu in situations we should have no familiarity with. This makes the feeling all the more bizarre because we know an experience entirely new to us.
 
 
Déjá vu is very common and has been said to regularly occur in 60-80% of all people. This can mean simple similarities, or it can be a play by play of the same moment. It can be smells, events, locations, and many other things.
 
Many researchers believe that déjá vu is a memory-based experience and assume that it is an associative phenomenon between what we experience at the moment and what we have experienced in the past.
 
Others believe there is a split-second delay between the transferal of into from one side of the brain to the other, meaning it is effectively processed twice. This causes the effect of experiencing something twice.
 
The random nature of déjá vu makes it difficult to study empirically. Much of the research is reliant on self-certification and individual testimony. Therefore, it cannot be induced or exposed to understand it fully.
 
Déjá Rêvè Means ‘Already Dreamed’
 
Déjá rêvè, on the other hand, is even more bizarre of an experience. It causes us to believe that we have already dreamed that we would be in a real-life situation, or that you somehow knew you were going to be in that situation.
 
The temporal scope of this phenomenon is endless. You may have had a recent dream, or even a dream years ago that you were going to be in a situation you then experience. However, in all cases of déjá rêvè, the subject believes they have somehow prophesized an event that happens.
 
What separates déjá rêvè from déjá vu is that the former feels inextricably linked to dreams. The latter, on the other hand, is a much more definitive feeling that experience has already been lived. Déjá vu makes us believe we have lived something before and are simply repeating the same experience.
 
Déjá rêvè is more of a premonition; a feeling that we dreamt this was going to happen or somehow envisaged the future. It is not simply repeating the same experience but predicting a new one.
 
Three Kinds of Déjá Rêvè
 
What is interesting about this phenomenon is that there are three different ways in which people experience it. Each way is unique, making déjá rêvè much more complex than déjá vu.
 
The first is in an episodic manner. Some believe that they can pinpoint the exact moment they had a prophetic dream that something was going to happen. These episodes feel much more like a prophecy, or the ability to see into the future.
 
The second is a familiarity-based manner. This is a hazy, dream-like memory that echoes current circumstances. This kind is easy to mix up with déjá vu because it is simply the experience of already seeing something.
 
The final kind is in a dream-like manner. This kind isn’t so much recalling a dream as much as feeling the experience itself was dream-like. This can be a strange and even nightmarish experience, almost like lucid dreaming except the subject knows they are awake.
Déjá Rêvè in Literature
 
Déjá rêvè has been a subject of much interest, legend and myth. In Greek mythology, Croesus, the Lydian King dreams that his son will die from a spear wound which happens later in the story.
 
In Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, Caesar’s wife has a prophetic dream which accurately depicts his death, which happens the very same day. Even in modern literature, such as Harry Potter, prophetic dreams have a key role to play.
 
Who Suffers from This Phenomenon?
 
Research on déjá rêvè is not as extensive as déjá vu. However, it is highly common in epileptic patients as a common side effect of different kinds of therapies. These therapies include electro-therapy which induces activity in the brain. Subjects with epilepsy then report déjá rêvè as a side effect to their seizures.
 
However, it can also occur in perfectly healthy subjects. Yet, scientists have not found its cause in healthy patients.
 
Final Thoughts
 
We know enough about the human brain to know that there is still a lot we don’t know about the human brain. We have learned much in the past 50 years through new technologies, such as CT and MRI scanning.
 
Yet, there is still so much that we don’t know. We are still finding new types of neurons, particles with magnetic potential, and even a virus that could explain human consciousness.
 
All in all, the brain is still very much a mystery. It may take us a long time to figure out how and why the brain tricks us with experiences such as déjá vu and déjá rêvè. Yet, it is interesting to observe them when they happen, and even learn from them when they do.
 
Who knows, perhaps your prophetic dreams are trying to tell you something.

References:
  1. www.inverse.com
  2. www.livescience.com
 
Francesca Forsythe





 

About the Author: Francesca Forsythe

Francesca is a freelance writer currently studying a degree in Law and Philosophy. She has written for several blogs in a range of subjects across Lifestyle, Relationships and Health and Fitness. Her main pursuits are learning new innovative ways of keeping fit and healthy, as well as broadening her knowledge in as many areas as possible in order to achieve success.
 
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 
Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

 
No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 


All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 
 
 
 

 
 
Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily
 
 
 
 
 
 
Free counters!

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publicado por achama às 05:39
A Luz está a revelar a Verdade, e esta libertar-nos-á! -Só é real o AMOR Incondicional. -Quando o Amor superar o amor pelo poder, o mundo conhecerá a Paz; Jimi Hendrix. -Somos almas a ter uma experiência humana!

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