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Sábado, 04 / 04 / 20

How Will Coronavirus End? Here Are 4 Possible Scenarios.

How Will Coronavirus End? 

Here Are 4 Possible Scenarios.

Janey Davies, B.A.

https://www.learning-mind.com

April 3rd, 2020.

 
 

 
It seems as if we’ve been dealing with coronavirus for years. However, three short months ago, no one had even heard of COVID-19. Now, terms such as self-isolate, flatten the curve and social distancing are all common parlance. But do we know how coronavirus will end?

The Beginning, the Middle and the End of Coronavirus?

The beginning of coronavirus

To date, worldwide, there have been over 1 million cases of coronavirus and over 54,000 deaths. The United Nations says this is the biggest global emergency since WWII.
It is claimed that coronavirus started in a ‘wet market’ (a market that sells dead and live animals together) in Wuhan, China. A disease spreads rapidly in these types of conditions as the dead and live animals are densely packed. This makes hygiene extremely difficult to maintain and pandemics more likely.
All coronaviruses are viruses that cause disease in animals. Experts believe a bat carrying the COVID-19 virus infected some of the animals being sold in this wet market. This particular strain then made the jump to humans. It spreads via droplets when someone coughs or sneezes. These droplets then land on surfaces and remain, in some cases like metal, for up to 9 days.
We all know the rest of this grim story. The coronavirus has travelled around the world, infecting nearly every country. It has caused complete lockdowns, roads are silent, pollution is reducing and people are stockpiling and panic-buying.
We are now in the middle stages of the virus and still nowhere to knowing how it will end.

The Middle of Coronavirus

There were different reactions from the general public when the coronavirus first broke out. Some didn’t take it seriously and kept to their normal schedules. Others battened down their hatches and went on shopping sprees to stock up.
Now, everyone is aware of the risk to human health and governments across the world are taking drastic action to stop the spread. Shops that were a few weeks ago displaying empty shelves are gradually getting back to normal. People are, in the most part, self-isolating and adjusting to a new way of life.
So while the majority of us are simply riding out the storm and sticking to health guidelines, what are the experts saying with regards to a possible end to coronavirus?

How will coronavirus end?

Experts believe there are a number of scenarios that could herald the end of the coronavirus.
  1. Herd Immunity

We have heard a lot about herd immunity in the past couple of weeks. Herd immunity is where a number of people contract the virus, recover and then become immune. This creates a mass of people with immunity to the virus. The virus then struggles to find hosts it can infect and it naturally dies out.
The problem is the sheer cost of human lives. COVID-19 is deadlier than flu and infects more people. Allowing the coronavirus to freely infect with no restrictions would leave millions dead and many with life-changing conditions.
In fact, the UK initially considered herd immunity but rejected the idea as the consequences became clear.
  1. Seasonality

We could hold out for summer. Most coronaviruses tend to surface in the winter months and die out in the summer. This is because droplets react differently under hot and cold conditions.
A protective shell ‘houses‘ the virus. It is this shell that reacts with the environment. With COVID-19, the virus is protected by a fatty exterior. This is why washing with soap is so important because soap naturally dissolves this fatty exterior and the virus dies.
There are other factors that affect this fatty outer – heat and humidity.
“Much of the world is waiting anxiously to see what — if anything — the summer does to transmission in the Northern Hemisphere,” says Maia Majumder of Harvard Medical School and Boston Children’s Hospital.
  1. Vaccine

There are many that think the coronavirus will not end until we find a vaccine. Up until then, we will just have to manage the virus as best we can. Keeping schools and businesses closed for the time being. Restricting movement amongst the general public, and enforcing social distancing and self-isolation for the vulnerable.
However, it takes a long time to produce a vaccine. We are used to making flu vaccines, adjusting them to fit the latest outbreak, but we’ve never had a coronavirus outbreak before. So we are starting from the drawing board.
Moreover, even if we create a vaccine that works, we’d still have to manufacture millions of them. And that takes time.
  1. Intermittent shutdowns

What is more likely to happen is that we see an ebb and flow of the coronavirus. There’s been a lot of talk about ‘flattening the curve’ to stop the spread.
But it’s possible that once this curve is sufficiently flattened, life will go back to some semblance of normality. Restrictions will be lifted and then suddenly there’s another outbreak. Then, it is likely that social distancing will be enforced again, but just for the local area that is affected.
What many experts are saying is that this will be the new normal. Restrictions will be lifted once the spread is under control. But if the virus reappears, we go back to isolating.

How is coronavirus affecting the economy?

Shutdowns affect many types of businesses. Obviously, this has a major effect on the economy. So who will survive and will our economy change? Well, it all depends on how that particular country has dealt with the coronavirus. For instance:
If a country fails to halt the broad spread of the virus, then the healthcare system will collapse. The pandemic will continue to rise, leading to a prolonged downturn in the economy.
Prepared countries that show a rapid and strong response to the virus are going to control it within a few months. This means there will be some damage to the economy, but the trend will be for long-term growth.
Obviously, there are some industries that may never fully recover.

Worst hit industries

The coronavirus has hit the travel industry very hard.  In some cases, airlines may have to file for bankruptcy. Car manufacturers are also struggling. There has been a 10% drop in sales since the outbreak. Closed for the foreseeable future are hotels, restaurants and many small businesses.

Who will be most affected by the coronavirus?

Experts predict it is the poor and people on low incomes that will suffer the most. They are more likely to have chronic health conditions anyway and have to manage on smaller incomes. Then there’s the effect on a nation’s mental health. Vulnerable people are told to have no contact at a time they most need a visit or a cuddle to reassure them.
Elderly people will face more loneliness as social distancing becomes the new normal. Racial attacks increase thanks to the virus being known as the ‘Chinese Virus’.
Already incidences of domestic violence and child abuse are rising as people struggle to maintain civil relationships stuck in the house with one another.
And who knows whether those who have contracted the virus will be welcomed back into their communities when this is all over?

Can any good come out of the coronavirus?

For the first time in many people’s lives, we are seeing remarkable acts of kindness. But also a recognition of the vulnerable and the elderly.
No longer is it deemed a badge of honour to go to work if you are sick. Neither is it a stigma to have to go on benefits. Parents are spending quality time with their kids. Communities are pulling together. Businesses are repurposing their equipment to make safety gear for hospitals.
Day in and day out we applaud the NHS for its sterling work for tackling the virus. So yes, this virus has led to a reawakening of what’s important in life and what is not.

Final Thoughts

No one can really know how the coronavirus will end, but perhaps we can take this time to help people wherever we are able to.
References:
  1. medium.com
  2. www.livescience.com
  3. www.theguardian.com


Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


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publicado por achama às 03:54
Sábado, 28 / 03 / 20

How Mass Hysteria Is Making the Pandemic Worse and How to Cope.

How Mass Hysteria Is Making the Pandemic Worse and How to Cope.

Janey Davies, B.A.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 28th, 2020.

 
mass hysteria.

 
 
 
I like to think of myself as a fairly rational and calm person, but in the last few weeks, I have felt close to tears. Since the coronavirus has taken hold, I have seen mass hysteria on an unprecedented scale.
 
Never before in my lifetime have I witnessed empty supermarket shelves, people walking around wearing masks and daily updates from the government. It seems as if we are living in some kind of nightmare. Common-sense no longer applies. Rules are turned upside down.
 
In times of hardship and struggle, we pull together, we hug each other and visit our family and friends more often. However, we can’t do that with this new threat. Instead, we must self-isolate and socially distance ourselves.
 
Our normal routines and daily lives have to follow a strict safety code. No more unnecessary travel. Only shop for essential products. If you do go out, stay 2 metres apart from other people. It’s enough to bring on mass hysteria.
 
What Is Mass Hysteria?
 
It is a psychological condition shared by groups of people who feel threatened by a certain event or person. There are many examples of mass hysteria throughout history.
 
 
Examples of mass hysteria
 
Salem Witch Trials
 
In late February 1692 in a small village called Salem, Massachusetts, two young girls began having fits. They would twitch and shriek uncontrollably. The parish and community blamed the fits on witchcraft and singled out women who had supposedly afflicted these young girls.
 
Soon the numbers started to rise and eventually many more were showing signs of witchcraft. In 1693, more than 200 women had been accused of witchcraft. In fact, 30 were convicted and 19 were executed.
 
Remember, only two girls were ill, but it ended up with countless of women being held captive and subject to ridiculous ‘witch tests’.
 
The Louisiana Twitching
 
Talking of twitching, in early 1939, one Louisianan schoolgirl developed a strange twitch in her leg. Suddenly the twitching spread to others. The number of cases rose sharply but no doctor could pinpoint the problem.
 
All tests came back negative. Meanwhile more and more girls were succumbing to this strange leg-twitching phenomena.
 
Parents removed their children from schools, refusing to allow them back until the cause was known. After a few weeks, the incidences of leg-twitching seemed to calm down, but what had caused the outbreak in the first place?
 
Those who investigated narrowed it down to one girl – Helen – who had the first symptoms. Helen couldn’t dance. In fact, she hated dance classes but was worried that her boyfriend would be tempted by another girl who was a better dancer than her.
 
She pretended to have an uncontrollable twitch in her leg so that she could get out of dance class and have a readymade excuse to her boyfriend.
 
The Bin Laden Itch
 
After the tragic 9/11 attacks of 2001, reports started to surface of children complaining of a strange skin rash. The rash could last from just a few hours to a couple of weeks. But doctors and parents were none the wiser.
 
Some parents started to speculate that this could be a result of a bioterrorist attack. Remember, at the time we were all terrified about viewing the broadcast of the two aeroplanes.
 
People started calling it the Bin Laden Itch after an extraordinary number of elementary students appeared to come down with this rash. As more and more children fell victim to the rash, so did the panic and hysteria begin to rise. So what was the cause?
 
The Center for Disease Control investigated. They found that because of the initial fear of a biological attack, children and parents had been paying closer attention to their skin. More cases were reported and numbers rose. In fact, it was these rising numbers that started the mass hysteria.
 
The problem with mass hysteria
 
So what about today and the virus that everyone is talking about? Has mass hysteria led to panic buying in supermarkets? Does the constant updating of cases and deaths help to fuel our anxiety? Are the orders from governments beginning to scare us?
 
It’s really not surprising that people are becoming hysterical. We feel overwhelmed by the sheer scale of events when we are bombarded with information from many different sources.
 
However, despite the fact that we are all living in very crazy times, there is a real problem when it comes to mass hysteria.
Mass hysteria can lead us to believe things that are simply not true.
  • It can also fool us into thinking the problem is much worse than it really is.
  • It can change our behaviour and make us act foolishly or selfishly.
  • It leads to the spread of misinformation which only fuels our anxiety even further.
  • How to cope with mass hysteria
 
It is true that this pandemic is more deadly than the recent outbreak of swine flu in 2009, but that doesn’t mean we need to panic.
 
Take, for example, the SARS epidemic in 2003 which killed around 10% of those who caught it. Not to mention the MERS outbreak, which killed 34% of those infected.
 
So far, this virus is not as deadly as SARS and MERS. Today there are around 600,000 confirmed cases and a mortality rate of 4.4%.
 
And what does this tell us? Well, with SARS and MERS we weren’t seeing massive shutdowns and forced changes to our behaviour. But the facts and figures speak for themselves. Coronavirus is no more deadly than the last few recent epidemics the world has had to face.
 
Final thoughts
 
In these strange and unprecedented times, it can be easy to sit at home and worry. If you feel anxious and hysterical, remember, it’s easy to pass this onto others.
 
Instead, why not go to reputable sites like the World Health Organisation and get the facts from the horse’s mouth. You’ll feel much better, I promise.
 
Meanwhile, stay safe.
 
References:

  1. www.verywellmind.com
  2. www.businessinsider.com


Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 19:09
Sexta-feira, 27 / 03 / 20

5 Proven Ways Mindfulness Will Strengthen Your Mental Health.

5 Proven Ways Mindfulness Will Strengthen Your Mental Health.

Alicia Seibel, B.A.

https://www.learning-mind.com/

March 27th, 2020.

Mindfulness Mental Health.

 

 

 
What Is Mindfulness?
 
Mindfulness is your ability to bring awareness to experiences, feelings, and emotions. Buddhists believed that through prayer or mediation, you can shift your thoughts away from distraction and into intention.
 
The mind has on average 3,000 thoughts per minute. A Harvard study claims that the average person is ‘lost in thought’ for at least 47% of the day. That’s a lot of thoughts that are running on autopilot!
 
What’s incredible to me is the thoughts and feelings we have control how we feel and what we believe consciously and subconsciously. Allowing thoughts to run on autopilot is dangerous because you’re not aware of or in control of your mind. The practice of mindfulness will grant you the ability to take that power back. Doing this will strengthen your mental health profoundly.
 
 
The Act Of Being Mindful
 
Bringing your thoughts, feelings and emotions into intentional awareness is only the first step to mindfulness. The second step is choosing how to process those thoughts in a healthy, productive way. I like to view mindfulness as a nurturing lens we can see life through that helps us make the best decision on what to do next. For example:
 
A mindful person will be accepting of their thoughts, feelings and emotions. They will view them without judgement or fear. They will take time to process and validate their thoughts, feelings and emotions. They will decide how to act on that on that information in a healthy and productive way.
 
A non-mindful person will usually seek external blame for their problems. They will allow their thoughts, feelings and emotions to run on autopilot, which will create limiting beliefs about themselves and their abilities. As a result, they will react poorly to highly stressful and emotional situations.
 
Mindfulness systems can include mediation, breathing techniques, guided imagery or other practices that relax the body and mind. I acknowledge that mindfulness cannot be attained with all thoughts all the time, but it is proven that people who do practice mindfulness have a healthier and happier life.
Mindfulness Affects Your Mental Health
 
The Oxford dictionary defines mental health as ‘a person’s condition regarding their psychological and emotional wellbeing.’
 
A person’s mental health can be affected by how they think, feel and act. Since we all experience life through our own mental/emotional lens, our own ability to be mindful is directly correlated to our mental health.
 
More than 450 million people worldwide suffer from mental disorders. As a result, many intervention strategies have been explored by therapists and other mental health professionals. Mindful-based interventions have been very popular in the last decade. There have been many studies showing the impact and success of mindfulness.
 
Let’s discover 5 proven ways mindfulness will strengthen your mental health.
 
 
5 Ways Being Mindful Can Benefit Your Mental Health
 
1. Better Stress Management
 
Stress affects everyone in the world. Too much stress or chronic stress can cause depression, anxiety, cardiovascular disease and even suicide. The ability to relieve stress that can make a huge impact on your mental health and wellbeing. Which is where mindfulness becomes an asset.
 
A 5-year study demonstrated how mindfulness activities, such as meditation, lowered stress in patients. By engaging patients in mindful-based stress reduction activities every single day for 8 weeks, patients were able to manage their stress better than the test group. This shows how powerful mindfulness can be on our ability to manage stress and promote healthier emotional wellbeing.
 
2. Emotional Intelligence
 
Emotional intelligence is the capacity to be aware and in control of your emotions. In particular, the ability to self-regulate your own emotions can greatly affect your mental health. Emotional regulation is measured by your ability to control strong emotions by not acting on raw feelings in an impulsive way.
 
Throughout our lives, we experience a lot of strong emotions, from anger and frustration to sadness and fear. When people cannot regulate their emotions, it leads to more conflict, emotional outbursts, stress, and other mental health issues.
 
A study done by the American Psychological Association showed that mindfulness plays a role in a person’s ability to regulate their emotions. Instead of just experiencing the emotion on autopilot, test subjects began to differentiate their emotions in a different way. As a result, they processed the emotion more productively and was able to self-regulate easier.
 
3. Decreased Depressive Symptoms
 
Having depressive symptoms affects much of the population. According to Healthline, 16.2 million people struggle with depressive symptoms in the U.S. alone. Depression is huge in the mental health world, and the numbers only seem to be going up.
 
Studies show how mindful-based interventions are efficient at decreasing depressive symptoms and depression relapse in patients. It demonstrates how mindfulness-based treatment allows patients to process and regulate their emotions in a different way from those who did not receive the treatment.
 
This proves how important mindfulness is to our mental health and overall emotional wellbeing.
 
4. Less Anxiety
 
Anxiety occurs when we feel nervous and/or worried about a certain event or outcome. In psychiatry, anxiety is known as a nervous disorder characterized by a state of excessive uneasiness and apprehension typically with compulsive behavior or panic attack.
 
Controlled trials were performed on patients with anxiety disorders in which they had patients participate in regular mindful-based activities. The trials showed that mindful-based intervention was effective in decreasing anxiety symptoms in patients and lasted longer than other techniques.
 
Prolonged anxiety can control people’s life. I personally suffer from anxiety and it can be a very scary and stressful thing to experience. I started practicing mindfulness exercises regularly and found that the anxiety symptoms disappeared.
 
5. Better Coping Skills
 
Coping is a response we use to process our emotional or psychological stress. Our coping skills are measured by how we choose to respond to highly stressful situations. Most people think of coping when they experience a death in the family. This tragedy adds lots of emotional stress on a person and can test their ability to be emotionally strong and resilient.
 
An article published in 2012 demonstrates how using a mindful approach to coping strategies helped their patients. In this mindful-coping study, doctors used mindful strategies including meditation, cognitive therapies & empathy exercises to improve their patients’ coping abilities.
 
Patients reported having fewer negative emotions and felt more constructive about the situation. This shows the power that mindfulness has on our ability to cope with stressful situations.
 
 
Summary
 
Incorporating regular mindfulness exercises into your life can be very beneficial to your mental health. Mindful-based interventions have been proven through scientific research to strengthen your mental health in many ways.
 
These benefits include managing stress, developing emotional intelligence, decreasing anxiety and depressive symptoms, and strengthen your ability to cope.
 
The power of the mind belongs to you. Whether you choose to exercise it or not, this power will always remain in your hands. Take a dive into mindfulness. You may be surprised to see where it may lead you. Regular practice will let you discover the above effects of mindfulness on your own mental health.
 
Alicia Seibel
 
 
About the Author: 

Alicia is a passionate writer who holds a bachelor of arts degree in Psychology with a minor in Business Management and Youth Development from Columbia College. Her experience in the wellness industry has motivated her to share lifestyle choices that lead to heath, happiness, and abundance. For this reason, Alicia created a blog called Down To Earth Vitality, where she promotes natural lifestyle and spiritual & physical self-love. She lives on the beautiful Central Coast of California with her husband and dog.
 
 
Copyright © 2012-2020 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 18:52
Sexta-feira, 27 / 03 / 20

6 Worst Pandemics in History and What We Can Learn.

 

6 Worst Pandemics in History and What We Can Learn.

Sherrie Hurd, A.A.

learning-mind.com

Posted March 26th, 2020.

 
 
 
 
Some of the worst pandemics in history have taken millions of lives. What lessons have we learned from these horrible events?
 
Understanding the history of the worst pandemics requires the ability to differentiate between the epidemic and pandemic in the definition. First of all, the epidemic is an outbreak of the disease on a large scale. The pandemic is much the same in that definition, but it tends to travel globally, infecting people in multiple countries.
 
While both the epidemic and pandemic can take millions of lives, the pandemic affects a greater geographical location. When crossing borders in this manner, sicknesses and disease can cause more confusion about how to react.
 
Pandemics and Politics
 
When it comes to pandemics, different countries tend to react in slightly different manners. For instance, while one country may immediately quarantine its citizens, another one may act in a more lax manner. Unfortunately, these various reactions also cause more deaths. Politicians, after all, in various countries, tend to see things much differently at the beginning of the pandemic.
 
It’s usually not until the pandemic has taken many lives that leaders understand the serious issues at hand. I will say that in some cases, we get leaders who “over-react”, and in doing so, actually make intelligent decisions. We see various outcomes in some of these outbreaks in disease.
 
Some of the worst pandemics in history:
 
1. The Antonine Plague (165 AD)
 
Over 5 million people and the whole Roman army perished because of the Antonine Plague. This disease, although thought to be either measles or smallpox, was honestly of unknown origin.
 
The only thing we do know is that Roman soldiers brought the illness back from Mesopotamia and infected a huge population of Egypt, Greece, and Italy. The plague was also known as the Galen Plague and one of the very first pandemics recorded in history.
 
2. The Bubonic Plague
 
This insidious plague happened more than once in history – first appearing between 541 and 542 AD and then again between 1346 and 1353.
 
Plague of Justinian (541-542}
 
The first occurrence of the Bubonic plague took the lives of 25 million people in only one year. The plague ravished the Byzantine Empire and Port cities along the Mediterranean. It’s thought that this first incident of the plague killed almost half of Europe in one year. For a better scope of things, understand that this was around 5,000 per day.
 
The Black Death (Plague of London – 1346-1353}
 
The second onset of the Bubonic plague, also known as the Black Death and the Plague of London, killed even more individuals in European countries. It is thought that fleas carrying the virus traveled on rats aboard ships going from Asia to Europe. During the life of the plague, seven years, there were between 75 and 200 million deaths.
 
3. The Cholera Pandemic (1852-1860)
 
 
 
Cholera epidemic in France, 1832
 
There are 6 separate episodes of cholera, but the third one was the worst. This pandemic was found to originate from the water systems. The illness started in India and spread through Asia, Europe, Africa, and North America. Before Cholera was finished with its onslaught, it took the lives of at least 1 million people.
 
4. Flu pandemics (1889-present)
 
There were 5 different flu pandemics in history. Each attacked different types of victims. The flu’s first appearance was in the year of 1889 and the epidemic continues today.
 
Flu pandemic (1889-1891)
 
The flu of this time was caused by Influenza A type of virus H3N8. This virus was reported in 3 different areas: Asia, Canada, and Greenland. Because of rapid population growth, the virus spread quickly across the globe. By the end of the disease’s reign, it has taken around 1 million victims.
 
Flu pandemic (Spanish flu) (1918-1920)
 
 
Camp Funston, at Fort Riley, Kansas, during the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic
 
The second influenza pandemic was a bit different from the first and thought to come from swine. While the first outbreak claimed the majority of lives of the young, elderly, or those with underlying conditions, the second attack targeted more healthy people with no previous health condition, leaving the young and elderly with fewer casualties.
 
The mortality rate of this pandemic was 20%, claiming the lives of between 20-50 million individuals.
 
Asian flu pandemic (1956-1958)
 
Originating in Asia from the H2N2 virus, the Asian flu traveled through parts of China, including Hong Kong, and then into the United States. The virus claimed the lives of around 2 million people.
 
Flu pandemic (Hong Kong flu) (1968)
 
Another influenza virus, originating in Hong Kong, tore across the globe killing 1 million people. This virus was a mutated form of the H2N2 activated by the H3N2 virus. It only took three months for the virus to spread across the globe affecting, Hong Kong, India, Australia, Europe, the United States and the Philipines.
 
Although the virus only claimed 1 million deaths globally, it took the most lives of Hong Kong citizens – that would be around 15% of their population.
 
The most recent flu pandemic (2009)
 
The most recent report of the flu killing vast numbers of people was between 2008 and 2010, with a high concentration in 2009. This strain of flu, the H1N1 virus, claimed more children and middle-aged adults, while the elderly were immune. This is probably due to the fact that past flu pandemics braced the immune system of those who survived previous sicknesses. This flu claimed over 500,000 people in the world, originating in the United States.
 
5. HIV/Aids (1976-present)
 
Over 36 million deaths were caused by Aids between 1976 and the present, with peak mortality rates between 2005-2012. The virus started in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and quickly spread over the entire globe. While at first devastating, those with HIV now can go on to live full lives with the help of the proper medications.
 
6. Corona (Covid19) (2019-)
 
We are now facing another pandemic that has presently left our world within panic. In just the first three months of this viral breakout, there are over 22,000 reported deaths. Unfortunately, there are shortages in tests, medical supplies and equipment, so the number of mortalities could be higher.
 
There are currently over 400,000 people diagnosed with the virus, which means there are probably that many more yet to be diagnosed… and growing.
 
What can we learn now from past pandemics?
 
Looking at the mortality rate of pandemics of the past, we can learn how to better take care of ourselves today. Presently, we are fighting another pandemic now, and I’m sad to say, many people aren’t taking this virus seriously.
 
When looking at the end numbers, and comparing them with the active numbers, we assume this virus isn’t half the threat as the ones before it. And that’s just the point. This one has just started, while the others have tapered off, ended or been assigned a vaccine to treat them.
 
The worst pandemics in history should be teaching us to stay inside and embrace social distancing, even full quarantine for places such as Italy and the United States, where the virus has hit hard. Let’s be smart and quarantine ourselves, stay clean and healthy, and also teach others to do the same.
 
In this day and age, with the technology at our fingertips, we can spread positive motivation instead of disease, and teach others right from the safety of our homes. Using our intelligence to beat this thing is much better than treating it as a conspiracy.
 
Please take this one seriously, so history doesn’t repeat itself. Thank you.
 
 
Featured image: Women wearing surgical masks during the influenza epidemic, 1919 (via WikiCommons) 
 
 
 
Sherrie Hurd
 

 

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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 01:17
Sexta-feira, 20 / 03 / 20

What Is Willful Ignorance and 5 Examples of How It Works

What Is Willful Ignorance 

and 5 Examples of How It Works

Lottie Miles, M.A.

learning-mind.com

Posted March 19, 2020.

 
Willful Ignorance Examples.

 
 
 
Willful ignorance is built on the deliberate avoidance of evidence that doesn’t match one’s existing beliefs. This can be a defense mechanism as it allows us to create a world we feel safe in, akin to confirmation bias.
 
However, it is also often apparent in behavior that is socially harmful. In this post, we will explore what willful ignorance is and explore this in examples of how it works in everyday life.
 
What Is Willful Ignorance?
 
As already outlined, it necessarily involves the deliberate omission of information in a decision-making process. If we are unaware of information, then we would simply be ignorant of something.
 
It can appear in all sorts of ways in our everyday lives, from ignoring issues that make us feel bad to rejecting irrefutable evidence that doesn’t match our world view. Willful ignorance is also sometimes termed willful blindness, as in Margaret Heffernan’s interesting exploration of the topic. She notes that:
 
“what we choose to let through and to leave out is crucial. We mostly admit the information that makes us feel great about ourselves, while conveniently filtering whatever unsettles our fragile egos and most vital beliefs”
 
Being willfully ignorant can sometimes protect the brain and work as a defense mechanism. It helps people overcome situations they would otherwise find too much. However, in extreme cases, it can actually lead us to take certain courses of action that can be harmful to ourselves or others. It can also prevent us from taking necessary actions that we should do but do not.
 
5 Examples of How Willful Ignorance Works in Everyday Life
 
Being deliberately ignorant about certain matters can help to protect us from scenarios we cannot face. However, being too willfully ignorant can also lead us to cause social harm. It can prevent us from making changes in our lives and be potentially dangerous for our entire existence.
 
Here, we outline 5 different ways willful ignorance plays out in our daily lives from the mundane through to the serious.
 
Sport
 
Sport offers a useful way to explore common benign ways people enact willful ignorance in their lives. For example, be it basketball or soccer, if you are the player on a team, more often than not every decision that goes against you appears to be wrong.
 
Even though sports stars know their actions are on video, they can still appeal against decisions seemingly convinced that what they just did, didn’t happen. Equally, fans watching the game may employ willful blindness to the bad actions of players on the team they support.
 
Creationism & Intelligent Design
 
Creationists necessarily have to create new narratives to explain away evidence for evolution. Rather than looking at evidence as building blocks, creationist science seeks to manipulate the building blocks until they match the existing ideology.
 
Indeed, both creationists and intelligent design ‘scientists’ have to ignore hundreds of studies. These studies verify certain facts of evolution confirmed at both a micro and macroevolutionary scale so they cannot be confronted, only circumvented. This protects them on an emotional level by defending their world view.
 
Education
 
Self-deception through willful ignorance can have beneficial and detrimental effects when it comes to education. For example, if we receive a low score in a test and blame it on the course content not matching the exam, we may feel better about ourselves. However, to do this, we may need to ignore the fact other people we know scored highly on the test.
 
If we feel okay with a low score, we may not take the time to reflect on what we could have done differently to achieve a better result. As such, it is important to recognize if we are willfully ignoring things that may help us take positive actions in our lives.
 
Health
 
A common area where most people will have a personal understanding of willful ignorance is being healthy. In this case, being willfully ignorant can have negative consequences for the individual and society at large.
 
We all know smoking is bad, alcohol is bad, ice cream is bad. However, this fact alone is insufficient to prevent many of us from consuming these things. This is akin to cognitive dissonance. But there are ways we can recognize and overcome this way of thinking and being.
 
Health also provides an example of where willful ignorance can harm others as well as ourselves. For example, according to the WHO ‘vaccine hesitancy is one of the top 10 global health threats’.
 
Movements like the anti-vaxxers have grown in popularity, especially in Europe. This has seen a rise in people unsure about the safety of vaccines. In fact, 21 percent of the global population is now feeling this way.
 
Climate change
 
Climate change perhaps best represents how being willfully ignorant can be both useful as a defense mechanism and socially harmful to ourselves and others. More and more people are experiencing climate change distress. Thus, a certain amount of willful blindness is necessary for many people in order to protect their mental well-being.
 
However, if everyone practices willful blindness about the issue of climate change, then climate catastrophe for most on the planet will lie ahead.
 
Final Words
 
From this exploration of common examples of willful ignorance in everyday life, it is clear that it is somewhat of a double-edged sword. It can be an effective defense mechanism protecting us from events that challenge our comfortable world view. But it can also have negative consequences if we leave it unchecked.


 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 01:01
Domingo, 15 / 03 / 20

Known Unknowns vs Unknown Unknowns: Two Sides of Ignorance

Known Unknowns vs Unknown Unknowns:  

Two Sides of Ignorance.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 15th, 2020.

 
known unknowns unknown unknowns.
 
 
 
If I asked you how a CD worked, how confident would you feel in explaining it to me? Let’s say from 1-10? A 7, 8 perhaps? Okay, go on then, explain it, but in so much detail that I completely understand. Not so confident now? We’re talking about a phenomenon called known unknowns and unknown unknowns.
What are known unknowns and unknown unknowns?
 
Don’t worry, it sounds complicated and a bit confusing, but it really isn’t. It’s all about ignorance and how we perceive our knowledge to be of something.
 
I want to give you some more examples of known unknowns vs unknown unknowns before I explain this further.
  1. Can you explain how a zipper works?
  2. How about a tape recorder?
  3. How does a toilet flush?
  4. Can you draw a bicycle?
  5. Could you explain space travel to me?
  6. How does a neurosurgeon work on the brain?
 
You probably feel quite confident in your ability to answer the first four but pass on the last two. In fact, studies show that we are actually quite ignorant when it comes to everyday things.
 
We like to think we know more than we do, but we don’t. And this is where known unknowns and unknown unknowns come into play.
 
We are quite happy to admit we are not rocket scientists or that we couldn’t perform brain surgery, but the simple things in life? We like to think we know everything we need to know.
What is the difference between known unknowns and unknown unknowns?
 
Known unknowns

Known unknowns are the things we know we don’t know about, if that makes sense. Like space travel, brain surgery, how self-driving cars work. We know we need to research these topics to learn more about them. But the important thing is we also know that we’re not really expected to know about things as complicated as rocket science.

Unknown unknowns

Now, unknown unknowns are the things we think we should know about, but we actually don’t. Like, how a bicycle works or what makes a toilet flush.
These are the simple, everyday things in life we take for granted and assume we know how they function. But we don’t. But we don’t know we don’t. The important thing with unknown unknowns is that we think we are expected to know about them.

Why do we sometimes wildly overestimate our intelligence?

It’s called the illusion of explanatory depth.
“Most people feel they understand the world with far greater detail, coherence, and depth than they really do.” Leonid Rozenblit and Frank Keil (2002)
Rozenblit and Keil conducted multi-phase studies to test the illusion of explanatory depth (IOED).
In the first phase, they asked participants to rate how well they understood the workings of objects such as sewing machines, mobile phones or bicycles.
In the second phase, they were asked to explain in a detailed report of how each object worked. They then re-rated their understanding of how each one worked. The results showed again and again that their confidence in understanding the workings of an object fell drastically from phase one to two.
In another study, Rebecca Lawson asked participants to draw a bicycle in her Science of Cycology report. Some of the results are featured below:
known unknowns unknown unknowns
In fact, it doesn’t matter whether we are talking about the workings of objects or scientific theories or the stock market. IOED is this pervasive feeling we know more than we do.

Why do we accept that some things are beyond our knowledge whilst others are not?

We don’t need to know how things work

The main reason for the ignorance of our own ignorance is that we don’t need to know how everyday things work. They just do. Generations that came before us invented them and they have been in our lives for decades.We are used to seeing them wherever we go. They are part and parcel of the fabric of life. Thanks to others, we haven’t had to invent them; we just use them. So there’s no need for us to know the ins and outs of the workings of a toaster or a bicycle.
I liken it a little to spellcheck. Sure, we could learn every difficult word there is in the world by heart, but why bother? Our computers have spellcheck, so we don’t need to make the effort to learn. But we wouldn’t call ourselves stupid because of this.
It’s the same with gadgets, theories or mechanics.
Now, more than ever, thanks to search engines and sharing information, we can find out a lot more than our predecessors. We can look things up on Google, share content but more importantly, build on what our previous generations have already made.
And we don’t need to know how things work to be able to do this.

Sharing knowledge makes us think we are smart

The other thing about our generation compared to previous ones is that by sharing information, we give ourselves the illusion of knowledge.
If I asked you why the planets are round, or what causes gravity, you wouldn’t throw your hands up in the air with despair. You’d look it up and tell me the answer.It’s this instant access to knowledge that gives us all expert status when we are not experts. But the lines are blurred. And we certainly don’t consider ourselves to be stupid when we can research the answer.
But it’s not just this kind of instant access to information that gives us IOED, it’s the way we consume this knowledge.
We skim the top of news items, we click on salacious headlines for the juicy parts of a story, and we allow tweets to inform us of global political moves. We tap into viral videos, we listen to soundbites and agree with memes.
This is a superficial way of ingesting knowledge. We never really deep dive into a topic. As a result, we know a lot of stuff, but not in that much detail. In other words, we know a little bit about a lot.

Why the Illusion of Explanatory Depth Is Dangerous

When we believe we know more than we actually do, it can lead us to prejudice without us even knowing.
One study tackled how understanding people and IOED could help reduce political extremism. In 2013, Philip Fernbach et al asked participants to rate how well they understood a range of policies such as:
  • A national flat-rate tax
  • A single-payer healthcare system
  • A cap-and-trade system for carbon emissions
Participants were then asked to explain in detail how each one worked. Afterwards, they had to re-rate their knowledge on the subjects. As expected, their confidence fell after they were asked to fully describe the policies.
But here’s the interesting part, as their confidence fell, so did their extreme views on the policies. Those that either strongly opposed or supported the policies became more moderate in their views. And as their views became more moderate, so did their reluctance to fund these policies also reduce.
This study is an example of how IOED could be used to encourage a more moderate approach to political extremism.
I always use this example to show how people always think they are right, if for no other reason than it makes you think about the other side. Amaryllis Fox was a former undercover officer for the CIA and has met a lot of opposing factions in her time.
“If I’ve learned one lesson from my time with the CIA, it is this: Everybody believes they are the good guy,” CIA Officer Fox

Final thoughts

We can’t possibly know everything and we can’t always be right. Understanding that we are all susceptible to IOED could lead to a more empathetic world for all of us.
 
References:




Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 20:03
Sexta-feira, 13 / 03 / 20

5 Benefits of Slow Thinking, According to Science

5 Benefits of Slow Thinking, According to Science

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted March 12, 2020.

 
Benefits of Slow Thinking.

 

 
In a world where everything inexorably requires us to speed up, most people’s intuition tells them that being faster is better. However, according to research, our intuition may not always be as good as we think it is. Moreover, thinking slow may have several benefits over fast thinking in a variety of settings.
 
In this post, we will outline the debates about slow vs fast thinking and 5 benefits of slow thinking, according to science.
 
Fast Thinking Vs Slow Thinking
 
People often associate thinking fast with intelligence, strength, and being funny. In this vein, Malcolm Gladwell’s interesting book ‘Blink’ champions thinking without thinking.
 
Gladwell argues that intuition is the result of meaningful work undertaken by individuals and is more like intelligent design than some magical property from within. This understanding leads Gladwell to argue that spontaneous decisions are good or sometimes even better than decisions we carefully plan. However, this position fails to recognize the value of slow thinking.
 
In the book ‘Thinking Fast and Slow’, Kahneman argues that the human mind is made up of two systems. The first relies on fast, instinctive, and emotional action. This system is linked to our survival instincts, helping us to quickly respond to danger. The second relies more on logic, deliberative thought, conscious effort, and taking time – or being slow.
 
When we do difficult Math, we are usually forced into using this second system. As such, these systems can both be beneficial at times. However, they can also come into conflict. If we let system 1 dominate too much, then we will miss out on the potential benefits of thinking slow.
 
5 benefits of slow thinking, according to science
 
Here, we outline 5 ways that slowing down your thinking can be beneficial for you and society at large.
 
Improved mental health & emotional control
 
Studies like “The Rediscovery of Slowness: Exploring the Timing of Cognition” have shown that the ability to use slow thinking processes can be characteristic of a healthy brain. They also found that an inability to adaptively regulate emotional responses to challenging situations was a common trait in numerous forms of psychopathology.
 
Similarly, a 2015 study found that thinking slowly could be beneficial in cases of psychosis. When patients were supported to slow down their thinking processes and recognize fast thoughts, they were able to bring down levels of paranoia.
 
Reduce Stress
 
In the world today, our fast-paced lives can lead us to feel like we never have enough time to do anything. This naturally arouses our sympathetic nervous system, the part of our autonomic nervous system that puts us into fight or flight mode, heightening our stress levels.
 
On the other side of our autonomic nervous system is the parasympathetic nervous system. This helps us to produce calm and relaxed states. Thinks like mindfulness seek to activate this system by using techniques drawing on our slow thinking systems. Check out our article about relaxation techniques for coping with negativity, anxiety and stress that will help you to benefit from slow thinking.
 
Prevent biased thinking
 
Slow thinking allows us to recognize when our thoughts and feelings may be being directed by automatic responses. It also helps us to recognize how this might be causing us to react in certain ways.
 
The situation could be feeling that you have been ignored, spoken over, or pretty much anything. This could make us feel angry or jump to assumptions about why this happened. If you find yourself in such a situation, try taking a step back and imagining yourself outside the situation you are personally in. Try to reason through why it might have happened. Then, reflect on this before acting.
 
By imagining yourself outside of a situation, you make it possible to see different perspectives and improve objectivity. You will likely find your initial response quickly dampens in extremity by taking this time and considering more ‘data’. This helps to avoid confirmation biases affecting your decisions. Cognitive reappraisal like this is also beneficial for mental well-being.
 
Make better decisions
 
Thinking slowly can help you master the art of decision making. A classic example of slow thinking fostering better decisions is demonstrated by something called the Cognitive Reflection Test. Based on 3 questions, this test is designed to temp human intuition into answering incorrectly.
 
In a study of 3,428 people, 83% answered at least one question, with 33% answering all 3 incorrectly. The test serves to highlight that intuition is not always as good as you think it is. Understanding this can help people realize that spending more time on decisions can enable them to take different actions with improved results.
 
Studies have also shown that slow thinking can help people make better decisions that are noticeable at the macro level. For example, a McKinsey Quarterly report found that leaders of business will be more successful in their investments and strategic efforts by thinking slowly.
 
Improve Research
 
There has long been growing pressure in academia to produce fast results, with a heavy focus on the number of publications. This outweighs considerations of quality-driven research done at a slow and methodical pace.
 
Studies have shown that this has actually led to reduced quality in research and increased mistakes. Indeed, Lakens & Evers’ 2014 study found statistical evidence that more productive researchers, measure by publication output, produce the least reliable research with less statistically significant results.
 
Final Thoughts
 
The benefits of slow thinking should not mean that we seek to banish swiftness from all of our actions. Both thinking fast and thinking slow have important benefits for our mental health and well being. However, taking the time to slow down our thinking is vital in our fast-paced world. It helps us to recognize our emotions, make improved decisions, and ultimately leads to better mental health.


 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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Alternatives to YouTube
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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 20:54
Quinta-feira, 12 / 03 / 20

Personality in the Workplace: 9 Most Difficult Types.

Personality in the Workplace: 

9 Most Difficult Types.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 12th, 2020.

 
Personality in the Workplace.
 
 
 
Over the years, I’ve worked in a lot of different jobs. From factory floors to secretarial roles, it doesn’t seem to matter which. There’s always one personality in the workplace that gets on everyone’s nerves.
 
And that gave me an idea. There must be specific personality types in the workplace that everyone recognises and secretly despises. So let’s bring them out into the open where they belong.
 
9 Most Difficult Types of Personality in the Workplace
 
The Under-Miner
 
I remember starting work at an electrical contracting company as a secretary and the firm consisted of all men. One man, in particular, was a sneaky ‘whisper in the ear’ kind of guy that would say things to undermine my confidence.
 
It was my first time working as a secretary, so I was new to the role and didn’t know what was expected of me. This one guy would appear to offer help and advice but then add a kind of afterthought that made me doubt my decision or actions.
 
This kind of personality in the workplace is undermining you to get ahead themselves by making you look bad.
 
The Ass-Kisser
 
I’ve come across several of these in my time. The person that rushes up to the boss with a tea or coffee as soon as they walk through the door. The ones that always turn up early to work and leave late to show willing.
 
They make everyone else feel as if they aren’t doing as much as they should. This sort of personality feeds resentment in the workplace. I mean, no one likes an ass-kisser in any walk of life.
 
So why do they act this way? Because they have a need to feel special and favourite.
 
The Gossip
 
You often get cliques forming in certain workplace environments, and this is where you’ll find our third difficult workplace personality – the gossip.
 
This person loves to spread rumours and lies about people. They play colleagues off one another to cause friction. In fact, this is really a form of bullying. Gossips feel better about themselves by making others feel worse. Gossip isolates people and it’s particularly insidious in small companies.
 
The Over-Sharer
 
I once worked in a factory office and I was leaving the job and training up my replacement. She didn’t know anyone there and had only been learning the job for two days.
 
The office was open plan and had around 50 employees working there. One day, in a very loud voice, she informed me that this was her first real fulltime position after she had miscarried her baby.
 
This came out of nowhere. It was loud enough for everyone close by to hear. I didn’t really know her that well, but she proceeded to go into quite revealing details about the miscarriage and the treatment in hospital. The over-sharer wants everyone to know their most intimate private details.
 
The Perfectionist
 
Have you ever had to stay late because your team leader wants just ‘one more draft’ before you go? This is the work of the perfectionist, and she or he can keep us at work for hours. Nothing is ever finished, nothing is ever good enough. You can deliver the most perfect content and it will come back with suggestions or edits.
 
The problem with this personality is that they are probably not just like this in the workplace. They are more than likely to be perfectionists at home too. So it’s not something they do to get at colleagues, it’s in their nature.
 
The Depressive
 
Whatever you say to the depressive, it will never work and it won’t succeed. The depressive is the one with a negative attitude toward everything.
 
The thing is, they never have a suggestion for what might work. They just need to tell you that your idea won’t work. And it doesn’t matter how many different solutions you put to them, none will get through. Their only role in life is to put down everything everyone suggests and bring us all down to their depressive level.
 
The Critic
 
On the other hand, we have the critic. Now, you might think the depressive and the critic are the same, but they’re not.
 
The critic will take great delight in criticising your work or your ideas. They get their energy from contradicting what you say. They are even known to make up bogus facts and figures to make their argument seem valid.
 
To them, this is a fight, a battle, a duel to the end. There can only be one winner and they’ll do everything in their power to win. These are the kind of people that argue black is white.
 
The Slacker
 
We all know someone who doesn’t pull their fair share of work. Actually, when I was younger it was me! I worked in a reject kitchen shop and was responsible for the packing up of orders. In the warehouse, boxes were stored at the back. Because most of the stuff we sold was jumpers and knitted accessories, the boxes were very soft.
 
You could make a nice little nest from these boxes where you would be hidden from the main part of the warehouse. My friend and I would take it in turns to have little afternoon naps for half an hour while the other would keep an eye out for the boss. Hey, I was 17!
 
The Weirdo
 
I’ve also worked with some weirdos in my time. One stands out in particular. This is another office tale. We had a smoking room in the days where you were allowed to smoke indoors and there was one guy who used the smoking room that everyone else avoided talking to.
 
I was told some rumours and gossip about him but decided to make up my own mind. Anyone, we got talking and sort of became friends over time. Then one day he said, “I’ve told my friend I’ve met someone.” I said that I thought that was great, and he looked puzzled and said ‘It’s you’.
 
I was a bit worried then he started sending me emails, asking me out, turning up at my flat, coming into work drunk and finally threatening me. In the end, because the company didn’t do anything, I left.
 
Final thoughts
 
Can you identify with any of these difficult personality types in the workplace or do you know any I haven’t covered? Let me know!
 
 
References:

  1. inc.com
  2. imgur.com


Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 18:20
Terça-feira, 10 / 03 / 20

4 Most Interesting Theories of Intelligence in Psychology

4 Most Interesting Theories of Intelligence in Psychology

Francesca Forsythe.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 9th, 2020.

 
 
 
Intelligence and how we gain it has been a puzzle for centuries, but there are four theories in psychology I think you’ll find most interesting.
 
Psychologists have been trying to define intelligence for centuries, but many disagree on what intelligence really is. This has led to the development of many different psychological theories of intelligence that fall into four major categories.
 
These categories are psychometric, cognitive, cognitive-contextual, and biological. As there are too many theories to talk about at once, allow me to introduce the most interesting theories from each of these research areas.
 
Theories of Intelligence in Psychology
 
Psychometric: Fluid and Crystallized Ability
 
The fluid and crystallized intelligence theory was originally developed by Raymond B Cattell between 1941 to 1971. This theory of intelligence rested upon a set of ability tests that were used as factors to define an individual’s abilities.
 
Fluid intelligence relates to inductive and deductive reasoning, comprehending implications and understanding relations between stimuli. To Cattell, these skills lay the foundation for the very basic biological capacity to learn. Crystalized abilities are related to vocabulary and cultural knowledge. They are learned through formal schooling and life experiences.
 
Fluid and crystallized abilities are not independent of one another, their main difference is the academic dimension of crystallized ability. Fluid ability was shown to be at its height when the individual is in their 20s and then drops as they age. Crystalized abilities peak much later and remain high until later in life.
 
Cognitive: Processing Speed and Aging
 
In relation to fluid and crystallized ability intelligence theory, processing speed and aging seeks to explain why fluid ability declines with age.
 
Timothy Salthouse proposed that the decline is the result of our processing speed for cognitive processes slowing down as we age. He states that this is related to two mechanisms of impaired performance:
  • The limited-time mechanism – The time to perform later cognitive processes is restricted when a large proportion of the available time is given to earlier cognitive processing
  • The simultaneity mechanism – Earlier cognitive processing may be lost by the time later cognitive processing is completed
 
Salthouse found that nearly 75% of age-related variance in cognitive processing was shared with measures of cognitive speed, which is incredible support for his theory. Although it is not exactly classed as one of the theories of intelligence, it does go a long way to explain why intelligence changes as we age.
 
Cognitive-contextual: Piaget’s Stage Theory of Development
 
This theory of intelligence is essentially related to child development. Piaget posed that there are four stages of intellectual development. The theory suggests that the child assimilates to different environments by using different methods of thinking about the world.
 
The child will eventually find a mismatch between their environment and their ways of thinking, encouraging them to create new and more advanced ways of thinking to adapt.
 
Sensorimotor stage (Birth to 2 years old)
 
In this stage, children understand their environment through sensation and motor operations. By the end of this stage, children will understand that objects continue to exist when out of sight, otherwise known as object permanence. They will also remember things and imagine ideas or experiences, also known as mental representation. Mental representation allows for the development of language skills to begin.
 
Preoperational stage (2 to 6 years old)
 
During this stage, children can use symbolic thinking and language to understand and communicate with the world. Imagination develops and flourishes during this stage and the child begins to take an egocentric position. They will see others and only be able to view their actions in light of their own perspective.
 
However, at the end of this stage, they will begin to understand the points of view of others. By the end of this stage, children will also be able to start reasoning about things in a logical manner.
Concrete operational stage (7 to 11 years old)
 
It is at this stage when children begin to apply logical operations and specific experiences or perceptions of their environment. They will begin to learn about conservation, classification, and numbering. They will also begin to appreciate that most questions have logical and correct answers which they can find by reasoning.
 
Formal operational state (12 years old and onwards)
 
At the final stage, children begin to think about abstract or hypothetical questions and ideas. They no longer need to use the objects involved in a question to answer it. More abstract topics, such as philosophy and ethics, become much more interesting as their personalities really begin to develop.
 
Biological: Brain Size
 
Many theories in psychology have addressed the connection between the size of the brain and the level of intelligence. It is clear that there is a relation between the two, however, there is no clear relationship. There are also theories of intelligence which state that genetics is a greater factor than brain size, but research is still being conducted.
 
With a huge number of theories of intelligence in psychology, it is impossible to cram them all into a single article. These four theories are my favorite, but there are so many others to look into what you may prefer. Intelligence is a mystery, but seeking to understand it is how we learn.
 
 
References:

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  2. https://faculty.virginia.edu

 
 
 

Francesca Forsythe





 

About the Author: Francesca Forsythe

Francesca is a freelance writer currently studying a degree in Law and Philosophy. She has written for several blogs in a range of subjects across Lifestyle, Relationships and Health and Fitness. Her main pursuits are learning new innovative ways of keeping fit and healthy, as well as broadening her knowledge in as many areas as possible in order to achieve success.
 
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 
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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


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publicado por achama às 08:27
Domingo, 23 / 02 / 20

The Last Words of Stephen Hawking Addressed to Humanity

 

The Last Words of Stephen Hawking Addressed to Humanity.

Sherrie Hurd.

learning-mind.com

Posted February 22nd, 2020.

 
 
 
 
For those who haven’t read Stephen Hawking’s latest and final book, I’m here to share his last words and a few of his ideas about humanity.
 
Words from one of the earth’s greatest minds still astound us. Stephen Hawking’s last book, Brief Answers to the Big Questions was published by The Sunday Times right before his death in March of 2018.
 
 
It brings us a collection of essays that tackle some of the deepest questions we may muse about every day. After Stephen Hawking’s death and the publication of his book, many people are still astounded by the words of this genius.
The big questions
 
Some of the biggest questions are discussed in his books – questions like whether we are really alone in this universe, including the existence of God, and many questions about artificial intelligence, and our future as we move forward in this area.
 
One of is main concerns is humanity itself and how long we shall survive on our planet. Hawking believes within 1000 years, either a nuclear or environmental disaster will affect the earth, but maybe humans will be able to leave the earth and survive. However, he believes we shall have many other obstacles to encounter long before the end of our planet.
 
Hawking sees the rise of artificial intelligence as a real possible threat, and definitely the threat of asteroids, which can also destroy many regions of the world.
Engineered DNA
 
One of the lesser talked about subjects is about “Superhumans” created by the CRISPR-cas9, a gene-editing tool. It seems we’ve skipped Darwinian evolution, and went straight to engineering ourselves, improving our own DNA. It stands to wonder what will happen to those who are not “superhumans”.
 
 
“There is no time to wait for Darwinian evolution to make us more intelligent and better natured. Humans are now entering a new phase of what might be called self-designed evolution, in which we will be able to change and improve our DNA,” Hawking writes.
 
Hawking figured that those who aren’t “gifted” with this superhuman DNA, will either die out or become unimportant. The intelligence altered humans will span out and populate other areas of the universe.
 
Stephen Hawking’s thoughts on God
 
Clearly, Hawking doesn’t believe in a God of the universe, unless, of course, if this God is considered science. Hawking is an atheist and also included in Westminster Abbey in Science Corner with the likes of Newton and Darwin.
 
Of course, Hawking had many ideas for climate change as well. He believed thatfusion power is the answer. It’s clean energy which can be used to power electric cars. This energy source could be used without causing global warming. It wouldn’t become a culprit of pollution either.
 
The future of humanity
 
While one of our greatest minds may be passed on, his beliefs and ideas about our future seem to be falling into place already. Who knows how close his predictions for humanity will be. Thanks to many great minds, like Stephen Hawking, we get a glimpse into the future and a look at what we may become.
 
Thank you, sir, for sharing your intelligence with the rest of us.
 
 

 

Sherrie Hurd



Image credit: Stephen Hawking is giving a lecture for NASA’s 50th anniversary/NASA

 

 

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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


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publicado por achama às 04:39
Domingo, 23 / 02 / 20

4 Time Travel Theories and the Physics Behind Them.

4 Time Travel Theories and the Physics Behind Them.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

February 22nd, 2020.

 
time travel theories.
 
 
 
Time travel has been the subject of many science-fiction books and films for the last few decades. But is it possible? Are there any time travel theories that could actually work?
Understanding Time Travel
 
We are all time travellers. That is to say, we all travel through time. We travel at the same time as each other; one hour per hour, and moving forward in a straight line, towards the future.
 
 
But what if we could speed up or slow down time? What if we could visit the past? Take a sneak peek into the future? What if we could really time travel? Some think the concept of time travel is promising.
 
Before we examine time travel theories, we should first visit Albert Einstein’sexplanation of time.
 
Einstein, Space and Time
 
The majority of people view time as a constant, linear construct. One that moves forward at a regular pace. After all, we organise our lives around a 24-hour clock, a 12-month calendar, and so on.
 
However, Einstein showed that time can change, depending on your position in space. Space is the three dimensions we inhabit; length, width and height. We use these dimensions to pinpoint our location.
 
Imagine you are walking to work. The space you inhabit includes the length of the road, the width of a path and the height of buildings around you. But there is another dimension and that’s time. Time is the fourth dimension which shows our direction, which is always moving forward.
 
Now, Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity proposes that time does not pass at the same rate for everyone. It varies depending on your particular position through space. For example, whether you are an observer or travelling yourself. Time can speed up or slow down depending on how fast you are moving in relation to another object.
 
Now we know that time does not remain the same for everyone, it is conceivable that there are plausible theories of time travel.
 
In fact, all astronauts are time travelling as we speak. This is because you move faster in space through time than you do on earth. Which leads us onto the first theory of time travel:
 
4 Time Travel Theories
 
Travelling at the Speed of Light
 
Experts have calculated the speed of light at 186,282 miles per second. This equates to 299,792 kilometres per second or an incredible 670,616,629 mph.
 
In theory, there is nothing that travels faster than light. But if we turn to Einstein’s special theory again, we know that time is not a single construct for everyone. Time passes at different speeds depending on the observer, their motion and the speed.
 
British Professor Brian Cox explains that the closer we get to the speed of light, the more time slows down. It’s all to do with how fast we go in relation to those who are standing still. Time slows down but only for the object that is moving.
 
 
“If you go fast, your clock runs slow relative to people who are still. As you approach the speed of light, your clock runs so slow you could come back 10,000 years in the future.” Prof Brian Cox
Build A Faster-Than-Light Machine
 
So how can we travel backwards or forwards in time? Using the ‘speed of light’ time travel theory, building a Faster-Than-Light (FTL) Machine is the way to go. It would have to be the fastest ever man-made spaceship as it would need to travel at over 670 million mph.
 
As a reference, the fastest NASA has ever managed to produce is the Helios 2 space probe. This blasted off in 1976 and got up to 160,000 mph when in space.
 
However, if we did manage to build a spacecraft capable of faster-than-light speeds, the consequences to time and our ages would be incredibly interesting. For instance, even if we didn’t manage to travel at the top speed of light, at 99%, every year spent on the FTL spacecraft would result in seven years back on earth. At 99.999%, this increases to one year on the spacecraft to 223 back on earth.
 
In fact, some experts believe that we could reverse time if we actually manage to travel at the speed of light. Unfortunately, Einstein states that anything with a mass cannot physically reach the speed of light, let alone pass it.
 
Still, if we can’t travel faster than the speed of light, are there other theories that don’t involve speed but suggest time travel is plausible?
 
Warp Drives
 
How often have we heard Captain Kirk or Picard instructing their engineers to set engines to warp drive on Star Trek? But as so many sci-fi programmes start off, so do scientists take over.
 
Experts are now saying that warp drive could be possible, and it’s all to do with stretching the fabric of space-time. Imagine space is a large piece of material. On the material are the planets, stars, constellations, galaxies etc. One way to time travel would be to move space around the object travelling.
 
This is the Alcubierre Drive. Our spaceship pushes up the fabric of space in front of the ship. This causes the fabric to contract at the front and expand at the back. The ship rides this bubble of space-time which is constantly contracting and expanding. But it’s not violating the laws of physics as it is not travelling faster than light.
 
As with all of our time travel theories, there are some problems, and these are pretty big ones at that. Early estimates of the energy required to power a spaceship just 200m wide came out at billions x the mass of the observable universe. Now scientists have refined this estimate to the equivalent mass of Jupiter, but it’s still woefully unachievable.
 
We also don’t know how to stop the bubble once we arrive at our destination.
 
Cosmic strings
 
Speaking about the fabric of the universe, perhaps the way the universe formedcan assist our quest for time travel? Astrophysicist at Princeton University J. Richard Gott certainly thinks so. In 1991, he proposed the idea of Cosmic Strings.
 
These strings are present throughout the universe. They resemble string-like phenomenon and are described as ‘cracks in the universe’.
 
Gott explains them as:
 
“Cosmic strings are either infinite or they’re in loops, with no ends. So they are either like spaghetti or Spaghetti Os.” J. Richard Gott
 
Cosmic strings are everywhere in the universe. They are similar to black holes in that they’re under tremendous pressure. This means they have a significant gravitational pull, and warp the space around them, just like black holes.
 
But whereas black holes crush everything they pull inside, cosmic strings could enable an object to attach onto it and fly through space at amazing speeds.
 
“The approach of two such strings parallel to each other, will bend space-time so vigorously and in such a particular configuration that might make time travel possible – in theory,” Gott interviewed for Live Science.
 
Even so, this is just one of many theories of time travel. Because as yet, no cosmic strings have ever been discovered.
Final Thoughts
 
All of these theories show that time travel is either outlandishly impossible, not proven or will require unheard amounts of energy. So should we still be pursuing time travel? Or, with the recent climate change problems on earth, perhaps our resources would be better spent here on this planet?
 
I’ll leave the last word to Joseph Agnew – an undergraduate engineer and research assistant from the University of Alabama (PRC). He’s currently working on the theory of time travel via warp drive:
 
“In terms of justifications for allocation of resources, it is not hard to see that the ability to explore beyond our Solar System, even beyond our Galaxy, would be an enormous leap for mankind. And the growth in technology resulting from pushing the bounds of research would certainly be beneficial.” Joseph Agnew
 
References:
 
 
 
Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 04:13
Sexta-feira, 21 / 02 / 20

Brain and Emotions: How Anger, Fear or Love Work in Your Brain

Brain and Emotions: 

How Anger, Fear or Love Work in Your Brain

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted February 21st, 2020.

 
brain and emotions.

 
 
 
The human brain is incredibly complex. Neuroscientists are still uncovering hidden depths to this intriguing organ. and there is still a lot that we don’t know about it. However, what we do know about the brain, and the part of it that deals with recognizing and controlling your body’s reaction to emotions is incredibly fascinating.
 
In this post, we look at our brain and emotions and what different reactions occur in our heads when we feel anger, fear or love.
 
Why do we have emotions?
 
When it comes to discussing the way our brain processes emotions, a helpful starting point is looking at why we have emotions in the first place. Essentially, emotions help us to survive and exist thanks to evolution. They act as triggers to help us to react to situations that may cause us harm.
 
Feeling anger triggers a response of being ready to fight. When we feel fear, we try to get ourselves out of the situation we’re in. On the other hand, feeling happiness can motivate us to pursue the activity that made us feel like that.
 
Which area of the brain controls emotions?
 
The main area of the brain that is involved with emotions is called the limbic system. It is also responsible for our memories and arousal. All parts of the limbic system are connected through a variety of neural pathways. This part of the brain is what enables us to react to situations when we feel a certain way.
 
The limbic system, therefore, is the part of the brain that is thought to control our emotions and the brain functions that coincide with them. It is said to consist of four main parts:
  • Hypothalamus: this part of the limbic system is responsible for regulating our body temperature, releasing hormones, and plays a key part in our emotions and our sex drive.
  • Amygdala: the amygdala is what helps us to respond to emotions including anger, fear, sadness in order to protect us. The amygdala also retains memories of emotions experienced and when they occurred. This helps us to prepare when similar experiences happen in the future.
  • Thalamus: the thalamus is where we detect and respond to our senses and is linked with the cerebrum which is where thinking and movement are triggered.
  • Hippocampus: the hippocampus plays a key part in our retention and retrieval of memories.
 
Which part of the brain controls fear?
 
The emotion of fear is an evolutionary response that helps us to survive. While most of us are no longer living in the wild we still need to feel fear to keep ourselves safe. Fear triggers a chain reaction and involves multiple parts of the brain.
 
First of all, your thalamus uses sensory data to pick up on what you are witnessing/experiencing. This then passes through the sensory cortex which interprets the data and your hippocampus draws on memories to establish the context and how the body needs to react. Your amygdala then decodes these emotions and establishes whether a threat has occurred, this then stimulates the hypothalamus.
 
The hypothalamus then triggers what many of us know as the ‘fight or flight’ response. When you feel fear, you will often find that you have a physical reaction. This could be your hair standing on end and your heart pumping in your chest. This is triggered by the hypothalamus and gets you ready to react.
 
Which part of the brain controls anger?
 
When it comes to anger and the brain, the process is not dissimilar to that of fear. In fact, the fight or flight response triggered by the hypothalamus is what causes us to be angry and can be our response to feeling fear.
 
 
The thalamus recognizes the potential threat, your amygdala produces your emotional response and stimulates the hypothalamus which initiates your physical response. It is also thought that the prefrontal cortex can impact our ability to regulate anger and put the brakes on when we feel ourselves getting fired up.
 
Which part of the brain controls love?
 
While love is a favorable emotion to feel, we can all admit that it is accompanied by some pretty unpleasant emotions. Nerves and excitement are both physical responses we feel when we see someone we love. These are triggered by the hypothalamus, which releases a mixture of hormones that are associated with the reward circuit. These produce reactions such as sweaty hands, pink cheeks, a racing heart, as well as feelings of anxiety and passion.
 
When we are in love, our brain also produces the chemical dopamine. This is what makes love a desirable experience. The other hormones our brain produces when we experience romantic love are oxytocin (triggered by skin-to-skin contact), which encourages attachment and vasopressin, which is connected with social bonding.
 
Oxytocin is known as the ‘love hormone’ as it triggers feelings of security, calmness, and contentment that help us to feel connected with a potential mate.
 
Emotional processing is a complex field. How our brain deals with emotions is far beyond the scope of this article. The incredibly complicated chemical processes that are occurring in your brain when you experience certain emotions are fascinating.
 
It can help you to understand why your body reacts in a certain way. As well as how our emotions are trying to protect us. We hope we’ve whetted your appetite and that this marks the beginning of a fascination with neuroscience!
 
 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


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publicado por achama às 20:53
Domingo, 16 / 02 / 20

Mirror-Touch Synesthesia: the Extreme Version of Empathy

Mirror-Touch Synesthesia: 

The Extreme Version of Empathy.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

February 14th, 2020.

 
mirror-touch synesthesia.
 


 
 
When a person says ‘I feel your pain,’ you take it to mean emotionally, not physically. But people that suffer from mirror-touch synesthesia feel exactly that; other people’s physical pain.
What Is Mirror-Touch Synesthesia?
 
The Condition of Synesthesia
 
Before we discuss this strange condition, let’s get some background on the basics of synesthesia.
 
The word ‘synesthesia’ comes from Greek and means ‘joined perception’. It’s a condition whereby one sense, such as seeing or hearing, triggers another overlapping sense. People with synesthesia are able to perceive the world through multiple senses.
 
For instance, those with synesthesia experience seeing music as colourful swirls. Or they might associate letters or numbers with different colours. Smells are linked to colours or sounds.
 
Mirror-Touch Synesthesia
 
It is a condition whereby the sufferer feels the sensations another person is experiencing. It’s called mirror-touch because the feelings occur on the opposite side of the body; as if you’re looking in a mirror.
 
For example, if I were to stroke the palm of my left hand, a sensation would occur on the sufferer’s right palm. Sights and sounds trigger feelings that can be painful or pleasurable.
 
Mirror-touch synesthesia is incredibly rare. It occurs in just 2% of the world’s population. Experts have described it as ‘an extreme form of empathy’. This is because the sufferer feels exactly what the other person is experiencing on and in their own body.
 
Meet Dr. Joel Salinas – the doctor who can feel your pain
 
One person that knows all about mirror-touch synesthesia is Dr. Joel Salinas. This doctor is a Harvard neurologist and a clinical researcher at Massachusetts University. He comes into contact with sick and ailing patients on a daily basis. But it’s not just their pain and discomfort he feels.
 
Dr. Salinas describes the pressure on the bridge of his nose as he watches someone walk past wearing glasses. The sensation of vinyl against the backs of his legs as he glances at a woman seated on a plastic chair in the waiting room. How her hat fits snugly around his head. The way his hip automatically contracts to mimic a volunteer shifting from one leg to another while taking a break from pushing a wheelchair.
 
“Through mirror-touch synesthesia, my body physically feels the experiences I see others have.” Dr. Joel Salinas
 
What Causes Mirror-Touch Synesthesia?
 
Experts believe it’s all to do with neurons and the part of our brain which is responsible for forward-thinking and planning. For instance, I look at my coffee and want to drink some of it. The neurons in my premotor cortex spring into action. This prompts me to reach out and take the cup.
 
Scientists in Italy discovered something interesting whilst researching macaque monkeys and neurons in the premotor cortex. They noticed high activity in this part of the brain when the monkeys reached to take an object, but also when they observed another monkey reaching out for an object. They called these particular neurons ‘mirror-touch’ neurons.
 
I find this all pretty incredible; it’s almost like a superpower built into our brains. But more importantly, it suggests a deeper connection between us.
 
What’s It Like to Experience This Type of Synesthesia?
 
People with mirror-touch synesthesia can have very different experiences. For some, it can be incredibly intense and disturbing. In fact, it’s not uncommon to hear this condition described as: “shocking electricity – like bolts of fire.”
 
One woman referred to a particularly distressing incident as: “It was a moment of trauma for me.” Another talks about his partner and how exhausted she felt on a daily basis: “Sometimes after being out in the world with everyone else’s feelings pulsing through her body, she’d come home and just pass out.”
 
Of course, we cannot forget there are also good feelings as well as bad. Moreover, some people with this condition seem able to focus on positive experiences.
 
One woman talks about the sense of freedom she goes through: “When I watch a bird in the sky, I feel like I’m flying. That’s a joy.” Another recalls the pleasure he senses: “When I see people hug, I feel like my body is getting hugged.”
 
Is Mirror-Touch Synesthesia a More Extreme Form of Empathy?
 
For some people, having this condition could be seen as a benefit. Certainly in Dr. Salinas’ view, it is.
 
“It is up to me to reason through that experience so that I can then respond to my patients from a truer, more enduring place of compassion and kindness. Or, I can respond with whatever else is needed: Sometimes that means prescribing a medication.” Dr. Salinas
 
However, anyone with empathic traits will know just how exhausting it can be. Putting yourself in another’s person’s situation and feeling their emotions is physically draining in its self. Regardless of actually physically experiencing pain or discomfort, empaths have a hard enough time as it is.
 
Final Thoughts
 
Dr. Salinas believes there are good reasons for some of us to be able to feel what others feel. And it’s all about curiosity and understanding another person.
 
“Being curious about where another human being is coming from, and wondering why they might think, feel, or do what they do.”
 
Because it’s the fear of the unknown that can lead to prejudice, radicalisation, stereotyping minority groups and hate crimes. Surely, the more we know about a person, the better for all of society.
 
 
References:
  1. www.bbc.co.uk
  2. www.vice.com
  3. www.sciencedirect.com
  4. www.theguardian.com
 

 

 
Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 02:49
Domingo, 09 / 02 / 20

Spiral of Silence Theory Explains Why You’d Rather Stay Quiet.

Spiral of Silence Theory Explains Why You’d Rather Stay Quiet.

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted February 8th, 2020.

 
spiral of silence theory.

 


 
 
 
During the 1970s, Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann, a German political scientist, developed the spiral of silence theory. Working in the context of post-World War Two Germany, Noelle-Neumann coined the theory. She sought to explain why individuals choose to remain silent when they believe their view isn’t held by the majority.
 
In this post, we look at how the spiral of silence can explain human behavior. We will also consider whether or not the theory is still relevant today.
 
Spiral of silence theory explained
 
The theory was coined by Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann in 1974. It was partly designed in an attempt to explain the lack of resistance to the Nazi regime. The idea of the spiral of silence suggests that people remain silent when they think their views are different from majority viewpoints.
 
According to the theory, this unwillingness to speak out is due to fear of social isolation. It is also due to the expected negative consequences of going against the perceived status quo. On the other hand, those confident their beliefs and opinions meet ‘public opinion’ can voice their thoughts without fear. This also perpetuates the silencing effect on those in the minority.
 
We are all able to determine what the prevailing ‘public opinion’ actually is, according to the theory. In Noelle-Neumann’s words, we all have a ‘quasi statistical sense’ of whether our own opinions are either popular or unpopular. This is based on the cues we have had from the mass media and our environment. In other words, we have a ‘sixth sense’ of the popular public consensus on a range of issues.
 
The spiral effect begins to occur as those who feel validated about their beliefs become more and more vocal. Concurrently, those in the minority lose confidence in expressing their opinions. This loss of confidence is built on the fear of rejection and subsequent social isolation.
 
As a result, the minority are silenced. In this way, predominating public opinion is seen as a form of social control in the spiral of silence theory.
 
Research into the theory
 
Since the theory of the spiral of silence was developed, there have been numerous studies that have tested it. These studies have sought to either prove or disprove its legitimacy. The majority of these studies have focused on the effect of the theory in political environments.
 
Most recently, a meta-analysis conducted by Matthes et al (2017) revisited the theory and the effect of the spiral of silence on either restricting or enabling the expression of political opinions. They analyzed 66 studies exploring this topic which collectively contained 27,000 participants.
 
The analysis found that there was a significant positive relationship between one’s perception of the prevailing opinion and the subsequent suppression of their own opinions. This was seen to be particularly acute when amongst family, friends, and neighbors.
 
Despite this result, there are critics of the theory. Some have criticized the assumption that we all have an in-built understanding of what the prevailing climate of opinion is, and whether there can actually be something that can be defined as such.
 
Others have questioned the theoretical underpinning that fear of isolation is a strong enough deterrent for silencing a minority opinion. There have also been criticisms of the theory’s failure to take into account cross-cultural differences. Others have noted that the nature of the issue itself can impact on the spiral of silence effect.
 
How relevant is the spiral of silence today?
 
With the rise of alternative online media channels and social media, critics of the spiral of silence are suggesting that the theory is no longer relevant. The theory was proposed pre-internet and was based on a mass-media that was relatively uniform.
 
Today, the mainstream media often follows the same trajectory. However, the internet has provided people the opportunity to seek alternative opinions. It has also given voice to those who have previously been disadvantaged by unequal power relations.
 
If an individual does not wish to publicly express their opinion amongst friends, family, or colleagues they may well do so anonymously via the internet. This is sometimes known as the online disinhibition effect. This itself creates its own spiral effect.
 
However, within this context, a minority opinion may no longer be felt as such. This is due to the fact that the World Wide Web enables the participation of many within the political domain.
 
The birth of the internet, therefore, has shifted the conversation around the spiral of silence into a new trajectory. While some believe the theory has had its day, others still see the theoretical concept as a useful means of exploring behavior.
 
Using it as a starting point for many studies into whether a climate of opinion can still be said to exist, and how this affects our willingness to speak out about controversial opinions that we deem to go against the grain.
Does it ring true for you?
 
The spiral of silence, therefore, may have struck a chord with your own behavior and responses. Ever felt silenced during a political conversation? Fear of isolation or rejection is certainly something we can all relate to.
 
So, while the spiral of silence theory may need some modern re-jigging, as a concept, it can certainly serve to explain those occasions where we ponder about what we could have said, only when it is too late to say it.
 
 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


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publicado por achama às 03:25
Sábado, 08 / 02 / 20

Dunbar’s Number or Why Most of Your Social Connections Are Not Your Friends

Dunbar’s Number or Why Most of Your Social Connections Are Not Your Friends.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

February 7th, 2020.

 
Dunbar’s Number.
 
 
 
Have you heard of Dunbar’s number? My sister certainly has. Years ago, when her new neighbour asked her if she wanted to pop round for a coffee, she said: “No thanks, I’ve got enough friends.”
 
Now, before you start judging my sis for being unnecessarily blunt, she does have a point. And that’s where Dunbar’s number comes in. You see, it suggests that a person can only maintain a maximum of 150 social connections at once. So why is this and where does the idea come from?
 
The Origin of Dunbar’s Number
 
Robin Dunbar is a British anthropologist and an evolutionary psychologist. Back in the 1990s, he was interested in the number of social connections a person could have.
 
For instance, how many people do we know; how many do we actually care about and is there a common link to this number? Do some people have more connections, others less? Now, remember, this was the 90s so well before social media and ‘likes’ and ‘friends’ and all of that.
 
Dunbar began his research by examining the patterns of sending Christmas cards.
Dunbar and the Christmas Card List
 
Sending cards at Christmas seems fairly innocuous, but there is a certain amount of investment involved. You make the list of people, you choose and buy the cards, the stamps, and you look up the addresses. Then you write them all out and post them. It all takes time and effort. Dunbar reckoned that most of us would not go to all this trouble and effort for just anyone.
 
After collecting data from thousands of households, Dunbar found a remarkable coincidence. Of every household he collected data from, the average number of cards sent was always around 150. There was also a fairly unanimous split in who the cards went to. For example, around a quarter were sent to close relatives, two-thirds to friends and the remaining small percentage to colleagues.
 
But why did the number 150 keep cropping up? It was a mystery. Dunbar carried on researching. But this time he turned his attention to primates and social groups.
Why Is Dunbar’s Number 150?
 
Dunbar discovered a link between a primate’s brain and the size of their social groups. Specifically, their brain mass and the primate’s preferred group sizes. He looked at different primate species and catalogued social activity.
 
In particular, time spent grooming (the equivalent of socialising for humans), the size of the neocortex (the area of the brain related to language and cognition) and group size. He found that in primates, the smaller the size of the brain, the smaller the size of the groups were formed. As brain mass increased, so did group size.
 
 
Dunbar proposed that brain size was the overriding factor in deciding the number of social connections a primate could successfully manage. Dunbar then collected data across all primate species, including humans.
 
He proposed that humans can only comfortably maintain 150 social connections. Larger numbers require stricter social rules and larger neocortical processing capacity.
So what exactly does Dunbar mean by 150 and social connections?
 
Dunbar characterises the number 150 as:
 
 
“..the number of people you would not feel embarrassed about joining uninvited for a drink if you happened to bump into them in a bar.”
 
There is strong evidence, throughout history, that shows 150 is an average size for social groups. Indeed, it is the optimum number for a group. For when numbers start to exceed this size things tend to collapse or fail to function effectively.
Dunbar’s Number applies to many social groups
 
Even our earliest ancestors, the cave-dwellers, the hunter-gatherers, lived in groups consisting, on average, of 150 people. The earliest villages consisted of around 150 people. From African tribes to Roman legions, we are always drawn back to this magic number of 150.
 
Perhaps stranger still, Dunbar and his magic number of 150 can be seen in many other aspects of human social groups, not just our personal lives. For example, offices, campsites, hotels, military organisations, even book-clubs. Indeed, research proves time and time again that if numbers exceed 150 the group fails.
150 only applies to primates and humans
 
So why 150? It appears that 150 is the prime number for evolutionary survival. Primates, in particular, live in social groups, and this helps them to survive. In our ancestor’s time, humans were prey, not predators. We didn’t have sharp teeth, razor-like claws or strong muscles.
 
 
Whereas it suited other predators to hunt alone, for humans to stay alive, we needed to form groups. We used our shared knowledge and cunning. We planned and formulated ways of attack. For us, staying in strong, social groups was a matter, literally, of survival.
 
Now, look at other animals. For instance, the tiger, a predator at the top of the food chain, or a penguin, prey and near the bottom. Tigers are solitary animals. They survive without the need of a group and therefore hunt alone.
 
On the other hand, penguins are at risk from many predators, including extreme weather conditions. As a result, it is in their best interest to form huge groups. In fact, some of the largest penguin colonies have consisted of up to 180,000 to 200,000 birds.
 
Of course, tigers and penguins are very different from primates and humans. Penguins may form groups but they are not social in the way that human groups are. For the penguins, it is all about staying alive. For humans, it is more about emotional, psychological and spiritual connections.
 
And this is where it gets interesting. Because it takes a lot of effort to maintain all this emotion, and our brain can only manage so much. However, have we changed in the 21st century?
Has Social Media Changed Dunbar’s Number?
 
Now, in today’s society, there is nothing unusual for a person to have hundreds, if not thousands of friends on Facebook. So is it possible that Dunbar’s number no longer applies in our modern world?
 
Dunbar first proposed the number 150 in the 1990s. The 2020s is a very different place. We communicate online. We meet for the first time online. We date online. Surely, Dunbar’s number must have increased a little to keep up with our modern society?
 
 
I mean, this doesn’t make sense for a modern age. People communicate in seconds across the globe. Our social reach has expanded as our grasp of technology has stretched our imaginations. Also, I would have thought that our brain capacity would have increased substantially since our ancestors first set up villages over 250,000 years ago.
 
Well, not really. And that’s because it is all to do with our emotional capacity.
 
 
“It is as though we each have a limited amount of social capital and we can choose to invest it thinly in more people, or thickly in fewer people. But you can’t exceed these limits.” Dunbar
 
So what do these social connections look like? Dunbar arranges them in ever-decreasing circles. Our closest friends are in our inner circle and our acquaintances are in the furthest circle.
Most people, on average, have:
5 loved ones
15 best friends
50 good friends
150 meaningful contacts
500 acquaintances
1500 people you recognise
 
So we may know thousands of people, but Dunbar states that the 150 number is the important cut-off.
 
 
“The 150 layer is the important one: this defines the people you have real reciprocated relationships with, those where you feel obligations and would willingly do favours.” Dunbar
 
Because humans are complex creatures, maintaining these relationships take effort and time. And that’s why we only have the capacity for 150 social connections.
 
Of course, people move in and out of our lives at any given point. There are also huge differences between the social connections of an extrovert and an introvert. An extrovert may have a larger social network. However, they tend to spread themselves out thinly across a wide network of people. Introverts have a smaller social pool of contacts. But they like to spend more quality time with a few special friends.
 
 
There are also interesting differences between the genders. For example, men have a wider spread of contacts throughout their social circles. Whereas women have more contacts within their inner circles.
Final Thoughts
 
So is there really any advantage to knowing that humans have a limited capacity for maintaining social connections? Well, I think so yes. I realise it is all about time and effort. If we only have space for 150 connections then we should make sure those connected to us are worth the effort, and that we make the effort to preserve them.
 
Oh, and my sister? She did pop round for that coffee after all. They’ve been good friends ever since.
References:
  1. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  2. www.forbes.com
  3. www.bbc.com
 

 

 
Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


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Discernment is recommended.
 

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publicado por achama às 02:45
Sexta-feira, 31 / 01 / 20

The Friendship Paradox Reveals the Weird Reason You Are Less Popular Than Your Friends

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted January 30th, 2020.

 
friendship paradox.

 
 
 
Have you ever noticed that the people you hang out with always seem to be more popular than you? Whether it’s down at the gym, on social media, or even at work, it is common for people to notice that their friends seem fitter, more popular, and more successful. According to researchers in the field of social networks, this is due to something known as the friendship paradox. But what is this paradox and why does it make it seem like we are less popular than our friends?
 
In this post, we’ll explore the reasons the friendship paradox exists, the different ways it manifests itself, and why you don’t need to worry about this strange phenomenon.
 
What is the friendship paradox?
 
According to the sociologist of social networks Scott Feld, the reason our friends are likely to be more popular than we are is simply down to maths and sampling. He found that, if you were to ask someone who their friends were and then met the friends of that person and asked them the same question, then, on average, you would find that the friends are better connected than that first person.
 
This is perhaps most apparent on social networks online where our behavior affects our self-image greatly, with one study finding 98% of Twitter followers following people were being followed by more people than them.
 
The friendship paradox also has wide-ranging effectsbeyond the internet and friendship circles and can potentially be used to explain why people you see in the gym are always much fitter than you, or noticing that your sexual partners are typically more experienced than you are. Indeed, a new study has found that this paradox may hold for additional characteristics, such as income, happiness, and sexual partners.
 
Effectively, the friendship paradox stems from a sampling bias built on the fact that people with more friends tend to be observed more by their friends. Equally, if you take the gym example, the reason everyone at the gym seems fitter than you is because they spend more time there.
 
When it comes to sexual partners, people who are actively dating are more likely to be sexually active with more people. When it comes to income, only certain friends can afford to do certain activities, bringing in higher earners to social networks and making the activities they do more noticeable. This broader phenomenon is sometimes called the “Generalized Friendship Paradox”.
Why does it exist?
 
As Scott Feld explained the concept, the reason the friendship paradox exists is because of maths and sampling. Whilst everyone’s friendship group might be different, everyone’s sample is always likely to be skewed. This will tend towards your friends being likely to be more popular than you are on average. This is due to the fact that within any friendship group, people with more friends are more likely to be in the sample.
 
The simple act of taking a sample of friends inevitably leads to something known as a biased sample in statistics. Namely, this is due to the fact that those without connections and with less friends are less likely to be included in the sample. People can also be double-counted across the network. This leads to a situation where the majority of people have fewer friends that only the most popular within their network.
 
Samples can also be majorly skewed with the existence of particularly popular friends. If you happen to be connected with Barack Obama, who has the most Twitter followers of anybody with over 112 million, then your network will have its average popularity increase compared to the general population.
 
By virtue of their appearance in multiple networks, connections feed into the friendship paradox that makes us all feel less popular than our own personal network.
 
Why you don’t need to worry about the friendship paradox
 
The concept of the friendship paradox can all seem quite depressing. The fact that science seems to back up the findings beyond basic friendships, can make things seem even worse. However, there is no need to despair because the phenomenon doesn’t necessarily drop off as you move up the social pyramid. It is down to the natural result of social connections through networks.
 
Take, for example, the aforementioned twitter study which found 98% of users followed accounts followed by more people than themselves. This study actually found that even the top 0.5 percent of Twitter users fell into the friendship paradox.
 
This is because they found that those who have more followers also tended towards following people with more influence and activity than they themselves mustered. That’s why too much social media could be secretly making you feel bad.
 
This all means that feeling down when comparing yourself to your friends is futile. Indeed, the more we compare ourselves to others, be it on social media or in our daily lives, the more likely we are to come up against this phenomenon.
 
It is a statistical reality that, on average, the people in our social networks will be getting more of whatever lens we look through. As such we either have to accept and embrace that fact or avoid seeking comparisons within a network that is likely to leave you feeling blue.
 
 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


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Discernment is recommended.
 

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publicado por achama às 03:56
Domingo, 26 / 01 / 20

Spectacular Super Snow Moon Phenomenon Not to Miss This February

Sherrie Hurd.

learning-mind.com

Posted January 25th, 2020.

 
 

 
The celestial beauty of the heavens wouldn’t be complete without the allure of the Super snow moon in February. You don’t want to miss it!
 
Ever since I was a small child, I would gaze into the heavens in amazement. I would reach up and try to grasp the stars in my hand. Also, I would trace the moon with my finger and yes, I did imagine the craters as little indentions on cheese.
 
 
My imagination was fueled by the beauty of the skies. I even heard the story of the man in the moon. If I looked close enough, I could make out his features. But it would be years before I learned the names of the moons according to the months, including the supermoon coming as 2020’s February full moon.
 
What Is the Super Snow Moon?
 
On February 9, 2020, our full moon will rise and be known by many people as the super snow moon. It will be bright, and illuminate deep snowfall in some areas of the world, hence the name.
 
It will also be at its perigee, meaning it will be larger than usual, this is where the “super” part of the title applies. To me, this special full moon will add warm feelings to this darkened cold and sometimes heavy time of the year.
 
There’s another fascinating fact about the special February moon, as well. Every 19 years, it doesn’t exist. That’s right, after almost two decades of February full moons, both January and March have two full moons and February is void of this magic. It sounds kind of sad, but also extremely interesting. So, every now and then, we won’t see the super snow moon, so we should enjoy its beauty when we can.
 
But on the other hand, we witness a phenomenon called the dark moon, which is just as exciting as it is ominous. The wonders of the world never cease to amaze me.
 
Here’s a secret – not everyone calls the February full moon the super snow moon. No, not at all. This moon has many names, deriving from many areas around the world.
 
For instance, the English call this full moon, the “Wolf Moon”. From long ago both in Medieval England and among Pagans, this moon was called “the storm moon”. So, although the February full moon names have similarities, they are different from region to region. In the U.S., there are numerous names for this supermoon phenomenon.
 
Native American Origins
 
So, I guess you’re wondering why the February 9th full moon is called the super snow moon, aren’t you? Well, that is because according to weather reports and the farmer’s almanac, February receives the most snowfall in the United States. Now you can see the obvious correlation.
 
However, the native Americans had many names for this deep winter moon. These names varied according to the different tribes in the U.S.
 
Many names for the February full moon:
 
1. Wishram of the Pacific Northwest
 
The native people of the Pacific Northwest called the February moon the “Shoulder to shoulder around the Fire moon” because they literally had to sit tightly side by side around the fire to stay warm.
 
2. Cherokee of the Southeast
 
The Cherokee natives considered the full moon of February the “bone moon”. This name came about because of the scarcity of food during the deep winter. Usually, the majority of nutrition came from the marrow of bones or bone broth.
 
3. Lakota of the Southwest
 
The February supermoon was also called the “Moon when the trees crack because of the cold”. Wow! Can you imagine the deep cold that inspires such a name?
 
4. Arapaho in the Mid-West
 
Natives of this area called the February full moon, “Frost sparkling in the sun” because even though February is one of the coldest months in the U.S., the snow which covers many areas seems tosparkle under the moonlight as if it was light from the sun. When observed, this kind of beauty couldn’t possibly be easily forgotten.
 
There are many other notable Native American full moon names such as the “Coyote moon”originating from the Shoshone people’s story about fox and coyote both wanting to be the moon. It’s an interesting and fanciful story. Then there is the Cree who considered the February moon, “the old moon”.
 
The list goes on and on, with most names either representing the frigid cold or the lack of food for the native people. One of the most memorable ones is “the hunger moon” because it represents the simple fact that February was a month when everyone, even though they were starving, remained strong with whatever resources they had available.
 
But, I will say that the super snow moon remains a favorite, simply because it invokes a feeling of power. Now, that’s a much better way to look at this beautiful phenomenon.
 
So, when can you see the February super snow moon?
 
 
As with all the other magnificent full moons each month, the February moon shouldn’t be missed either. The moon will be at its fullest on Sunday, February 9, 2020, at 2:34 a.m. EST.
 
If you live in the U.S., this time or any hour close to this time may be a little late or too early for some. The alternative would be to view the fullest part of the full moon as late as you can on Saturday night.
 
Use these opportunities to get great images of the super snow moon. In fact, each month, don’t miss a capture of the full moon, compare them and notice changes in position, coloration, size, and beauty.
 
It’s been a while since I lay in the grass and stared up into the heavens, but I think I might wrap uptight and lay under the super snow moon for a while, careful not to fall asleep and freeze. After all, I’ve also heard this moon represents changes as well. We’ll see!
 

Sherrie Hurd

 

 

Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us. 

 

 

 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 18:59
Sexta-feira, 24 / 01 / 20

4 Examples of Sublimation That Demonstrate How It Works in Daily Life

Lauren Edwards-Fowle.

learning-mind.com

Posted January 23rd, 2020.

 
 
 
 
We all have thoughts and feelings which we know are ‘not okay’ by society’s standards. It’s a natural element of the human condition. What sets humans apart from animals is not a lack of animal impulses, but rather how we manage our animal impulses. One of the techniques we subconsciously use is sublimation. Following is a brief discussion of the theory and a set of examples of sublimation in progress, to help crystallise the concept in your minds.

The Theory of Sublimation

The concept of psychological sublimation finds its roots in the work of Sigmund Freud. Although his theories are contentious these days, there are some fascinating facets to his beliefs about the human mind.

Freud divided the human psyche into three distinct aspects. The Id, our ‘animal brain,’ is home to impulses and urges. The superego, which is the expression of society’s morality, engineers our behaviour to comply with morals, laws and expectations. Last but not least, the ego, which continually works to find the balance between the two.

One of the ways in which the ego balances out the Id’s impulses and the superego’s lofty ideals is through a set of defence mechanisms. These include repression, reaction formation, projection, denial, regression, intellectualisation, rationalisation, displacement and, you guessed it, sublimation.

What Is Sublimation?

But what is sublimation? In essence, it’s the phasing of one thing into another. In chemistry, it’s the transformation of a solid into a gas, in psychology it’s the channelling of inappropriate impulses into positive and productive behaviours.

Instead of reacting in extreme anger, you might clean the house, or go for a run. Instead of sexually propositioning a person, you might write poetry or dance. This can be done consciously but happens most of the time subconsciously.

The process of sublimation protects us from the anxiety around having unacceptable thoughts and urges, preventing us from being negatively impacted by them. Channelling animalistic and primitive impulses into positive outlets preserves our social relationships, our social standing, and essential elements of our lives like jobs and our ability to support ourselves.

It can also act on positive feelings if we subconsciously believe they are too good to last, to protect us from disappointment. In this form, sublimation can become part of the self-sabotaging tendencies people often subconsciously enact when things are going well.

Examples of Sublimation

Sublimation happens mostly subconsciously. We may, therefore, be unaware that this is one of our coping mechanisms. Still, most of the following examples of sublimation apply to the majority of people at some point or another in their lives.

Physical Activity

Competitive sports is one productive way in which aggressive or dominant personality types channel their impulses. Rather than fight or dominate other people, they metaphorically crush them on the sports field. It can be seen as a human version of the ritualised challenges for territory or females that occur in the animal world. A few examples of how sublimation works in full swing might be combat or contact sports and racing.

Often if people feel frustrated, angry, and scattered, or if they are sexually aroused, they go for a run, for a walk, to the gym, use their punching bag etc. These are also sublimation examples. In this way, our mind converts the unacceptable urge to lash out or to have sex with strangers into a beneficial activity.

Chores and menial tasks

Another typical example of sublimation is the conversion of inappropriate urges into useful, menial tasks that, let’s be honest, may otherwise never get done. Instead of being unfaithful to your partner, you pull the weeds out of your flower-beds. Rather than obsessively micro-manage your children, you purge and re-organise all of your belongings.

When you feel like yelling at or confronting your boss, you tidy your desk-space. If your anxiety is causing you deeply distressing and troubling thoughts, you scrub the kitchen and bathrooms clean.

Creative Pursuits

Creativity is a prevalent alternative to inappropriate urges and impulses, most frequently when it comes to sexual sublimation. Instead of sexually accosting a particular person, an example of sublimating your sexual desire might be turning to paint, drawing, sculpting, writing, or any form of craft.

Another example of using creativity to sublimate socially frowned-upon emotions is the transferring of depression, sadness, anxiety or addiction into works of art. Through poetry, story-telling, or other artistic pursuits, negative emotions are channelled into socially valued expressions.

Life-Paths

People’s chosen life-paths can often be expressions of their sublimated urges and desires. Successful managers or administrators have a strong passion for control, micro-managing and organisation. Another example of sublimation might be leadership roles. People in positions of authority often have a need to be obeyed, listened to, feared, loved or respected, that is satisfied through the successful fulfilment of their jobs.

On the darker end of the scale, someone with an urge to cut or harm people might train to be a surgeon, or someone with aggressive tendencies might join the military or the police.

Can we consciously choose sublimation?

Sublimation is, for the most part, a mature subconscious way of dealing with inappropriate urges and impulses. Using the above examples of sublimation and with the help of mental health professionals, train yourself to recognise it. You can then try to identify the urge or impulse your ego is working to conceal.

The crucial element in sublimating consciously is to accept, recognise and validate your feelings, before determining which activity to channel them into. There is no such thing as an inappropriate feeling, only inappropriate or harmful actions. Once you are aware of the urges your ego is hiding from you, you can consciously sublimate them into the activity of your choice.

 

Lauren Edwards-Fowle
 
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 

 

 
About the Author: Lauren Edwards-Fowle


 
Lauren Edwards-Fowle is a professional copywriter based in South East England. Lauren worked within Children's Services for five years before moving into the business sector. She holds an MSc in Applied Accountancy and BSc in Corporate Law. She now volunteers within the community sport sector, helping young people to live healthier, more productive lifestyles and overcome the barriers to inclusion that they face. With a keen interest in physical wellbeing, nutrition and sports, Lauren enjoys participating in a variety of team sports in her spare time, as well as spending time with her young family and their dog Scout.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 09:36
Quarta-feira, 15 / 01 / 20

Ebooks vs Printed Books: Which Are Better for Your Brain, According to Science?

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted January 11th, 2020.

 
printed books vs ebooks.

 

Book enthusiasts have long defended the benefits of the printed word over ebooks. Yet, the arguments are frequently centered on the look and feel of a book. In a world where much of our lives are conducted on a screen, the arguments for the benefits of a printed book over an ebookare increasingly focusing on the benefits the former have on our brain.

If you’re on the fence when it comes to a preference over ebooks vs printed books, this article intends to look at the science behind the debate.

Are printed books better for your brain than ebooks and why?

5 reasons why printed books are better for your brain

1. They keep your attention

With a printed book, you simply have the pages in front of you and nothing else. Whereas, with an ebook, there are multiple temptations at your fingertips. Your e-reader might allow you to look up definitions of words, browse other readers comments on the book, or have a browse option that allows you to search the internet.

A study conducted at American University found that 92% of those surveyed found that they concentrated better when reading the printed word over an e-version. A printed book, therefore, encourages us to read more carefully and helps our brain to hold focus on the task in hand.

2. Ebooks encourage us to skim read

Whether you use an ebook to read or download titles on your phone or tablet, research has shown that reading on a screen alters the way our brain views the text.

Professor Ziming Liu, from San Jose State University, refers to ‘screen-based reading behavior’ which constitutes the tendency to browse and scan a text rather than practice in-depth and concentrated reading as we do with printed books.

The consequence of foregoing in-depth reading has been the focus of further studies. Maryanne Wolf, in her work on the evolution of the reading brain, has explored the impact reading digital text has on the cognitive functions we draw upon when reading.

While she recognizes that we still know very little about the digital reading brain, she laments the possible loss of ‘deep reading’ which printed text facilitates.

3. Printed books help us to absorb and retain more information

Another strong argument in the ebooks vs printed books debate is the capacity with which we absorb information from the printed word over its digital counterpart. Unsurprisingly, as printed books help to hold our attention and trigger more concentrated reading, we are better able to absorb and retain more information from them.

A study conducted at Stavanger University in Norway gave 50 readers the same short story to read, with half the readers using a Kindle to read the story and half reading from a printed book. Participants were then tested on their ability to remember certain aspects of the story.


The results found that those that read the story on a Kindle found it significantly harder to reconstruct the plot when asked to.

4. Printed books help us to be more emotionally engaged


Printed books not only help us to draw on more cognitive resources, they draw on our emotional responses also. Similar to the point about keeping our attention, printed books are said to help the reader to be more emotionally absorbed in the book.

Another study from the University of Stavanger, conducted by Anne Mangen, found that participants that read an upsetting story on paper reported higher levels of ‘empathy, transportation, immersion, and narrative coherence’ than those who read the same story on an iPad.

So, if you really want to get lost in a story, go for the hard copy.
5. Printed books bring more joy

Despite fears that digital books would remove the need for printed versions, these predictions have proved way off the mark. Sales of e-readers and ebooks have, in fact, slowed since reaching their peak in 2014 and printed books have enjoyed a resurgence. A lot of this has come down to the joy one feels when holding a book.



In terms of the impact this has on our brain, proponents of the printed word suggest that a printed book serves to ignite multiple senses in a way that an ebook cannot.


The feel of a book, the way it smells, the way it looks, the satisfaction one feels as they see their progression through the pages are all elements that are unique to a paper book.

Research has shown that the senses that are awakened by a paper book can, in fact, inspire individuals to do something new, make important life-decisions, reduce stress and increase happiness.
Final Words

Despite the many benefits on the brain of a printed book, there are, of course, benefits of ebooksand digital text. Ebooks have assisted with the democratization of information, in that they help to ensure books can be available in formats that make them accessible to those in a way that the printed word is not.

However, theories that predicted that ebooks would cause the death of the paperback have proved unfounded as many are drawing on the scientifically proven benefits of reading from printed books.

The ebooks vs printed books debate is sure to continue, but with studies increasingly showing that printed books draw on more of our brain’s resources it may lead you to renew that library card and stock up on the paperbacks.
References:
  1. https://www.mentalfloss.com
  2. https://www.theguardian.com

 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 21:48
Quinta-feira, 02 / 01 / 20

5 Surprising Benefits of Thinking Aloud, Backed by Science

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted December 31th, 2019.

 
Thinking Aloud benefits.

 


 
 
Talking to yourself out loud is typically seen as a social faux pas. Indeed, we get encouraged to stop guiding our behavior by talking out load as we get older. However, a recent study from Bangor University has found that thinking and talking out loud may actually offer a number of benefits and talking to yourself might even be a sign of intelligence.
 
But can thinking aloud really have benefits in terms of concentration, achieving multiple tasks, and controlling emotions as this study suggests? In this post, we will look at 5 surprising benefits of thinking aloud and the science behind why.
 
Thinking Aloud vs. Inner Thinking
 
We are often talking to ourselves silently in our own heads throughout the day, asking ourselves silent questions to find what we need to get out of the house, cook the dinner, or complete our work. This inner talk is both healthy and helpful when it comes to organizing our thoughts and emotions. However, in the study from Bangor University thinking out loud whilst completing a task was found to improve control in comparison to inner talk.
 
A separate study also found that participants told to say random words aloud repeatedly whilst trying to carry out a variety of tasks made it impossible for them to tell themselves what to do to achieve the tasks. This serves to show the power of talking out loud in a negative way, but what are the benefits of thinking thoughts out loud?
 
5 Surprising Science-Backed Benefits of Thinking Aloud
 
Here we outline five of the most surprising ways thinking out loud can be beneficial and the scientific studies that explain why.
 
Self-motivation
 
Sometimes we may find motivation elusive when it comes to approaching a challenging task. However, we can actually be great at giving ourselves our own pep-talk. Kamal’s study on positive self-talk shows that our thoughts can have huge implications over our emotions, motivations, and achievements and a greater impact can be attained by thinking aloud.
 
Indeed, when preparing for interviews, it is a great idea to not only think positively about the outcome but to actually tell yourself it is going to go well. If you are feeling low, telling yourself things will be okay and complimenting yourself on something you have done well today can also have a noticeable effect on your mood. However, you should be sure to avoid letting negative self-talk ruin your life.
 
Improved perceptual processing
 
Audio cues are much easier to process than instructions we read or think silently through inner talk. This is backed up by a study for the University of Wisconsin. Participants were either given written instructions or told to read the instructions out loud when looking at a picture. Those reading the instructions out loud were better able to find it.
 
The vocalization of the word improved participants’ ability to visualize what they were looking for, indicating an increase in their brain’s processing power. This is because, when we use inner talk, we are much more likely to jump from one thought to another and at a quicker pace than we would be able to when thinking and speaking out loud.
 
Enhanced problem-solving skills
 
Computer programmers commonly use a method known as rubber ducking to overcome the most challenging problems. It refers to talking through the problem in its most basic step-by-step form to the nearest thing on your desk, say a rubber duck for example? By explaining what they want the code to achieve and going into the line by line detail of how it will do this whilst speaking aloud, the answer soon springs to mind as if leaping from the spoken thoughts.
 
 
This is backed up by a study by Dr. Christopher Atkin for Nottingham Trent University which found participants talking through complex tasks were far better at problem-solving. In fact, participants in this study made 78 percent fewer mistakes than participants asked to complete tasks by working things out in their heads. Thinking out loud focuses your attention and improves concentration facilitating enhanced problem-solving.
 
Improved timing & precision
 
Thinking out loud has also been found to be beneficial when it comes to timing and precision. For example, one study looked at the effect of using thinking aloud as a motivational tool to improve basketball performance. They found that players instructing themselves verbally were able to pass and shoot more accurately. The study specifically noted that instructional self-talk (IST) improved precision and timing, whilst motivational self-talk (MST) helped with speed-based tasks.
 
Similarly, a study by Yannis Theodorakis found that thinking out loud using IST and MST improved timing and precision for both methods in comparison to the control group with statistically significant results. Indeed, self-talk is commonly used in sports-psychology at the highest levels and you will often see professional tennis players using this method as they move between points.
 
Boost memory
 
One way we commonly use thinking out loud naturally as we get older is to ensure we have properly memorized information. This works great with lists but has also been found to be beneficial when it comes to retaining information we read. This is because memory is improved by the brain being actively involved with what we do as it is when we speak versus when we simply read.
 
As such, thinking out loud could have potential benefits as we get older. We are commonly told that doing puzzles and crosswords can help us to stave off some of the mal effects of aging on the mind. However, making sure our brain is more actively involved in other tasks, such as reading the newspaper in the morning or a book in bed can be similarly beneficial.
 
Thinking out loud has long been much maligned. However, as more and more research shows a wide range of benefits that talking our thoughts out loud can have, it can be a good idea to try and bring this practice into your daily life. Indeed, it turns out thinking out loud can be a great way to get your mojo back.

 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
Archives:

 

 
and https://www.facebook.com/mel.tavares.75


A Trusty with Privacy Search 
Alternative to Google
startpage.com

Alternative to YouTube
brighteon.com
 
 



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
Free counters!

  geoglobe1
 
 
publicado por achama às 07:14
A Luz está a revelar a Verdade, e esta libertar-nos-á! -Só é real o AMOR Incondicional. -Quando o Amor superar o amor pelo poder, o mundo conhecerá a Paz; Jimi Hendrix. -Somos almas a ter uma experiência humana!

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