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Domingo, 09 / 02 / 20

Spiral of Silence Theory Explains Why You’d Rather Stay Quiet.

Spiral of Silence Theory Explains Why You’d Rather Stay Quiet.

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted February 8th, 2020.

 
spiral of silence theory.

 


 
 
 
During the 1970s, Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann, a German political scientist, developed the spiral of silence theory. Working in the context of post-World War Two Germany, Noelle-Neumann coined the theory. She sought to explain why individuals choose to remain silent when they believe their view isn’t held by the majority.
 
In this post, we look at how the spiral of silence can explain human behavior. We will also consider whether or not the theory is still relevant today.
 
Spiral of silence theory explained
 
The theory was coined by Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann in 1974. It was partly designed in an attempt to explain the lack of resistance to the Nazi regime. The idea of the spiral of silence suggests that people remain silent when they think their views are different from majority viewpoints.
 
According to the theory, this unwillingness to speak out is due to fear of social isolation. It is also due to the expected negative consequences of going against the perceived status quo. On the other hand, those confident their beliefs and opinions meet ‘public opinion’ can voice their thoughts without fear. This also perpetuates the silencing effect on those in the minority.
 
We are all able to determine what the prevailing ‘public opinion’ actually is, according to the theory. In Noelle-Neumann’s words, we all have a ‘quasi statistical sense’ of whether our own opinions are either popular or unpopular. This is based on the cues we have had from the mass media and our environment. In other words, we have a ‘sixth sense’ of the popular public consensus on a range of issues.
 
The spiral effect begins to occur as those who feel validated about their beliefs become more and more vocal. Concurrently, those in the minority lose confidence in expressing their opinions. This loss of confidence is built on the fear of rejection and subsequent social isolation.
 
As a result, the minority are silenced. In this way, predominating public opinion is seen as a form of social control in the spiral of silence theory.
 
Research into the theory
 
Since the theory of the spiral of silence was developed, there have been numerous studies that have tested it. These studies have sought to either prove or disprove its legitimacy. The majority of these studies have focused on the effect of the theory in political environments.
 
Most recently, a meta-analysis conducted by Matthes et al (2017) revisited the theory and the effect of the spiral of silence on either restricting or enabling the expression of political opinions. They analyzed 66 studies exploring this topic which collectively contained 27,000 participants.
 
The analysis found that there was a significant positive relationship between one’s perception of the prevailing opinion and the subsequent suppression of their own opinions. This was seen to be particularly acute when amongst family, friends, and neighbors.
 
Despite this result, there are critics of the theory. Some have criticized the assumption that we all have an in-built understanding of what the prevailing climate of opinion is, and whether there can actually be something that can be defined as such.
 
Others have questioned the theoretical underpinning that fear of isolation is a strong enough deterrent for silencing a minority opinion. There have also been criticisms of the theory’s failure to take into account cross-cultural differences. Others have noted that the nature of the issue itself can impact on the spiral of silence effect.
 
How relevant is the spiral of silence today?
 
With the rise of alternative online media channels and social media, critics of the spiral of silence are suggesting that the theory is no longer relevant. The theory was proposed pre-internet and was based on a mass-media that was relatively uniform.
 
Today, the mainstream media often follows the same trajectory. However, the internet has provided people the opportunity to seek alternative opinions. It has also given voice to those who have previously been disadvantaged by unequal power relations.
 
If an individual does not wish to publicly express their opinion amongst friends, family, or colleagues they may well do so anonymously via the internet. This is sometimes known as the online disinhibition effect. This itself creates its own spiral effect.
 
However, within this context, a minority opinion may no longer be felt as such. This is due to the fact that the World Wide Web enables the participation of many within the political domain.
 
The birth of the internet, therefore, has shifted the conversation around the spiral of silence into a new trajectory. While some believe the theory has had its day, others still see the theoretical concept as a useful means of exploring behavior.
 
Using it as a starting point for many studies into whether a climate of opinion can still be said to exist, and how this affects our willingness to speak out about controversial opinions that we deem to go against the grain.
Does it ring true for you?
 
The spiral of silence, therefore, may have struck a chord with your own behavior and responses. Ever felt silenced during a political conversation? Fear of isolation or rejection is certainly something we can all relate to.
 
So, while the spiral of silence theory may need some modern re-jigging, as a concept, it can certainly serve to explain those occasions where we ponder about what we could have said, only when it is too late to say it.
 
 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


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publicado por achama às 03:25
Sábado, 08 / 02 / 20

Dunbar’s Number or Why Most of Your Social Connections Are Not Your Friends

Dunbar’s Number or Why Most of Your Social Connections Are Not Your Friends.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

February 7th, 2020.

 
Dunbar’s Number.
 
 
 
Have you heard of Dunbar’s number? My sister certainly has. Years ago, when her new neighbour asked her if she wanted to pop round for a coffee, she said: “No thanks, I’ve got enough friends.”
 
Now, before you start judging my sis for being unnecessarily blunt, she does have a point. And that’s where Dunbar’s number comes in. You see, it suggests that a person can only maintain a maximum of 150 social connections at once. So why is this and where does the idea come from?
 
The Origin of Dunbar’s Number
 
Robin Dunbar is a British anthropologist and an evolutionary psychologist. Back in the 1990s, he was interested in the number of social connections a person could have.
 
For instance, how many people do we know; how many do we actually care about and is there a common link to this number? Do some people have more connections, others less? Now, remember, this was the 90s so well before social media and ‘likes’ and ‘friends’ and all of that.
 
Dunbar began his research by examining the patterns of sending Christmas cards.
Dunbar and the Christmas Card List
 
Sending cards at Christmas seems fairly innocuous, but there is a certain amount of investment involved. You make the list of people, you choose and buy the cards, the stamps, and you look up the addresses. Then you write them all out and post them. It all takes time and effort. Dunbar reckoned that most of us would not go to all this trouble and effort for just anyone.
 
After collecting data from thousands of households, Dunbar found a remarkable coincidence. Of every household he collected data from, the average number of cards sent was always around 150. There was also a fairly unanimous split in who the cards went to. For example, around a quarter were sent to close relatives, two-thirds to friends and the remaining small percentage to colleagues.
 
But why did the number 150 keep cropping up? It was a mystery. Dunbar carried on researching. But this time he turned his attention to primates and social groups.
Why Is Dunbar’s Number 150?
 
Dunbar discovered a link between a primate’s brain and the size of their social groups. Specifically, their brain mass and the primate’s preferred group sizes. He looked at different primate species and catalogued social activity.
 
In particular, time spent grooming (the equivalent of socialising for humans), the size of the neocortex (the area of the brain related to language and cognition) and group size. He found that in primates, the smaller the size of the brain, the smaller the size of the groups were formed. As brain mass increased, so did group size.
 
 
Dunbar proposed that brain size was the overriding factor in deciding the number of social connections a primate could successfully manage. Dunbar then collected data across all primate species, including humans.
 
He proposed that humans can only comfortably maintain 150 social connections. Larger numbers require stricter social rules and larger neocortical processing capacity.
So what exactly does Dunbar mean by 150 and social connections?
 
Dunbar characterises the number 150 as:
 
 
“..the number of people you would not feel embarrassed about joining uninvited for a drink if you happened to bump into them in a bar.”
 
There is strong evidence, throughout history, that shows 150 is an average size for social groups. Indeed, it is the optimum number for a group. For when numbers start to exceed this size things tend to collapse or fail to function effectively.
Dunbar’s Number applies to many social groups
 
Even our earliest ancestors, the cave-dwellers, the hunter-gatherers, lived in groups consisting, on average, of 150 people. The earliest villages consisted of around 150 people. From African tribes to Roman legions, we are always drawn back to this magic number of 150.
 
Perhaps stranger still, Dunbar and his magic number of 150 can be seen in many other aspects of human social groups, not just our personal lives. For example, offices, campsites, hotels, military organisations, even book-clubs. Indeed, research proves time and time again that if numbers exceed 150 the group fails.
150 only applies to primates and humans
 
So why 150? It appears that 150 is the prime number for evolutionary survival. Primates, in particular, live in social groups, and this helps them to survive. In our ancestor’s time, humans were prey, not predators. We didn’t have sharp teeth, razor-like claws or strong muscles.
 
 
Whereas it suited other predators to hunt alone, for humans to stay alive, we needed to form groups. We used our shared knowledge and cunning. We planned and formulated ways of attack. For us, staying in strong, social groups was a matter, literally, of survival.
 
Now, look at other animals. For instance, the tiger, a predator at the top of the food chain, or a penguin, prey and near the bottom. Tigers are solitary animals. They survive without the need of a group and therefore hunt alone.
 
On the other hand, penguins are at risk from many predators, including extreme weather conditions. As a result, it is in their best interest to form huge groups. In fact, some of the largest penguin colonies have consisted of up to 180,000 to 200,000 birds.
 
Of course, tigers and penguins are very different from primates and humans. Penguins may form groups but they are not social in the way that human groups are. For the penguins, it is all about staying alive. For humans, it is more about emotional, psychological and spiritual connections.
 
And this is where it gets interesting. Because it takes a lot of effort to maintain all this emotion, and our brain can only manage so much. However, have we changed in the 21st century?
Has Social Media Changed Dunbar’s Number?
 
Now, in today’s society, there is nothing unusual for a person to have hundreds, if not thousands of friends on Facebook. So is it possible that Dunbar’s number no longer applies in our modern world?
 
Dunbar first proposed the number 150 in the 1990s. The 2020s is a very different place. We communicate online. We meet for the first time online. We date online. Surely, Dunbar’s number must have increased a little to keep up with our modern society?
 
 
I mean, this doesn’t make sense for a modern age. People communicate in seconds across the globe. Our social reach has expanded as our grasp of technology has stretched our imaginations. Also, I would have thought that our brain capacity would have increased substantially since our ancestors first set up villages over 250,000 years ago.
 
Well, not really. And that’s because it is all to do with our emotional capacity.
 
 
“It is as though we each have a limited amount of social capital and we can choose to invest it thinly in more people, or thickly in fewer people. But you can’t exceed these limits.” Dunbar
 
So what do these social connections look like? Dunbar arranges them in ever-decreasing circles. Our closest friends are in our inner circle and our acquaintances are in the furthest circle.
Most people, on average, have:
5 loved ones
15 best friends
50 good friends
150 meaningful contacts
500 acquaintances
1500 people you recognise
 
So we may know thousands of people, but Dunbar states that the 150 number is the important cut-off.
 
 
“The 150 layer is the important one: this defines the people you have real reciprocated relationships with, those where you feel obligations and would willingly do favours.” Dunbar
 
Because humans are complex creatures, maintaining these relationships take effort and time. And that’s why we only have the capacity for 150 social connections.
 
Of course, people move in and out of our lives at any given point. There are also huge differences between the social connections of an extrovert and an introvert. An extrovert may have a larger social network. However, they tend to spread themselves out thinly across a wide network of people. Introverts have a smaller social pool of contacts. But they like to spend more quality time with a few special friends.
 
 
There are also interesting differences between the genders. For example, men have a wider spread of contacts throughout their social circles. Whereas women have more contacts within their inner circles.
Final Thoughts
 
So is there really any advantage to knowing that humans have a limited capacity for maintaining social connections? Well, I think so yes. I realise it is all about time and effort. If we only have space for 150 connections then we should make sure those connected to us are worth the effort, and that we make the effort to preserve them.
 
Oh, and my sister? She did pop round for that coffee after all. They’ve been good friends ever since.
References:
  1. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  2. www.forbes.com
  3. www.bbc.com
 

 

 
Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 02:45
Sexta-feira, 31 / 01 / 20

The Friendship Paradox Reveals the Weird Reason You Are Less Popular Than Your Friends

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted January 30th, 2020.

 
friendship paradox.

 
 
 
Have you ever noticed that the people you hang out with always seem to be more popular than you? Whether it’s down at the gym, on social media, or even at work, it is common for people to notice that their friends seem fitter, more popular, and more successful. According to researchers in the field of social networks, this is due to something known as the friendship paradox. But what is this paradox and why does it make it seem like we are less popular than our friends?
 
In this post, we’ll explore the reasons the friendship paradox exists, the different ways it manifests itself, and why you don’t need to worry about this strange phenomenon.
 
What is the friendship paradox?
 
According to the sociologist of social networks Scott Feld, the reason our friends are likely to be more popular than we are is simply down to maths and sampling. He found that, if you were to ask someone who their friends were and then met the friends of that person and asked them the same question, then, on average, you would find that the friends are better connected than that first person.
 
This is perhaps most apparent on social networks online where our behavior affects our self-image greatly, with one study finding 98% of Twitter followers following people were being followed by more people than them.
 
The friendship paradox also has wide-ranging effectsbeyond the internet and friendship circles and can potentially be used to explain why people you see in the gym are always much fitter than you, or noticing that your sexual partners are typically more experienced than you are. Indeed, a new study has found that this paradox may hold for additional characteristics, such as income, happiness, and sexual partners.
 
Effectively, the friendship paradox stems from a sampling bias built on the fact that people with more friends tend to be observed more by their friends. Equally, if you take the gym example, the reason everyone at the gym seems fitter than you is because they spend more time there.
 
When it comes to sexual partners, people who are actively dating are more likely to be sexually active with more people. When it comes to income, only certain friends can afford to do certain activities, bringing in higher earners to social networks and making the activities they do more noticeable. This broader phenomenon is sometimes called the “Generalized Friendship Paradox”.
Why does it exist?
 
As Scott Feld explained the concept, the reason the friendship paradox exists is because of maths and sampling. Whilst everyone’s friendship group might be different, everyone’s sample is always likely to be skewed. This will tend towards your friends being likely to be more popular than you are on average. This is due to the fact that within any friendship group, people with more friends are more likely to be in the sample.
 
The simple act of taking a sample of friends inevitably leads to something known as a biased sample in statistics. Namely, this is due to the fact that those without connections and with less friends are less likely to be included in the sample. People can also be double-counted across the network. This leads to a situation where the majority of people have fewer friends that only the most popular within their network.
 
Samples can also be majorly skewed with the existence of particularly popular friends. If you happen to be connected with Barack Obama, who has the most Twitter followers of anybody with over 112 million, then your network will have its average popularity increase compared to the general population.
 
By virtue of their appearance in multiple networks, connections feed into the friendship paradox that makes us all feel less popular than our own personal network.
 
Why you don’t need to worry about the friendship paradox
 
The concept of the friendship paradox can all seem quite depressing. The fact that science seems to back up the findings beyond basic friendships, can make things seem even worse. However, there is no need to despair because the phenomenon doesn’t necessarily drop off as you move up the social pyramid. It is down to the natural result of social connections through networks.
 
Take, for example, the aforementioned twitter study which found 98% of users followed accounts followed by more people than themselves. This study actually found that even the top 0.5 percent of Twitter users fell into the friendship paradox.
 
This is because they found that those who have more followers also tended towards following people with more influence and activity than they themselves mustered. That’s why too much social media could be secretly making you feel bad.
 
This all means that feeling down when comparing yourself to your friends is futile. Indeed, the more we compare ourselves to others, be it on social media or in our daily lives, the more likely we are to come up against this phenomenon.
 
It is a statistical reality that, on average, the people in our social networks will be getting more of whatever lens we look through. As such we either have to accept and embrace that fact or avoid seeking comparisons within a network that is likely to leave you feeling blue.
 
 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 03:56
Terça-feira, 24 / 12 / 19

Maximizers and Satisficers: Which One Are You and What Does It Mean?

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted December 23rd, 2019.

 
Maximizers and Satisficers.

 


Decision making is an unavoidable feature of our lives. However, researchers have found that some of us are better at it than others. Psychologists have grouped people into two distinctive categories: maximizers and satisficers.

In this post, we look at the meaning behind the terms ‘maximizer’ and ‘satisficer’. And help you to explore which term best describes your approach to decision making.

What does the concept mean?

To put it simply, maximizers are individuals who are constantly striving to make the best decision that derives the maximum benefit. Whereas satisficers spend less time over a decision and are content with an option that is ‘good enough’.

Maximizers vs. Satisficers: Which one are you?
Let’s take a look at these categories in more detail and go through some examples to help you to determine which camp you fit into.
Maximizers

Imagine the scenario, you need to buy a new car and believe you have found the perfect model in your local garage. However, despite this, you know there are several other garages to visit in the area. You, therefore, decide to visit all of these before making your decision. Sound familiar? A maximizer finds it difficult to commit to a decision until they have explored all of the other available options first.

Maximizers are most likely to experience ‘FOBO’ the term coined by US venture capitalist Patrick McGinnis. FOBO stands for the ‘fear of better options’, a feeling which maximizers are all too familiar with. When faced with many options in front of them, a maximizer will deliberate over the selection and often experience a feeling of remorse after making a decision.

Maximizers are prone to regretting their decisions and contemplate what could have been rather than being satisfied with their choice.
Satisficers

Satisficers have a lot easier time making decisions than maximizers. They have a clear set of criteria beforehand and make a decision based on this. Referring back to the example above, a satisficer would have purchased the first car that met their criteria. They would not have felt the need to look around the other garages.

The US Nobel Prize-winning economist Herbert A. Simon came up with the concept of ‘satisficers’ in 1956. He created the term by combining the words ‘satisfying’ and ‘sufficing’. Simon explainedthat humans need only ‘very simple perceptual and choice mechanisms to satisfy [their] several needs’ and in first considering what they seek to achieve from a certain choice, it is easier to reach a satisfying decision.

Satisficers, therefore, approach a decision with an awareness of their needs and requirements. In doing so, they can select an option that suits and satisfies them.

How can your decision-making ability impact your life?
So, does being a maximizer or a satisficer impact on your overall life experiences and satisfaction? Unsurprisingly, the way you approach decisions can significantly impact how you feel about them.

This concept has been explored by numerous researchers. They have used the maximizers versus satisficers theory to explore how such a state determines an individual’s life satisfaction and attainment.

Bruine de Bruin et al (2007), for example, explored the connection between socioeconomic status, cognitive ability, and decision-making style. The research found that those with a stronger impulse to maximize on their decisions actually obtained worse life outcomes.

A satisficer’s ability to enjoy their decision also comes from the fact that it is based on their own criteria and needs. Whereas, as Starry Peng (2013) points out, maximizers are more likely to base their choice on external choices such as social status, reputation or reviews. The preoccupation with selecting the ‘best’ possible choice, therefore, can often mean that maximizers fail to consider their own needs and desires.

Constantly deliberating over the available options doesn’t necessarily mean that you are satisfied with your overall choice. Yang and Chiou (2010), looked into the decision making processes of those looking at online dating sites. Their study found that the availability of more search options lead to worse choices as it reduced an individual’s cognitive resources, making it harder for them to ignore irrelevant information and screen out unsuitable options.

Embracing what is ‘good enough’
Of course, there is the possibility that individuals can show characteristics of both maximizers and satisficers. Some people love to trawl the internet, investigating the pros and cons of a certain product and feel satisfied that they have chosen the best, fully researched option. The situation isn’t clear cut. However, according to psychologist Barry Schwartz, we have a lot to gain from taking the satisficers’ approach to life.

Schwartz recognizes that freedom of choice can bring autonomy and liberation to people. However, when we’re faced with too much choice, this can lead to reduced happiness and increased anxiety.


In Schwartz’s research, he increasingly found that when faced with an exhaustive amount of options, individuals question their decisions and blame themselves if the option they chose isn’t perfection. Referring to this concept as ‘The Paradox of Choice’, Schwartz encourages us to settle for what is ‘good enough’ rather than always striving for the perfect option.

The terms ‘maximizers’ and ‘satisficers’ help us to gain insight into our own decision-making processes. In a world where choices can seem endless, recognizing that many decisions we make are ‘good enough’ can go a long way in reducing anxiety and increasing our overall life satisfaction.
 
 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 04:08
Sábado, 21 / 12 / 19

Why Mental Health Stigma Still Exists Today and How to Break It

Sherrie Hurd.

learning-mind.com

Posted December 20th, 2019.

 
Mental Health Stigma.


 
I’d hoped it would be much better by now, but mental health stigma still rages on. And we suffer in its aftermath.
 
I speak as someone with mental illness, and I am not afraid to share anything about those illnesses. But that’s not what this is about. I want to talk about stigmas, the disgrace and disappointment projected toward those with mental disorders or even the disgust we feel about ourselves. You see, a stigma can go either way, but mostly, it comes from the outside. So, let’s take a close look at where this started.
 
History of mental health stigma
 
It started in the Neolithic times when trephining was being used to cure mental illness. You see people of that time thought evil spirits were responsible for these types of conditions, and so they drilled holes in the skull to release evil spirits. Yeah, that’s what trephining is, scary huh.
 
No, the stigma is not like that now, and it has come a long way. However, it’s been called the mark of the devil, the punishment from immoral activity, and even a symptom of hysteria, which was considered a disease that only women had. It generally caused all sorts of symptoms, but they were all considered mentally deranged.
 
Anyway, for the most part, psychiatrists have abandoned the term hysteria altogether, and that’s a start. Now, professionals use facts in determining and differentiating mental illnesses.
 
Stigma around mental health still exists for many reasons. Truth be told, most of the people launching stigmatic statements are probably suffering from some mental or personality disorder themselves. It’s a most likely narcissistic disorder or something of the sort.
 
But the point is, stigma still exists because people don’t want to understand mental illness. It’s easier for them to push it away, keep calling it a demon, or simply see this illness as a mode of attention-seeking.
 
A few reasons stigma is still here
 
Ignorance
 
I’m sorry, but some people are just uneducated about so many things. Hey, there are millions of things that I don’t understand, I am sure. But when it comes to someone who suffers from a mental illness, you should want to understand them in order to help. Sometimes it’s the refusal to understand, because if they understand, then they no longer have a reason to hold a grudge against the sufferer’s symptoms.
 
I’ve seen it, and I sometimes live it. Then you have people who are just too lazy to do the proper research it takes to understand these illnesses and help break the stigma. That’s just a pathetic reason. Sorry, but I generally don’t hold back when I feel passionate about something.
 
Gossiping about symptoms
 
Do you know how else stigmas are used? Sometimes friends talk about that one friend who has strange symptoms, the one who has unpredictable symptoms, which most mentally ill people do. I know, I can be perfectly fine until I have a panic attack. I can be okay until I go into a rage, which is rare, don’t worry.
 
And I can also be okay right before I go to bed and sleep all day leaving everything disheveled and housework is undone. Stigma grows when you talk about your friends and their “odd” and “random” behavior. Here’s a good place to stop. Right here! Just don’t judge, and drop the gossip. It’s childish anyway.
 
Lies about danger
 
Many of us with mental illnesses are called dangerous people. Ignorant people say that we could get angry and suddenly become violent. Well, honestly, anybody could do that in the right condition, right time, the right environment and so on. It’s like when you compare deaths in airplanes to deaths in cars. Many people refuse to get on an airplane because they are afraid they’ll crash and die, but they are okay with jumping in cars all the time.
 
Guess what! More deaths have happened in cars than in airplanes, many more. So just because it’s a bit intimidating, seems scary, and operates in a different way, doesn’t mean it’s any more dangerous than the “sane” guys. Yes, we get angry or upset, but it’s usually because of something that someone uneducated has done or said.
 
They say we’re helpless
 
I have lived with mental illness since I was a child, officially diagnosed at the age of 18. I have managed to survive for many decades, and at times, without the help of others. That means completely independent.
 
Although I sometimes suffer from dissociation, panic attacks, and triggered attacks, I can also use logic to do amazing things. I’ve raised three sons who are all in gifted, higher level, classes. So, those with mental illness are not helpless and sometimes more than capable.
 
How do we break this filthy habit?
 
I’m sorry, but I see mental health stigma as a filthy habit. I see it as a lazy man’s way of walking all over others. I see it as a choice to not understand in order to get ahead or to totally ignore us. I’ve been around people who utilize stigma, and it’s painful. And I’ve tried to make friends with people I really shouldn’t have. Hey, I was just trying to fit in for my kids, you know, the sport’s mom stuff. But this is it. This type of behavior has got to stop.
 
So, how do we do away with mental health stigma? Well, we start with ourselves. Yep, I said it. People with mental illnesses can also use stigma against others with mental health issues. We must see this in ourselves and then stop.
 
After that, we must keep writing, getting that information out there for those who need it. We must keep asking our friends, loved ones, and neighbors to read this material. We should keep making movies that approach these stigmas, continue painting pictures that represent how we feel, giving us the opportunity to explain the stigmatic monster within the colors.
 
And no, we cannot make everyone see the truth, but if they can’t we can get away from them, and we should. Mental health doesn’t need a stigma to go along with its pain and confusion. What we need are love and understanding. Please stand with me against stigma.



Sherrie Hurd

 

 

Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us. 

 

 

 



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Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


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publicado por achama às 01:45
Sexta-feira, 20 / 12 / 19

7 Famous People with Asperger’s Who Made a Difference in the World

Francesca Forsythe.

https://www.learning-mind.com

December 19th, 2019.

 



 
Asperger’s is a common disorder that affects over 37 million people. However, some of those sufferers with Asperger’s are famous people who have made a profound difference in the world.
 
It can be a worry when someone we care about has something which makes them a little different. Asperger’s is a common mental disorder that causes social difficulties, especially in children. This can be a concern for parents as children grow into adulthood. Yet, there are many famous people who suffered from Asperger’s and yet have made overwhelming changes to the world. Some sufferers are people you might not even expect.
 
What Is Asperger’s Syndrome?
 
Asperger’s was removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013. Therefore, it does not have what you would call a ‘formal diagnosis’. It is now part of the Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis. However, many still associate with the name Asperger’s due to the difference of the syndrome to Autism.
 
The key difference between Autism and Asperger’s is that those with Asperger’s still have a keen interest in others. They want to fit in and make friends. Still, they struggle to do so due to their difficulty with emotion and empathy.
 
Asperger’s is named after Austrian paediatrician Hans Asperger in 1933. He discovered a string of traits in young children. These included:
“a lack of empathy, little ability to form friendships, one-sided conversation, intense absorption in a special interest, and clumsy movements.”
 
Asperger called his young children ‘little professors‘ because they would know a great deal about their favorite topic.
 
Asperger’s is a subtype of autism spectrum disorder. Sufferers are highly functioning, intelligent people but have difficulty in social situations. Those with the disorder struggle to associate with other people and lack emotional insight or comedy. They also may seem awkward or clumsy and may become fixated on certain subjects.
 
Telltale signs are a rigidity to a certain schedule, however unusual, and an oversensitivity to loud noises, bright lights or strong smells.
 
Diagnosing Asperger’s is a difficult process because there is no one test. Instead, psychologists will look for evidence of symptoms from quite a long list in order to diagnose. A proper diagnosis will take several factors into account. For example, the relative strength and frequency of these symptoms as well as interactions with others.
 
There are many famous people with Asperger’s, or at least considered to have it due to their behaviors. Below we have a list of famous people who are believed to have Asperger’s. This diverse list can prove that Asperger’s is really something that gives you a little extra potential.
 
7 Famous People with Asperger’s
 
Sir Isaac Newton (1643 – 1727)
 
 
Sir Isaac Newton is one of the greatest minds in math and physics. He revolutionized the field with his three laws of motion. Nonetheless, he could be a jerk at times. However, recently, psychologists have theorized that Newton may have been struggling with Asperger’s. Reports suggest that Newton was not good with people, despite his mighty intelligence.
 
Thomas Jefferson (1743 – 1826)
 
 
Thomas Jefferson has been one of the most controversial suggestions when it comes to famous people with Asperger’s. This suggestion is due to his discomfort in public speaking. Those who knew him also said that he had difficulty relating to others. Likewise, he was sensitive to loud noises and kept strange routines. Although this is mere speculation, the evidence points strongly to Asperger’s syndrome.
 
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 – 1791)

 
Of all the famous people with Asperger’s, Mozart is arguably one of the biggest. Most psychologists are in agreement that Mozart suffered from Asperger’s. Or at least fell somewhere on the autism spectrum. He was sensitive to loud noises and had an incredibly short attention span. Although not confirmed, this leads many to believe he had Asperger’s.
 
Andy Warhol (1928 – 1987)
 
Andy Warhol is one of the most famed artists of the 60s and 70s. Although not formally diagnosed, professionals have pointed to his odd relationships and many of his eccentric behaviors to make an informal diagnosis of the syndrome.
 
Sir Anthony Hopkins (1937 – )
 
One of the most famous actors of the 21st Century, Sir Anthony Hopkins, shot to stardom as Hannibal Lecter in Silence of the Lambs. Hopkins has reported that he has high-end Asperger’s which affects his socialization skills. He considered that the condition made him look at people differently but that he thinks it helped him as an actor.
 
Bill Gates (1955 – )
 
Bill Gates has been considered to have Asperger’s Syndrome for years. He is eccentric and has seen to have a habit of rocking and difficulty accepting criticisms. Many consider this to be indicative of the syndrome. Although a formal diagnosis has never been publicized, Mr. Gates remains a hero of the Asperger’s community.
 
Tim Burton (1958 – )
 
We know the American film director, producer, writer and animator Tim Burton for his quirky films such as Corpse Bride and The Planet of the Apes. However, his former long term partner has suggested that Burton displays many symptoms of Asperger’s Syndrome. She noted that he is highly intelligent but lacks social skills, which is indicative of the disorder.
Final Thoughts
 
It can be a little scary to find out someone we care about may have Asperger’s. When faced with this, it is important to remember that it doesn’t change who that person is. They are still perfectly capable of becoming incredibly successful adults. They might even be more successful than your average person.
 
Some of the most famous people suspected to be diagnosed with Asperger’s have been the most impactful people in history. This just goes to show that we are capable of anything, no matter who we are or what makes us different.


References:
  1. allthatsinteresting.com
  2. www.theguardian.com
 


 


Francesca Forsythe





 

About the Author: Francesca Forsythe

Francesca is a freelance writer currently studying a degree in Law and Philosophy. She has written for several blogs in a range of subjects across Lifestyle, Relationships and Health and Fitness. Her main pursuits are learning new innovative ways of keeping fit and healthy, as well as broadening her knowledge in as many areas as possible in order to achieve success.
 
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 
Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 


 
A Trusty with Privacy Search 
Alternative to Google
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Alternative to YouTube
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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 


All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 
 
 
 

 
 
Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily
 
 
 
 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 17:05
Segunda-feira, 02 / 12 / 19

Why Social Media Is Toxic and Bad for Your Mental Health

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

November 30th, 2019.

 
.why social media is toxic
 
 

 
Do you suffer from Facebook Envy or Sadfishing? Have you ever heard of Internet Banging? The internet is an amazing tool for the majority of us. As a result, more and more teenagers are spending longer online and without parental supervision. But some experts are now saying that social media is toxic. Here are just a few examples of how social media can be bad for your mental health.
 
4 Examples of Why Social Media Is Toxic
 
Sadfishing
 
If you haven’t heard of sadfishing it is the latest toxic trend to hit social media sites. Sadfishing is where someone (typically a young person) posts about a personal problem, usually in an ambiguous way, to garner sympathy and attention.
 
 
Examples might include:
  • I can’t go on like this for much longer.
  • I hate my life so much.
  • Feel like ending it all.
  • No one understands me.
  • What’s the point in carrying on?
 
Famous celebrity examples include Kendall Jenner and Justin Bieber. These two celebrities poured their hearts out on social media. Afterwards they received hundreds of thousands of likes on Instagram. More to the point, their personal stories of heartbreak garnered huge publicity for the pair.
 
However, there is a downside to sharing raw and emotional material online. For example, a young person posts a very personal and extremely distressing part of their lives but doesn’t get the support they imagined. Instead, they are ridiculed or bullied. Or even worse, encouraged to do something suicidal.
 
But there’s an even more worrying aspect to this toxic trend in social media. That is of grooming offenders using these comments to infiltrate the minds of vulnerable young people.
 
Consequently, the groomer will sympathise with the young person, possibly sharing stories themselves to engage further. This is all done to trap and ensnare the vulnerable person.
 
What To Do
 
Talk to a real person. A friend, family member, a teacher or someone you trust. Keep very personal issues off social media.
Facebook Envy
 
Another example of a toxic trend in social media is Facebook envy. Do you look at your friend’s posts on Facebook and secretly feel jealous of their life?
 
The problem is that the face we present to social media is the best face possible. We photoshop our selfies to look like supermodels and celebrities.
 
Furthermore, we glamourise our lives so that we only show the most interesting parts. We highlight our best achievements. Romances are always perfect with our partners doing everything for us. No wonder our friends worry that their own lives don’t match up.
 
But in the real world, this constant comparing of each other’s lives can cause actual depression, low self-esteem and feelings of worthlessness.
 
What to do
 
Don’t compare your life to your friends or your family. Remember, no one knows exactly what is going on behind the perfectly presented front of social media. In actual fact, the reality is likely to be much different.
 
Internet Banging
 
Studies suggest that gangs have moved from the streets to the internet. The clashes and taunts between rival gangs in the USA and now the UK has spilt over onto Twitter. Now, threats of online violence often end up in murder.
 
In fact, it is the relatively cheap cost of smartphones and the raised knowledge of street gangs in using the technology that has led to an upsurge in crime in some areas.
 
Likewise, thanks to social media, gang members have instant access to information. This includes names and addresses of potential victims. Members use platforms like Twitter to taunt their rivals.
 
“They’ll go on the streets of the group and they’ll take pictures or they’ll take a video and they’ll put it on YouTube or ‘We’re in your neighbourhood.’ And Facebook and they’ll take pictures right in the neighbourhood like saying, ‘Ha ha,’ laughing, taunting them. And that’s part of a taunt too. Like provoking them, letting them know, you know what we got your guy. He was snoozing.” Mario (violence worker)
 
As a result, the US is now experiencing a huge rise in gang-related crime.
 
What to do
 
Authorities are already trying to use social media to de-escalate violence before it starts. In order to interrupt the dialogue between gangs, they are encouraging relationships within them.
 
Glorifying Overworking
 
Do you know someone that is always busy? They have the hardest lives, they are continually on the go, and they never have a moment’s peace? In other words, they wear their hard work like a martyr’s badge of honour.
 
In today’s society, if you work yourself to the bone, it is seen as a prized character trait. Working longer hours, working harder, giving up time to work, these are all signs of dedication, of, well let’s face it, hard work.
 
To put it another way, there is a correlation between hours worked and the contribution to the household. We glorify those that come home exhausted and grumpy. We tiptoe around them and shush the children because so-and-so has been working all day. People that take time off, that only work part-time, they are lazy, irresponsible, and no good for the family or society.
 
The problem is that by glorifying overworking we are normalising working long hours. In reality, a balance between working and family time is far better for everyone’s mental health.
 
What to do
 
Don’t place so much importance on telling everyone how busy you are. It is not something to be proud of. Actually, it shows that you are bad at time-management and delegation.
 
Final Thoughts
 
Many people use the internet to keep in touch with friends and family and for the majority, it is a good place. However, for others – social media is toxic and damaging to their mental health. If we know why it can be toxic we can hopefully protect ourselves and our mental wellbeing.
 
References:
 
 
Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 02:19
Quinta-feira, 28 / 11 / 19

The Unknown Origin of Thanksgiving: a Dark Story You Didn’t Learn in School

Jamie Logie.

November 26th, 2019. 

 

 
 
The holiday of Thanksgiving may seem straightforward with turkey and stuffing but has an uglier side that many are unaware of… The origin of Thanksgiving is more complicated than just the story of the pilgrims and Native Americans celebrating at Plymouth rock. It gets a bit darker, and peace ultimately didn’t win out.
 
This will be a look back at the Thanksgiving origin and the real story behind the story.
 
Setting The Stage For The Origin Of Thanksgiving
 
The story still starts with the pilgrims but more because of the tragic circumstances they were facing. The winter of 1620 was a notably brutal winter that ended up killing almost half of their people. The colonists decided it was time to create a relationship with their “neighbors.” These neighbors were the Wampanoag Tribe.
 
The Wampanoags taught the pilgrims everything about survival, including fishing, planting crops, and how to better hunt. By that autumn of 1621, the colonists – with their newly developed skills – had enough food and provisions to last them through the winter. They invited the Wampanoag to enjoy their haul and join them in a three-day feast.
 
This event didn’t feature the foods we would associate with Thanksgiving today such as stuffing and cranberry sauce but would feature things like goose, corn, and even lobster.
 
A Different Story
 
The above description is one that seems familiar, and it is true, but the way Thanksgiving evolved may not have been based on this event from 1621. For some later generations of colonists, the roots of their Thanksgiving had little to do with that 1621 event.
 
For some settlers in New England, Thanksgiving was a religious holiday that came from the Puritan days. They would observe periods of prayer, fasting, and giving thanks to God. Different colonies would observe various days of Thanksgiving determined by the leaders of each one.
 
But just one generation later after 1621, when we return to the relationship between the colonists and the Wampanoag, things start to break down. With thousands of new colonists arriving in the area, resources became more scarce. The authorities in Plymouth started to take up more land and dictate the way of life for the Wampanoag.
 
The origin of Thanksgiving as we know it is about to fade away.
 
 
The Spread Of Disease
 
It’s important to note that before those events of 1621, disease had already begun to decimate the Native American population. By 1619, nearly 90% of the Native American population in New England had been reduced. The spread of disease would still continue into the 1620s.
 
 
A new leader of the Wampanoag tribe emerged named Metacomet also known as “King Philip.” He had taken ownership after the passing of his father Massasoit. Relationships were starting to fray with the Wampanoag and the colonists, but things would fall apart when Metacomet would wage war after the murder of some of his men.
 
 
 
The Wampanoag would raid the New England colonies who eventually would declare war themselves in 1675. The war was brutal and ongoing. A large number of colonies would get involved with their members being taken hostage and held for ransom. The war pushed colonists into relocating and the Wampanoag to flee their villages.
 
Many towns – including Springfield, Massachusets – would be burned to the ground. The bloodshed and loss of lives were substantial. Not only was there the devastation of villages and land, but supplies, food, and provisions were being diminished.
 
Alliances and Attacks
 
The Colonists – knowing their backs were up against the wall – made alliances with other tribes such as the Mohegans and the Pequots. The Wampanoag looked to fellow tribes to form alliances and grow in power. When they approached the Mohawks in New York State, they were rejected and attacked.
 
Things then unraveled for “King Philip” who was shot and killed in a final battle. This man’s father was celebrating with the pilgrims just one generation earlier, and now he lay dead. It gets more gruesome as he would be beheaded and his head displayed on a stick in Plymouth for 25 years.
 
The other members of the Wampanoag would either be killed or sold into slavery in the West Indies. What had started as a celebration of thanksgiving ended up descending into war and death. It is thought that nearly 30% of the English population and half of the Native Americans were wiped out during the wars.
 
The controversial history behind Thanksgiving
 
 
The origin of Thanksgiving can make this a tough time of the year to look back on. On one hand, we have the traditional story with the idyllic setting and the coming together of different peoples. This is the image we have embraced, but it wasn’t the end of the story.
 
It’s hard to picture that this original peaceful situation would descend into a bloody war. The battles were vicious and have been overlooked over the course of time. Today, we tend to just embrace turkey and football while not being aware of what has transpired over the course of this “holiday”.
 
Even though the core of the original day of thanks has stayed with us, we would be remiss to not remember all the events that unfolded. The best thing is to not ignore the entire origins of this holiday, focus on the positive and uphold those original values of sharing, community, and giving thanks.
 
References:
 
 

About the Author: Jamie Logie

 
 
Jamie Logie is a personal trainer, nutritionist, and health and wellness specialist. Jamie also studied sociology and psychology at Western University and has a counseling diploma from Heritage Baptist College. He has run a blog and top-rated podcast on iTunes called "Regained Wellness". Jamie is also a contributing writer for places like the Huffington Post, Thrive Global, LifeHack and has an Amazon #1 book called "Taking Back Your Health".
 

 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 09:31
Domingo, 24 / 11 / 19

8 Types of Logical Fallacies and How They Distort Your Thinking

Alexander Nyland

https://www.learning-mind.com/

November 24th, 2019.


 
 
We often come across various types of logical fallacies when engaging in an argument or debate. These can slip into our reasoning when trying to argue a claim. Perhaps this is due to building a poor argument, for deliberate aims or simply through laziness.
 
However, what is meant by types of logical fallacies? For instance, we need to know what logical fallacies are before we can scrutinise some of the many forms they take.
 
What Is a Logical Fallacy?
 
A logical fallacy is a flaw in reasoning. It is a point that is made that’s logically false. This renders the argument defective due to the plausible validity of it being undermined.
 
Sometimes they are easy to spot and sometimes they are much more subtle. This can depend on how they arise is an argument. As mentioned, someone may just have constructed a weak argument. As a result, these logical inconsistencies may begin to appear.
 
On the other hand, a seasoned rhetorician may use them in a more tactical way. They will purposely use them to dupe the audience to their way of thinking.
 
In whatever situation they may appear in, you should know and recognise the many types of logical fallacies in the most basic sense. Then you can benefit greatly in various different aspects of your life.
 
Notably, it will help you become more adept in your own reasoning. In addition, it can also equip you with means to deconstruct an opponent’s argument effectively.
 
In this article, we will explore many common types of logical fallacies that can crop up in a debate. We will discuss how you can spot them and recognise how they can manipulate debate and distort your thinking.
 
8 Types of Logical Fallacies and How to Spot Them
 
Logical fallacies come in many different types and forms. Here is a list of 8 of the most common that you may come across. Each one comes with an explanation so that you may be able to see them at work for yourself.
 
Ad Hominem Fallacy
 
An ad hominem is a personal attack. One would use a personal attack on their counterpart rather than using sound reasoning to advance their argument. This is usually done when someone is criticising or disagreeing with another person’s view.
 
However, they show this criticism and disagreement through personal insults. Moreover, these insults are not connected or applicable to the subject at hand.
 
Verbal attacks replace logical thinking. It proves nothing except a poorly built argument. Indeed, it does nothing to develop the debate.
 
Look out if someone starts to personally insult you in some way when engaging in an argument. Identifying the ad hominem will allow you to expose it. In turn, this might strengthen your position in the debate.
 
Strawman Fallacy/Argument
 
The strawman fallacy is a poor ploy to try and make your own position stronger. You achieve this by criticising a position that the opponent never held. You would not deal with the actual matter at hand. Instead, you would respond to a genuine stance that your opponent has taken.
 
For example, one would manipulate this position and attack a superficial stance that you have created for them. This position may seem similar to what they have argued but it is ultimately false and unequal.
 
Hence, you end up criticising a position that your opponent never wanted to argue for in the first place. The strawman fallacy cheaply manipulates the discourse to strengthen a position. Listen carefully for this. Scrutinising this immediately will allow you to uncover this weakness.
 
Appeal to Authority
 
Sometimes citing an authoritative figure or organisation to back up your argument can be an effective way of strengthening it. However, relying on this can make your position weak. Not to mention, it can steer the debate away from the real issues at hand.
 
The appeal to authority fallacy occurs when you wrongly apply authority to your argument. This is done to provide proof of what you are trying to say.
 
Appealing to authority can initially seem like a persuasive tool. However, often it needs additional support to really be effective. Otherwise, it can be just a cheap way of falsely making an argument look stronger.
 
Appealing to authority can be relatively easy to spot. What important is to evaluate it in the context of the subject of the debate. Only then can you see whether it is relevant or appropriate.
 
Bandwagon Fallacy
 
The bandwagon fallacy is another addition to this list of types of logical fallacies. It is also perhaps one of the easiest to deduce. Most people will be familiar with the phrase ‘jumping on the bandwagon’. The bandwagon fallacy is essentially this but using it as a means of gaining support and credibility.
 
This fallacy is judging something to be true just because many others believe it to be. Or, taking up a position, without any prior belief in it, because many others support it. To put it another way, deceitfully gaining support for a position and bolstering in the process.
 
Slippery Slope Fallacy
 
The slippery slope fallacy occurs with a reasonable proposition and then spirals into fanciful and extreme suggestions or consequences.
 
Someone may begin their reasonable proposition, then suggest something will happen as a consequence, and this relates to a chain of linked events. However, as the proposition unfolds it eventually ends in a highly improbable outcome.
 
This can be easy to spot. The ridiculous or inconceivable outcome has little to no evidence to suggest that it may actually come about.
 
Hasty Generalisation
 
A hasty generalisation is exactly as it sounds. Someone may hastily generalise their argument. Then they will reach their conclusion swiftly without any substantial evidence to back it up. This could be for several reasons:
  1. Rushing to a conclusion
  2. Making a sweeping assumption
  3. Making a wild exaggeration without any sort of credible proof
 
It is essentially jumping to a conclusion erratically without much thought and without enough evidence to support that conclusion. It can occur through a poorly structured argument.
 
If an opponent in a debate seems to have reached their conclusion quite quickly and without much evidence, then it’s probably a hasty generalisation.
 
Circular Argument
 
A circular argument is when someone arrives at a conclusion in which they just repeat what has already been established or assumed.
 
It is a type of logical fallacy doesn’t really prove anything new. Actually, all it does is repeat previous arguments in the same way. However, it insinuates a new conclusion is reached.
 
An example of this would be “the bible is true, therefore, you should accept the word of god”. We have no new conclusion after the original premise of assuming the bible is true. All we have is a conclusion that resembles the original premise.
 
Tu Quoque Fallacy
 
‘Tu Quoque’ is Latin for “you too”. This logical fallacy diverts attention from the argument at hand and the attention on yourself. Rather, it seeks to expose the hypocrisy in your opponent.
 
It works by taking away the criticism of yourself by throwing it back at your opponent. It does this effectively by either making a similar or the same accusation.
 
Imagine you are watching a political debate and ‘politician A’ accuses ‘politician B’ of lying to the electorate about a particular policy. A tu quoque fallacy would occur if politician B would just retaliate by pointing out that politician A has also lied in the past. They would make no attempt of defending that accusation put against them.
 
Focusing on an opponent’s hypocrisy is a false attempt to discredit them. This is because it does not further the argument in any way – it just answers criticism with criticism.
 
How Do These Types of Logical Fallacies Distort Your Thinking?
 
These types of logical fallacies have the potential to distort our thought process in a debate. This is due to the illogical and irrelevant stance that they may take. They can often throw us off course if confronted with them.
 
At the same time, they can divert the argument into another direction or weaken your own argument if you do not know how to recognise or expose these logical fallacies.
 
Final Thoughts
 
The first step to overcoming this and strengthening your debating and reasoning skills will be learning what these logical fallacies are and how to spot them. Once you understand what they are you can credibly present your argument.
 
References:
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.



About the Author: Alexander Nyland

 
Alexander Nyland is an avid writer, blogger and traveller with a Bachelor of Arts degree in English Literature and Philosophy, graduating in 2018 from the University of Sheffield. His particular focus and interests in his studies included Film and Ancient Greek philosophy. Alex has always been fascinated by art, culture and philosophy and believes they are an integral and important part of all of our lives. He has his own blog, thefilmpheed.com, which discusses these subjects and their role in our lives and society in-depth.
 
 
 


Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


More @ http://violetflame.biz.ly and 
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publicado por achama às 16:27
Domingo, 24 / 11 / 19

The Psychology of Obedience: Why Do Some People Obey While Others Don’t?

Becky Storey.

https://www.learning-mind.com/

November 24th, 2019.

 

 
 
Law and order keep us safe and under control. For the most part, we can all get along with that. So, what is it in our psychology that makes some people content with obedience, while others shun the whole idea?
 
Obedience and obeying the rules seem like second nature to most of us. We navigate our entire lives within the confines of the rules set by our parents, our schools, our jobs, and our country. This is not a bad thing, despite what the class clowns might want you to think.
 
The Psychology of Obedience
 
There are a whole host of reasons for why we obey. These extend from a fear of punishment to truly believing in what we’re told to do. These reasons can be personal or very general, based on our natural human psychology.
 
Status Quo Bias
 
This theory on the psychology of obedience highlights our desire to avoid change. Traditionally we tend to stick with rules and routines that we’re used to. We obey rules that are ingrained in society because deviating might mean losing what we’ve already established.
 
We feel we have less to lose if we obey the rules. This is because our lives will stay the same when we don’t deviate from tradition. Just like choosing the same meal in a restaurant with every visit, we simply try to avoid regret. This is called Loss Aversion.
 
We’re also victims of the Mere Exposure Effect. This theory suggests that we choose obedience simply because we’ve been exposed to it. This suggests that psychological obedience is actually created environmentally. If our parents and friends are obedient people, we usually are too.
 
Mass Surveillance
 
We know we’re being watched. Sometimes, our obedience isn’t psychological at all. We may disagree with the rules. We may wish we were behaving differently.
 
Unfortunately, the presence of CCTV cameras means we typically do our best to obey the rules. The risk of being caught in the act is too great when we know we could be seen.
 
Coercive Power
 
When we fear punishment, we obey the rules. Authority figures have this kind of power. The psychological element of this kind of obedience is the anxiety we feel when it comes to consequences. We are terrified of being scolded. We dread having our luxuries taken away. If we disobey at work, we lose our job.
 
Similarly, our obedience can be influenced by Reward Power. In this case, we obey the rules and demands of others because we want to be rewarded. This could be praise, a raise, or even awards. Psychologically, rewards can even be more influential on our willingness to obey than the fear of punishment.
 
Agentic State
 
Psychologists hold that The Agentic State is a mind-space we enter which influences our obedience. This especially applies when the order or rule we’ve been given is not something we like. We shift into this state to put blame on those who gave the orders, rather than ourselves.
 
A real-life application of this psychological state is seen in those who commit terrible crimes. Psychologists first noticed this phenomenon during the trials of officers who worked under Hitler. These Nazi officers would use the “I was only doing as I was told” excuse to justify their part in such heinous crimes.
 
The agentic state allowed them to hide behind their superiors, and genuinely believed they were blameless, despite carrying out monstrous acts. By convincing ourselves that we wouldn’t be to blame, we’re much more likely to obey even the evilest of commands.
But why, if we’re so psychologically prone to obedience, do we ever disobey?
 
Peer Pressure
 
When we crave popularity or acceptance into a group, we’ll do whatever it takes. Back in school, the “popular kids” tended to be the ones who broke the rules. They skipped class, drank alcohol and took drugs. They disobeyed most rules set by teachers and parents, and they were adored for it.
 
Especially in our teenage years, rebellion is considered desirable. It shows courage and a laid-back attitude that draws attention.
 
With this theory, all the psychology that goes into obedience flies out of the window. If we wanted to be liked by the “coolest” of our peers, we had to disobey. Right and wrong weren’t factors.
Intelligent Disobedience
 
Education is a strong factor in the psychology of disobedience. Simply put, the more naïve you are, the more likely you are to follow without thinking. With intelligence comes the ability to review rules, and especially government policies, for yourself.
 
The rise in protests and acts of defiance around the world recently can be blamed on new knowledge. These are known as acts of Civil Disobedience.
 
These rule-breaking, and sometimes law-breaking, protests are the result of education. As we become more knowledgeable about matters of climate change or social justice, we begin to realize that our rules and laws are incorrect. We try to rise up and get noticed by politicians, who we feel aren’t as educated on certain matters.
 
In order to have these injustices rectified, we have to break some rules. As the saying goes, you cannot make an omelet without first breaking some eggs. Psychologically, we feel our knowledge outranks the traditional hierarchies. This can include parent to child, teacher to student, or citizen to government.
 
Helper Syndrome
 
Consider the story of Robin Hood. Steal from the rich, give to the poor. This is an obvious act of disobedience; theft is a crime. However, we can often justify our actions if we think we’ve done them for the greater good.
 
If your family is poor and starving, is it okay to steal bread to feed them? If you’re under threat, is self-defense a valid excuse for murder?
 
Sometimes, we believe we must do something bad in order to rectify wrongdoing. This could be to ourselves personally, or on behalf of society as a whole.
 
References:

Becky Storey
 

 




 

About the Author: Becky Storey


 
Becky Storey is a professional writer who has been passionate about the way we think and the human mind since she developed chronic anxiety many years ago. Now she loves to write and educate people on mental health and wellbeing. When Becky is not writing, you’ll find her outside with her Labrador, sitting behind a jigsaw puzzle, or baking something with too much sugar.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 16:03
Quinta-feira, 21 / 11 / 19

What Is Fear Appeal and How the Mass Media and Businesses Are Using It

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted November 20th, 2019.

 
fear appeal.

 

 
 
You may not have noticed it, but you are likely to have come across fear appeal tactics used by mass media and businesses that want your custom.
 
So what is fear appeal and how does it affect our attitudes and behaviors?
 
Fear appeal is a carefully constructed message that aims to arouse fear in an individual so that they follow the recommendations of that message. Fear appeals are frequently used in marketing communications but have also been used for health drives, political campaigns, driving safety initiatives, and even within schools to spur students on to get better grades.
 
Fear appeal is said to trigger something called ‘fear arousal’ which is the effect of fear on the brain. This is an evolutionary trait that triggers an unpleasant emotional state when fear is detected so that we respond in a way that helps us to reduce or remove the fear or threat.
 
How is fear appeal used?
 
When it comes to fear appeal, the mass media and businesses are experts. More often than not, what we have come to refer to as the ‘mass media’ is actually owned by a few large corporations that largely have political interests at their heart. This can lead to news stories being inflated or particular groups targeted in an attempt to use fear appeal to push forward certain political agendas.
 
Similarly, when looking at a political manifesto you will often find that politicians frequently draw on the fear factor to push through a desired course of action. In highlighting the terrible things that will happen if a particular policy is not enforced, they are using fear appeal.
 
When it comes to advertising the use of fear appeal is perhaps more obvious. Businesses use it to draw on the potential fears of consumers in order to persuade them to purchase a certain product. Often such advertising campaigns draw on people’s insecurities in order to draw out the need to buy the product in question.
 
For instance, adverts about deodorant tell you that if you don’t use their product, you will have sweat stains and a strong unappealing body odor. Skin cream companies will aim to show you how wrinkled your face will look in twenty years’ time if you don’t use their face cream. The list goes on.
 
However, fear appeal doesn’t necessarily have to be seen in a negative light for it is also used for positive causes. Non-profit organizations will often use fear appeal to generate support for their cause, such as showing the effects of climate change on the planet to encourage a donation or action. Smoking packets now generally have photos of the effects of smoking on them to discourage smokers as a health initiative.
 
Is using fear effective?
 
There is a large body of research on the effectiveness of fear appeal with a difference in opinion as to whether it really works. For instance, Goldenbeld et al (2007) found that fear appeal had a counterproductive effect on the participants of their study where it was used in anti-speeding interventions.
 
It is also the case that some fear appeals go too far in their explicit content. When the imagery or messaging is too graphic then the target audience may actually ignore the information instead of it having the desired effect.
 
However, a recent study by Tannenbaum et al (2015), which consolidated 127 experiments on fear appeal through a meta-analysis, found that it did have a positive effect on attitudes, intentions, and behaviors.
 
Interestingly, the analysis found that fear appeal had a greater effect on female message recipients and that the effectiveness of fear appeal increased when the message included efficacy statements, depicted high susceptibility and severity, and recommended one-time-only (vs. repeated) behaviors.
 
The ethics of using fear
 
Fear can have a powerful effect on our response and is, therefore, an effective motivator. This raises an important question about the ethics of fear appeal.
 
There are some that view fear appeal as exploitative and creating a culture in which we are made to fear more than we need to and that contributes to increased anxiety. It can also exploit those who are vulnerable such as the young, ill or those suffering from addiction and demonize target groups of whom the fear factor is based.
 
There are calls, therefore, for greater controls to be put on advertising campaigns to consider the ethical ramifications of their content. These include better research into the target audience and the short-term and long-term effects using fear appeal will have on them, decide whether a fear appeal is appropriate in that scenario and to consider using alternatives to fear appeals.
 
Fear appeal is a strong weapon in the hands of mass media, politicians, and advertisers as well as being a powerful force for non-profit campaigns and initiatives to prevent dangerous or unhealthy habits.
 
Using fear appeal draws on our evolutionary response to fear known as ‘fear arousal’, an unpleasant state which motivates us to do something to alleviate that fear. When it comes to responding to fear appeal, this can lead to us purchasing a specific product, donating to a specific cause, changing an unhealthy habit or voting for a particular political party.
 
 
References
 
 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 16:17
Quinta-feira, 21 / 11 / 19

6 Types of Loneliness and Different Causes of This Universal Feeling

Becky Storey.

https://www.learning-mind.com/

November 20th, 2019.

 



 
Loneliness is something we’re all familiar with. It’s almost a compulsory part of the human experience. But, did you know that there are many different types and causes of loneliness? Loneliness isn’t just one blanket feeling, it can be brought on by all sorts of experiences, not just from being alone.
 
Knowing why you feel lonely is the key to resolving it. Finding out what type is causing your loneliness will allow you to start regaining what was lost.
 
6 Types of Loneliness
 
New Situation Loneliness
 
When you move to a new place, start a new job, or join a new school, you suddenly find yourself alone. When you haven’t made any real connections, you’re forced to spend most of your time in these new places without anyone by your side. This is a very lonely experience. Fortunately, we know deep down that this type of loneliness is temporary. It is part of the transition phase, from your past chapters to your new one.
 
This type of loneliness isn’t chronic or, hopefully, too insufferable. When you put yourself out there, the loneliness will fade away. It’s only a matter of time before you start to feel included, and surrounded by company, again.
Surrounded but Lonely
 
So many of us can relate to the feeling of being surrounded by people we love, and who love us and still feeling existential loneliness. Unlike in a new situation, this type of loneliness occurs when everything around us is familiar. We know the people and we know the places, but we just can’t fit in.
 
For example, you could be in a family full of academics. They love you deeply and you love them, but you’re not interested in their academia. You prefer art maybe, or music. In situations like this, you might feel lonely because you can’t join in on their conversations. You also crave company that shares your interests. The case is similar in groups with mixed religious beliefs.
 
When you have no one to relate to, it doesn’t really matter how surrounded by others you are. Loneliness can be an emotional experience, entirely unrelated to how physically alone, or not, you are.
 
Left Behind Loneliness
 
Everyone goes through phases in life. We all progress to new chapters and have new experiences, but we all do this at different speeds. While some of our friends might be settling down and moving on, we could be taking some stages a little slower. It’s totally okay to take life at your own pace, but it can mean that we often feel like we’ve been left behind.
 
When the people we usually rely on for company suddenly disappear to new jobs, new lives and new adventures, they have less time for us. This kind of loneliness could be literally applied when our friends become so busy that they genuinely can’t spend any time with you.
 
It could also be metaphorical, similar to the idea of being surrounded but still feeling alone. If your friends have started families or gotten “proper” jobs before you, then you’ll likely feel loneliness due to suddenly having less in common. This type of loneliness stems from feeling like everyone is too busy for you or that you’re not a priority anymore.
 
Missing Presence Loneliness
 
Have you ever lost someone who used to fill a space in your home? When they go, whether it’s through death or a break-up or just moving away, they leave behind a void. This type of loneliness differs from the rest because it doesn’t discriminate. It doesn’t matter whether you have hundreds of other people who love you or none at all. When that one special person is missing, that’s all that matters.
 
We feel a kind of loneliness that is unaffected by the outside world when we’re rattling around alone in our homes. In some cases, people will even avoid going home, to prevent having to miss their presence. There’s a quiet companionship that comes with living with others, even animals, and when that’s taken away it leaves a hole.
 
Emotional Loneliness
 
Emotional loneliness presents itself when we have no one significant in our lives to share our emotions with. This differs from the other types of loneliness. You could have plenty of friends, but it’s a depth that’s missing. It appears when friendships are superficial or only surface level.
 
We aren’t longing for company; we’re just longing for connection. We all face difficulties and traumas, and we all deserve someone to share them with to help us heal.
 
We feel so lonely without this kind of deep connection. Sometimes the people in our lives just aren’t that emotionally committed to us. Some friends and family are enough to keep us happy and in good company but don’t have the time or depth to take on our emotional needs.
 
We feel a sense of loneliness because we aren’t able to really share ourselves. We’re alone in the sense that we can’t share, and that can be a very ostracizing experience.
 
Romantic Loneliness
 
Romantic loneliness is a common and probably the most relatable of all the types of loneliness. It exists independent of friendships and family company. As a part of human nature, we crave the company and intimacy of a romantic relationship. There is just another layer of companionship that friends can’t provide us, so we long for love.
 
Have you ever been the third wheel when hanging out with friends? These kinds of moments make us feel lonely, despite not being alone. We have a feeling of loneliness because we’re missing a portion of what life could offer. We’re missing that deep connection with another person.
 
Returning to an empty bed every night can be a lonely experience. Only a true romantic connection can relieve the intense feeling of loneliness which results from watching your friends settle down and cozy up without you.
 
Loneliness is a universally understood feeling. From children to the elderly, the rich and the poor, loneliness doesn’t discriminate. You’re never alone, though. There are so many different types of loneliness. No experience is the same, but no feeling is too exclusive either.
 
References:
 
 

Becky Storey


 




 

About the Author: Becky Storey


 
Becky Storey is a professional writer who has been passionate about the way we think and the human mind since she developed chronic anxiety many years ago. Now she loves to write and educate people on mental health and wellbeing. When Becky is not writing, you’ll find her outside with her Labrador, sitting behind a jigsaw puzzle, or baking something with too much sugar.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 16:12
Sábado, 16 / 11 / 19

5 Reasons Behind Oversharing on Social Media and How to Stop It

Becky Storey.

https://www.learning-mind.com/

November 15th, 2019.

 



 
We love social media. It is an undeniable part of daily life now, and for the most part, that’s okay. Unfortunately, sometimes it can all get too much and we start oversharing personal things on social media.
 
We all know someone whose social media is flooded with stories that are too personal and too detailed to be shared so publicly. There are people who share every minor moment.
 
Oversharing on social media is common and there are some serious psychological reasons behind why we do it.
 
Oversharing can be dangerous. Not only are we often giving away private information like our location, but we’re also often saying things that could jeopardize our jobs. Even when our settings are set to private, there’s usually always a way for our information to be shared publicly without our consent.
 
Anonymity
 
One of the most straight forward reasons behind oversharing on social media is this: no one has to know who you are. Social media sometimes feels a little like shouting into the void, as if no one will hear it.
 
When we overshare on our social media accounts, we experience a delay in returned communication. We don’t have to face the repercussions of our confessions immediately like we would if we revealed a secret in person. We don’t have to see the faces of others and we don’t have to experience the awkwardness.
 
Sometimes, when we overshare on social media, we also fill in our own blanks. We can decide how others will react without ever having to hear it for real.
 
Because of this anonymity, we can overshare all sorts of sordid details about our lives. When we’re posting under our own name, the world seems too far away to notice us. If we want more secrecy, we can even disguise our name.
 
Our voices are diluted online, allowing us to yell our secrets into a crowd of millions. It feels private, even when it’s incredibly public.
 
A Lack of Authority
 
Unlike at work, school, or even at home, there are no authority figures online. Social media is a free-for-all. We can overshare all we like because there’s no one to stop us.
 
Free speech isn’t always a good thing though. We reveal our political alliances, our morals, and values like it’s nothing. In public, we’d never open up with such personal details until we really knew a person.
 
We also forget that social media isn’t all that private. Although our bosses, teachers, and parents might not be watching us in person, there’s no real way to hide our words from them, even if they don’t follow our accounts directly.
Egocentricity
 
Of course, we all assume that anyone who overshares on social media is doing it for attention. We wouldn’t always be wrong on this theory, though I like to pretend that it’s not an all too common reason. Sometimes though, people just want their 15 minutes of fame.
 
As humans, we crave attention. We want to be in people’s thoughts, and we love to know that others are looking, hopefully admiringly, at us. We usually want our selfies, stories and hilarious tweets to catch someone’s attention and bring us some notoriety.
 
On the other hand, some people overshare every detail because they genuinely believe other people care. Sometimes, a person’s narcissistic nature means they think even their most mundane moments are important.
 
These people thrive off the approval that comes from a “like” even when it was done out of habit or kindness, rather than genuine interest.
 
Low Self-Esteem
 
 
In contrast to the self-centered reasons for some, low self-esteem is a common reason why others might overshare on social media. When we’re feeling down about ourselves, we seek the reassurance and approval of others.
 
When someone feels insecure about their image, they seek out compliments, or even just passive likes, as a way of feeling better. One selfie can bring instant reassurance that people do “like” the way we look. The rush we get from this approval makes us want to do it again, and ultimately overshare ourselves.
 
Similarly, we tend to always display what we feel are our best qualities and moments. When we do something we think is interesting or take a selfie we think is attractive, we post it far and wide, so as many people as possible will see it.
 
We overshare all sorts of things that don’t need to be seen by acquaintances we’ve long forgotten, but we want them to see it. We want to be seen as cool or attractive, even if it’s not real.
 
It’s a sort of “say it enough times and you’ll start to believe it” situation. We’ll flood our social media accounts with too much information or too many pictures, hoping the quantity will amount to someone, somewhere, thinking that’s who we really are.
 
The same applies to low self-esteem resulting from our personalities, achievements and life situations. Sometimes, when we post self-deprecating statuses or pictures with sad captions, we get a rush of support.
 
The flood of compliments, pep talks and love are addictive. This leads people to keep oversharing deeper and deeper personal stories on social media, just to receive some reassurance that we aren’t as bad as we feel.
Loneliness
 
In a not too different way, we could be oversharing on social media because we feel alone. Social media gives us an opportunity to tell the world our stories without the repercussions we would have in real life. When we speak out about our secrets, our problems and our concerns, we often learn that we aren’t alone.
 
Often, people take to their social media accounts to reveal things. They’re then met with a community of people who feel the same or have experienced the same thing. Suddenly, they’re not alone anymore. Oversharing isn’t always a terrible thing, as long as it’s met by likeminded people.
 
There are forums and groups on social media sites that cater to every story, and thus, oversharing is welcomed because it’s falling on ears that want to hear it.
 
Be careful what you overshare online because you can’t take it back. Social media is an incredible place to share your story but consider this rule: never post anything you wouldn’t want your grandmother to see. If she shouldn’t see it, neither should acquaintances from years gone by.
 
Once you’ve worked out your reasons for it, you can fix those instead of turning to your social media accounts.
 
References:
 
Becky Storey

 




 

About the Author: Becky Storey


 
Becky Storey is a professional writer who has been passionate about the way we think and the human mind since she developed chronic anxiety many years ago. Now she loves to write and educate people on mental health and wellbeing. When Becky is not writing, you’ll find her outside with her Labrador, sitting behind a jigsaw puzzle, or baking something with too much sugar.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 23:10
Terça-feira, 12 / 11 / 19

How to Win an Argument with These 7 Science-Based Hacks

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted November 11th, 2019.

 
how to win an argument.

 


 

No matter our persuasions, we all like to be right. This means that when your perspective confronts someone else’s, it can be very difficult to change their mind. Even if you are armed with passion, facts, and the will to argue your position to the death. But how can you win an argument and get someone to shift their position if everyone likes to be right?
 
How to Win an Argument Using Science
 
In this post, we will take you through 7 science-based hacks. These will give you the skills you need to know how to win an argument. Changing the way people think is never easy. However, using these scientific hacks, you’ll stand a better chance of winning over even the most argumentative of souls.
 
Be respectful
 
Even if you think someone’s opinion is ludicrous, you are not going to win someone over to your way of thinking. Especially if you go straight in mocking their beliefs. Even if you don’t, try to demonstrate that you respect their opinion. Then, you are more likely to make them feel their self-worth validated.
 
Use phrases like:
“I think you’re definitely right”
“I understand where you’re coming from”
 
Or anything else to make them feel validated will get you a long way. Interestingly, when someone feels validated, they tend to be more willing to listen to information that challenges their beliefs.
Get them to explain their position
 
Ironically, when someone has to explain their beliefs they tend to become less confident about them. Yale University Psychologist F.C. Keil describes this phenomenon as “the illusion of explanatory depth”. This is because by trying to explain why they hold their beliefs, they confront the limitations of their own understanding.
 
Therefore, ask someone to explain their position with non-aggressive and exploratory questions. You’ll find their views are likely to soften and become more malleable.
 
Facts are not a panacea
 
It is tempting to look up a killer fact to finally sway your friend round to your way of thinking about the world. However, psychological studies have shown that winning an argument is much more emotional than logical.
 
Indeed, people tend to begin with their conclusion then pluck the reasons that support their belief out of thin air. Throwing facts at them is likely to throw them into fight-or-flight mode. Subsequently, you are more likely to close down their receptiveness to different viewpoints.
 
Confidence is key
 
Facts might not be the magic-bullet you hoped for, confidence just might be. A 2013 study found that people are much more likely to listen and be receptive to ideas presented confidently even if they are light on the facts.
 
 
Confidence is used as a proxy for expertise. As a result, the actual content of what is being said plays second fiddle to the way it is being said.
 
Seek to appear scientific
 
In modern societies, people perhaps value the opinions of scientists above all others with very little scepticism. Therefore, present your view in a scientific way. Then people are likely to be more persuaded by your arguments.
 
Why not go the whole hog and use a graph to explain your point? Then you’ll be well on the way to winning people round to your way of thinking.
 
The point to remember is, whatever way you can appear scientific will be of major benefit. Use data and references rather than anecdotes and logic over subjective positions.
 
Social proof
 
‘Social proof’ is where people seek to confirm that a certain behavior or belief is suitable. Psychologist Robert Cialdini defines social proof as copying the actions of others in order to reflect the correct behavior. We particularly copy those people we like.
 
“We like people who are similar to us. This fact seems to hold true whether the similarity is in the area of opinions, personality traits, background, or life-style.” Robert Cialdini
 
Examples of social proof include buying a product recommended by a family member. Liking a social media post because all your friends have liked it. Watching a programme because your partner loves it.
Re-frame the debate
 
People with different political beliefs tend to respond more positively to different arguments based on their own moral compasses.
 
The Moral Foundations Theory (MFT) suggests we hold 5 foundational beliefs. For instance, liberals give weight to arguments framed around fairness and protecting people from harm. On the other hand, conservatives value loyalty and authority most highly.
 
So, if you know someone’s political position, shaping your position accordingly is likely to lead to more successful results.
 
Want to Win an Argument? Use Confidence and Rely on Logical Thinking
 
When we disagree with others it is easy to get carried away. We use cheap personal attacks, look to cold facts as a magic remedy, or lose faith in our own position.
 
However, if we want to win an argument and change someone’s position, we are unlikely to be successful in using these methods. This is unless we take a confident, scientific, and tactical approach.
 
Treat people with respect. Have them explore how their ideas work themselves. Use gentle questioning, and re-frame the debate to suit the moral underpinnings of your target. Then you’ll stand the best chance of swaying people to your way of thinking. This is all you need to know in order to win an argument.
 
References:

 

 

Lottie Miles

 





 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 17:39
Domingo, 10 / 11 / 19

Milgram Obedience Study and What It Reveals about Human Nature

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted November 10th, 2019.

 
milgram obedience study.

 



Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram conducted his famous series of experiments widely known as Obedience Study almost 60 years ago. The ethics of the experiment have since been subject to criticism. However, it raised important questions about the power of authority in achieving obedience.
 
In this article, we take a look at the Milgram Experiment and what it reveals about human nature. We will also look at the counter-arguments which criticize Milgram’s ethics and dispute his results.
 
What Is the Milgram Obedience Study?
 
The Obedience Study refers to a set of psychology experiments conducted by Milgram. It intended to investigate the relationship between obedience to authority and personal conscience.
 
Milgram’s interest in conducting this study was sparked by the trial of Adolph Eichmann, a Nazi war criminal who was one of the main organizers of the Holocaust. Milgram wanted to find out how humans are capable of committing atrocities that go so far beyond their personal conscience.
 
Participants for Milgram’s experiments were recruited by a newspaper advert and were all male. All participants were given the role of “teacher” and were put in control of an electroshock generator.
 
They were instructed by the “experimenter” to ask the “learner” questions. If they answered them incorrectly, they should deliver a shock to them. Moreover, they would increase this shock by 15 volts with each wrong answer (with the increase leading to shocks that could be fatal).
 
The electric shocks were, in fact, fake and the “learner” in each experiment was part of the research team. So they would act out sounds of pain and plead for the experiment to stop.
 
When participants asked the experimenter whether they should stop the shocks (which the majority did) they were told these commands:
  1. Please continue.
  2. The experiment requires that you continue.
  3. It is absolutely essential that you continue.
  4. You have no other choice, you must go on.
 
What did the Milgram Obedience Study reveal about human nature?
 
The results of the Milgram Obedience Study were that two-thirds of participants (62.5%) delivered the maximum electric shock (450 volts, a shock that could have killed), and a third of participants stopped at 300 volts.
 
The observations showed that participants displayed significant signs of stress during the experiment. All participants stopped to question the experiment and some even offered to return the money they were to be paid so that the experiment would stop.
 
Milgram summed up that the results of the experiment showed that obedience is instilled in us all from an early age due to the way we are raised. Suggesting that, the instruction received by an authority figure, which the individual has deemed to be legally or morally authorized to give such instruction, would lead to obedience.
 
In the case of the Milgram Obedience Study, the authority figure was the experimental scientist and the results of the experiment, Milgram suggested, revealed that stark authority won over a participant’s strong imperative against hurting others. For many, the study revealed an illuminating aspect of human nature.
 
What is wrong with Milgram’s research?
 
Milgram’s research is widely cited and referenced within the field of psychology. Still, both the ethics and the methodology of the study have received ample criticism. Ethically, critics of the study believe that the intense stress levels that Milgram’s participants went through were unacceptable.
 
In addition to this, audio recordings of Milgram’s experiments (which were discovered by psychologist Gina Perry) demonstrate that, in some experiments, the ‘experimenter’ broke away from the set script and used bullying and coercion to force the participants to continue delivering the electric shocks. Perry also found that the majority of participants were not thoroughly debriefed after the traumatic experiment.
 
Methodologically, Milgram’s research has also received much criticism. The 62.5% statistic was used to prove Milgram’s theory of the power of authority on obedience. However, this study was based on the results of just 40 participants. This is too low a number to draw any concrete conclusions.
 
Further experiments conducted by Milgram often had conflicting methodologies with different scenarios and a variance in the severity of the experimenter. The lack of standardization makes the experiments difficult to compare. However, when looking at the 23 experiments as a whole, the average rate of obedience falls to 43%. This is significantly lower than the widely cited statistic of 62.5%.
 
What do current obedience studies say?
 
Despite the criticisms of the Milgram Obedience Study, this pioneering study did pave the way for further research into the causes of destructive obedience and the impact of this on world events and individual lives.
 
 
Research from the University of St. Andrews in Scotland suggests that human obedience to destructive activities is not solely in response to authority, an individual must also have strong ideological links with that authority figure and agree with the orders being given to them.
 
This theory does not completely dispute the work of Milgram, however. It deters from the ‘banality of evil’ idea that ordinary people are capable of committing terrible atrocities purely through following the orders of an authority figure.
 
The Milgram Obedience Study raised important questions about what leads individuals to obey orders. It also paved the way for further investigations into the power of authority on human behavior.
 
 
References:
  1. https://theconversation.com
  2. https://psycnet.apa.org
  3. Image credit: Yale University
 
Lottie Miles
 





 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 23:06
Domingo, 10 / 11 / 19

7 Famous Fairy Tales That Are Based on Gruesome True Life Stories

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

November 7th, 2019.

 
famous fairy tales real stories.
 
 

 

What is it about fairy tales that captivate the imaginations of children? Could it be that underneath the thin veneer of fiction lies a much darker truth to the tales? Did you know that the most famous fairy tales are based on gruesome real-life stories? Here are just a few:
 
Famous Fairy Tales and the Creepy Real Stories Behind Them
Bluebeard
 
I loved this fairy tale as a child. So much so that I would beg my sister to read it to me every night before bed. I knew it off by heart and sometimes she would try and skip a line or two. Whenever she did, I would tell her off.
 
The story is pretty awful as a famous fairy tale in its own right. A king named Bluebeard marries a beautiful young princess and takes her to his magnificent castle. He gives her the keys to all the rooms in the castle but tells her not to open the last door in an underground chamber.
 
He then goes off hunting and of course, naturally inquisitive, the young queen goes down to the room and opens the door. Here she finds blood everywhere and the king’s previous wives, murdered and hanging on hooks.
 
Horrified she drops the key in the blood and tries to wash it off. But the blood won’t come off. Will she face the same fate? Luckily, her brother races to her rescue in time to kill Bluebeard.
 
This famous fairy tale is based on two real-life characters. Conomor the Cursed is a savage 6th-century ruler in Breton. This Breton chief had been warned that one of his sons would end up killing him. As a result, he pre-empts this by killing all of his pregnant wives.
 
However, his last wife, Tryphine, is also warned by the ghosts of the murdered wives. She flees but he finds her and beheads her. Miraculously, a sacred monk brings her back to life and when they return to Conomor’s castle the walls collapse around him.
 
The second character is the 15th-century nobleman and notorious serial killer Gilles de Rais. This man earned a formidable reputation fighting alongside Joan of Arc. Yet, in his private life, he murdered children.
 
He was given the nickname of Bluebeard because of the peculiar way his horse’s mane looked blue in the daytime. Gilles de Rais is one of the world’s most evil psychopaths.
 
Hansel and Gretel
 
 
 
 
This is one of those fairy tales that is famous because the story resonates with children today. It tells of a poor woodcutter and his second wife. She is the stepmother to his children – Hansel and Gretel.
 
As food becomes scarce, the stepmother decides there is not enough food for the children. So she persuades the woodcutter to take the children deep into the forest where they won’t be able to find their way home.
 
They come across a witches’ house made of gingerbread. Eventually, they get the better of the witch and return home with the spoils of her house.
 
The story is set during the Great Famine of 1315. Many people starved to death during this time. Acts of extreme cruelty, such as infanticide and cannibalism, took place as people became more desperate. The situation for some families became so wretched that they left their children to fend for themselves.
 
The gingerbread house part of the story comes from a highly profitable baker called Katharina Schraderin. She became legendary in the 1600s thanks to her gingerbread cookies, which everyone wanted. One male baker was so determined to get her recipe he accused her of being a witch.
 
As a result, she was hounded and driven out of the town. But, then in an awful twist, her neighbours brought her back and burned her to death in one of her baking ovens.
 
 
 
Cinderella
 
Cinderella is every young girl’s dream, right? Well, perhaps not mine, as you’ve already heard, I was getting a taste for psychopaths and sociopaths.
 
Everyone knows in this famous fairy tale that Cinders has a tough life. She has to do all the chores, look after her evil stepsisters, and might miss out on the Ball. But, it all comes good in the end. She gets the gorgeous frock, she arrives in a splendid carriage and meets Prince Charming. Furthermore, the story has a happy ending.
 
However, the real-life tale is not so pretty and there’s no happy ever after for Cinders. The story is based around a slave girl in ancient Greece, around 500BC. Rhodopis was a beautiful young Greek woman. At a young age, she was taken from her home in Greece and forced into slavery.
 
Rhodopis was exquisitely beautiful and men lusted after her. As such, she became a prized possession and men showered her with expensive gifts. One of these gifts was a pair of golden shoes.
 
Pharaoh Ahmose II saw the shoes and Rhodopis and wanted her for himself. Although strictly she was not of royal blood, he married her. Her life was to be a ready and willing sex slave to the pharaoh.
 
Beauty and the Beast
 
This is one of those famous fairy tales that you wouldn’t expect to have a real story behind it. But it does.
 
In 1537, a young boy aged 10 called Gonsalvus, was taken from his home in Spain to the Royal French court. Here he was ordered to entertain the King of France. Why? Because he suffered from a condition called hypertrichosis. This causes someone to grow hair all over their body. It is called ‘werewolf syndrome’.
 
The king was enamoured with his little ‘beast’. He educated him and he became a nobleman. When the king died, his wife found the beast a wife. Despite his looks, the pair did fall in love. They had seven children (all of whom also suffered from hypertrichosis) and were married for 40 years.
 
Rapunzel
 
‘Rapunzel, Rapunzel, let down your golden hair!’ I remember this story from my childhood. I kept thinking, why is she waiting for someone to come and rescue her? But the real-life story behind this fairy tale might explain it.
 
As unusual, we have the beautiful protagonist, this time it is an auburn-haired girl living in the 3rd century. Her overbearing father was a wealthy merchant who travelled abroad all the time. No man was good enough for his daughter so when he went off on his travels he locked her up in a tower.
 
It was during these times in the tower that she turned to Christianity to help her through the loneliness. Her praying was so loud the whole town could hear her. The rich merchant was a pagan. Her Christian prayers so angered him that he forced her to stand trial before a Roman consul to give up her religion.
 
The consul demanded the merchant give up his wealth or behead his daughter, should she refuse her Christianity. As she refused, and the merchant would not forfeit the fortune he amassed, he did behead her.
 
However, he was killed by a random lightning bolt shortly afterwards. The daughter was martyred and became Saint Barbara.
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
 
This famous fairy tale has a happy ending. Snow White is hunted by an evil queen who wants to kill her. Seven dwarfs rescue and befriend her. However, the reality is much different and far more gruesome.
 
The story starts in the 16th century in Bavaria. It centres on a young noblewoman called Margarete von Waldeck. Margarete’s brother employs small children to labour in his copper mine. But because of the crippling conditions, the children become dreadfully deformed. The locals begin calling them dwarves to mock them.
 
Now, if this wasn’t bad enough, Margarete was exceptionally beautiful. As such, her stepmother resented her and wanted her out of the picture. She packed her off to Brussels to get rid of her.
 
Here, Margarete began a lustful affair with Prince Philip II of Spain. However, his father, the King of Spain vehemently disagreed with the romance. He organised a plot to kill Margarete. She was poisoned shortly afterwards.
 
The Pied Piper of Hamelin
 
 
 
A pied piper in Hamelin was known for his ability to play hypnotic music and charm certain animals. So, in 1264, the villagers asked him to play his pipe and get rid of all the rats plaguing the area. They promised him a hefty fee for his troubles. Of course, the piper agreed and played his pipe. Soon all the rats followed him to their death.
 
He went back to the villagers who reneged on the deal. Angry and bitter at them, he went out once again to play his pipe. But, this time, it was the children that fell entranced to his hypnotic tune. They followed the piper and were never seen again.
 
The Dark Truth Behind Famous Fairy Tales
 
Most famous fairy tales have a happy ending. The real-life stories behind some of these show that the truth is far from happy ever after.
 
References:
 
Janey Davies
 


About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 22:44
Domingo, 03 / 11 / 19

5 Types of a Personality Clash between People and How to Handle It

Becky Storey.

https://www.learning-mind.com/

November 2nd, 2019.




 
In life, it seems, we’re forced into socializing with people we don’t get along with. Whether it’s at school or work, or maybe with a neighbor or a mutual friend, sometimes, we just have a personality clash with other people.
 
It’s not that you outright dislike this person (though sometimes it could be). It’s often more that you don’t see eye to eye. When personalities clash, it’s usually because your views, opinions or behaviors just don’t line up.
 
This can be tricky to navigate when you’re stuck with this person, but it’s not impossible to handle. With a little forgiveness, understanding, and kindness, you can get along just fine even with a clash of personalities.
 
It can be hard to tell if you have a justifiable personality clash, or if you just don’t like a person.
 
If you know the difference between the two, you could save a whole lot of energy and maybe even a friendship.
 
Your “Verts” Clash
 
The “verts” are categories we put ourselves and others in, based on our personalities. There are generally three types:
Introvert – a person who likes their own company, ponders their own thoughts and can tire quickly in social situations. They are stereotypically quiet and even lack confidence.
Extrovert – a person who thrives in the company of others, enjoys sharing and caring for others. They are typically loud and confident.
 
Ambivert – a little mix of both.
 
With such wide-ranging personalities as an introvert and extrovert might have, it’s no wonder these two personalities clash.
 
At work or in school, or any situation where you’re thrust into interactions with people you haven’t chosen, you’ll probably meet people of different “verts” to you.
 
As an introverted soul, you might find yourself feeling unsure of someone for being too loud. They’ve done nothing wrong though, your personalities just collide. On the other hand, extroverts might find introverted people strange, as they would rather be quiet and alone, which can come across as pretentious, or just plain weird. Again, there’s no one at fault here. You just have a personality clash.
 
Handling this one is fairly straight forward. Simply, be considerate. If you’re an extrovert, you could try to level yourself out when you sense a clash coming on.
 
As an introvert, consider telling your louder friends about your needs. You could also consider pushing yourself out of your comfort zone and tolerating more so you can cope with each other better.
 
You Clash with the Way They Treat Others
 
When it comes to the treatment of others, some of us can be pretty opinionated. For example, imagine a colleague welcoming a young new employee. How you would treat them may not be the same way that your work colleague does. It wouldn’t be uncommon to find yourself clashing with them over being too hard on them too early, or not being hard enough. It’s all based on opinion.
 
We often feel frustrated with others because they aren’t showing enough respect to someone or they’re being too soft on those who don’t deserve it. If you’re irritated by the way they interact with others, you probably have a personality clash.
 
This can be resolved with good communication. Explaining what you don’t like and discussing what you’d like to be altered. If you aren’t in a position to open up about these matters, maybe it’s your boss or just someone you don’t know all that well, you may have to work on rising above it.
 
Sometimes you can’t fix everything. If possible, you could be the change you want to see. Be nicer to those who deserve it and more constructive for those who need it.
 
Your Values and Morals Clash
 
In our modern society, we’re mostly free to be exactly as we want to be. We live (somewhat) happily amongst people with all sorts of differing views and opinions to our own. We even live, work and socialize with people whose life values and morals are completely different from ours.
 
It’s not too difficult to understand why a person of conservative values might have a personality clash with someone whose values are more liberal. While #freethenipple might be a lifestyle to one, skirts that cover the ankles might be important to another. Fortunately, if neither’s views are harming others then these two types of people will have a harmless personality clash.
 
To handle this scenario, you must be respectful of the other’s wishes. Everyone is allowed to govern their own body, their own wardrobe and their own choices. If you don’t agree with a person’s choices, that’s okay. As hard as it might be, if they aren’t hurting anyone, you have to leave them to it.
 
You have to accept everyone’s differences, in the knowledge that you wouldn’t want others telling you who or what to be either.
 
Your Work Ethics Clash
 
Sometimes, people just don’t work well together. Think about all those group projects you had to do as a kid. There was always someone who did nothing or took over the whole project. Those people, I’m sure, are still good people, but their work ethics clash with ours.
 
There are few things more frustrating than trying to work with someone who’s work ethic is different from your own. Try communicating more clearly what you would like from their work and meet them in the middle, considering their needs too.
 
It is possible for personality clashes to still work together successfully, it’s all about communication.
 
Your Political Views Clash
 
One of the most divisive factors in our personalities is our political alliance. It can be difficult to handle socializing with or working alongside someone with opposing views to our own. Political views tend to be the basis of so many personality clashes.
 
The best way to handle this is to weigh up how much it impacts their personality. If it is something that you can’t get over, then you simply have to get through. Be civil, for the sake of your sanity and everyone around you.
 
In most cases, being kind, civil and understanding is the only way to handle a clash.
 
References:
 
 
Becky Storey

 



 

About the Author: Becky Storey


 
Becky Storey is a professional writer who has been passionate about the way we think and the human mind since she developed chronic anxiety many years ago. Now she loves to write and educate people on mental health and wellbeing. When Becky is not writing, you’ll find her outside with her Labrador, sitting behind a jigsaw puzzle, or baking something with too much sugar.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 01:29
Sexta-feira, 12 / 07 / 19

5 Examples of Herd Mentality and How to Avoid Falling into It ~ Sherrie.

5 Examples of Herd Mentality and How to Avoid Falling into It.

By Sherrie.

July 11th, 2019

 
 
 
It’s easy to fall into the herd mentality without even thinking. Following the leader isn’t always good.
People may not be animals, but they still often exhibit a herd mentality. What this means is they tend to congregate in groups to perform certain objectives or uphold common beliefs. There are ways that herd mentality can benefit us in the short term, I will not lie, but there are also reasons why we should avoid this train of thought altogether.


Unlike mob mentality

Individuals who operate in herds are different than those who contribute to mobs. Mobs are often seen as violent or aggressive groups. Being in a herd is basically being a part of the “in crowd” or adhering to a majority mentality. We see this in religious organizations and school affiliations.
Here are examples and explanations of the herd mentality.

1. Black Friday
I’m starting with one of the largest global phenomena in recent times – Black Friday. If there was ever a more moldable herd of people, it would be this group. Every year, on Thanksgiving day and the weekend following, Black Friday hits most retail stores and online sites offering ridiculous discounts in pricing.

When this happens, people go mad. More and more individuals are following the masses into this hysterical mode of shopping. Following the leader has never been so massive, and it doesn’t seem like it’s going to be slowing down any time soon.

2.Investing

The herd mentality can also be seen in investments as well. Instead of making independent decisions, many will make moves depending on emotions and instinct. Social aspects are also a huge part of how people herd together to invest in certain stocks.
Investors will make rash decisions solely based on what their close friends are doing. Most people choose to do what others do simply because of the fear of embarrassment or the fear of being wrong. This fear of being wrong sometimes even goes against the better judgment of making a different choice that seems more logical – a judgment call that could be more profitable in the long run.

3. Choosing restaurants

Being a part of a herd also shows when looking for a place to eat. Let’s be honest, if you saw two restaurants that were almost exactly alike, one was crowded and one was almost empty, which would you choose? I think you would choose the busy and crowded one.
At least, this is true if you have a herd mentality. Many people think that if a restaurant is busy, the food must be better, and yet, it could only be a coincidence. This is a simple example, but it’s true, isn’t it?

4. Social groups

Just like in high school, the herd mentality can rear its head during adulthood. When it comes to making friends and being a part of a social group, people tend to gravitate toward larger groups or groups of popular and extroverted individuals.
In school, peer pressure told us that we were outcasts if we weren’t friends with certain people. Unfortunately, this attitude carries into later life more often than you think. Pay close attention and you may see a herd of people comprised of identical mentalities.

5. Beliefs/spirituality

As I mentioned earlier, herd mentality can be present in belief systems as well. There are many self-professed teachers in this area who are more than willing to share “truths” to others.
A following sometimes develops, not entirely unlike a cult, I venture to say. A person’s beliefcan quickly become a community’s belief. The bigger the community the larger the influence for others to join.

Why is herd mentality unhealthy?

Hey, let’s look at herd mentality this way – if you have a huge group of people of sub-par intelligence, and you add a few highly intelligent people to the large group, do you think the group will become smarter? No.
With the herd mentality, the intelligence level of the group does not change when a different form of stimulus joins. It’s usually the opposite. Most of the time, if intelligent people decide to join such a group, their higher intelligence is dormant to the group, or rather ignored.
All in all, I think we should avoid the herd mentality, and here are a few ways to do that.

Accept conflict

Instead of conforming to the norm, choose the other choice, so to speak. Stop going the easy route and agreeing with people, just because you live with them or they are part of your family. They could even be friends.
It’s easy to become part of the herd, and going against the grain is hard… but you must choose conflict in order to pull away from this mentality. You should practice saying no, get used to confrontations, and choose that road that many others abandon. This is how you start.

Know thyself

Who are you? I mean, if no one else existed, who would you be? Most people identify themselves with some connection to another. When I was younger and married, I often identified as a wife or a mother.
Here’s the thing. One way to find out if you are falling into herd mentality is to spend time with yourself. Find out what makes you happy without any influence of another human being. This is how you know yourself and this is how you sever from the majority rules concept.

Disagree some more

Yes, I mentioned saying no, but you must go further. Stop agreeing with people just because you feel they are going to be picked for promotions or because they’re the popular group. If you feel like disagreeing, then do it.
Sometimes just disagree to surprise the majority and shake up the room. Taking a stand against the majority vote, for instance, will help you further achieve your individuality and tear away from the group. After all, who really knows where these herds are going anyway?

It’s never too late to leave the herd

If you’ve been following the herd for a while now, you can still change this mentality. After a while of following the masses, you may feel a part of yourself dying. This is a wake-up call that you’re falling in deep.
Take some time and look at what your following, who you’re following and why. You may be surprised by what you find. Maybe you can avoid falling into the herd mentality altogether if you’re lucky.
References:
  1. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk
  2. https://www.sciencedaily.com
 

 

 
About the Author: Sherrie

Sherrie is a freelance writer and artist with over 10 years of experience. She spends most of her time giving life to the renegade thoughts. As the words erupt and form new life, she knows that she is yet again free from the nagging persistence of her muse. She is a mother of three and a lifetime fan of the thought-provoking and questionable aspects of the universe.
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 
 

 
Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
 



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


More @ http://violetflame.biz.ly and 
https://rayviolet.blogspot.com/




 

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publicado por achama às 23:29
Segunda-feira, 08 / 07 / 19

What Plato’s Philosophy of Education Can Teach Us Today ~ Alexander

What Plato’s Philosophy of Education Can Teach Us Today.

By Alexander

https://www.learning-mind.com/

July 7th, 2019.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Plato’s philosophy of education is a fascinating idea and one that Plato wanted to be implemented into Ancient Athenian society.
Scholars still study and discuss it today, but what’s interesting is how Plato’s theory of education has influenced many beliefs and principles that modern society holds. It is a model of education and culture that we have taken heed of in many ways, and that we can still learn much from today.
Yet, before we explore all this, it is useful to look at exactly what this theory is, and the structure of education in a society that Plato proposed.

What is Plato’s philosophy of education?

The philosophy of education according to Plato is a vast and detailed model of schooling for ancient Athens. It has many facets and aspects that could be discussed endlessly by scholars.
However, it has one simple goal, an idea that is congruent with Plato’s philosophy as a whole: for individuals and society to achieve the good, to reach a state of fulfilment or eudaimonia.
Plato believed we need education to learn how to live well. We should not just learn things like mathematics and science, but also how to be brave, rational and temperate. Individuals will then be able to live a fulfilled life and be better prepared for it. Furthermore, producing fulfilled and educated people would benefit society greatly.
He wanted to produce the best possible leaders so that society can flourish, and itself be geared towards the good. He proposed this through training individuals to become what he calls ‘guardians’ – individuals best suited to govern society (more commonly known as ‘philosopher kings’).
So, Plato wants individual fulfilment and improvement of society through his model of education. Both are a means of working toward a state of eudaimonia. But how does he propose to achieve this?
A good starting point is to recognise that Plato’s ideas are influenced in part by Sparta’s education system. It was state-controlled and Plato wanted Athens’ system to be state-controlled as well. Sparta was a society that focused its efforts to produce warriors to serve the state through rigorous physical education.
Plato admired this model but believed it was lacking literacy. He wanted to engage both the body and the mind through education.

The curriculum

A curriculum is suggested for this theory of education. This curriculum starts with very small children and can extend up until the age of 50 for some individuals. It is separated into two different sections: Elementary education and Higher education.

Elementary

Plato in his academy, drawing after a painting by Swedish painter Carl Johan Wahlbom
Plato in his academy, drawing after a painting by Swedish painter Carl Johan Wahlbom
Elementary education lasts up until the age of 20. Firstly, children should predominately have physical education. This should be the case up until the age of about 10 and is to ensure children are at peak bodily health for fitness and also to better fight illness and disease.
Then children should be introduced to art, literature and music, as Plato believed that these subjects would cultivate their character.
Art would act as a means to teach morality and virtue. More practical subjects were taught at the same time as this to give a balance of subject matter. These include mathematics, history and science for example.
Elementary education is an important time for a person’s development. This education should not be forced as this could restrict and mould a person a certain way that does not represent their character.
Children should be left so that their natural skills, qualities and interests can flourish without influence. This can give an indication of what occupation they would be best suited to in the future, and what sort of character they may become.

Higher Education

The next stage in the curriculum is higher education. An individual must take an examination at about the age of 20 to decide whether or not they should seek higher education.
One would then learn more advanced subjects like astronomy and geometry for the next 10 years until another test is taken. This will determine whether or not to progress into further learning, similar to the first test.
People still in education would constantly be learning new and more advanced subjects and are tested along the way. Those who fail to meet the standards at each test must drop out. This carries on until the age of about 50.
You are deemed successful, competent and measured enough take upon the most important task if you reach this stage. These people are allocated as the ‘guardians’ of the state. They are best suited to govern and uphold a just and moral society. They are the ‘philosopher kings’.
This curriculum shows Plato’s theory on how we should be educated in the right way in order to bring about the good in society.
Those who drop out at a certain stage will find other trades, jobs or crafts that best suit their skills. But they will still have attained an education that will help them to bring about a positive impact on society, and to help them reach a state of fulfilment.
Those who are guardians should strive to implement these ideas on a much larger scale for the good of the state.
Plato did put his philosophy of education into practice by setting up his own school: The Academy.

The Academy

The ancient Greek philosopher set up what is said to be the first ever institute of higher education. It was similar to what we would now recognise as a university. The Academy was an educational establishment set up by Plato to try and implement his vision of education in society.
Its purpose was to teach us how to live well, and to produce rulers for society. Nowadays it is seen depicted in art and often seen as a symbol for classical philosophy.
plato's philosophy lessons
Plato and Aristotle in “The School of Athens“, painting by Raphael
However, it was fundamentally a school organised to teach Plato’s philosophy. People would be taught all manner of subjects and be filtered out to find the most competent and worthy of managing a just and virtuous city-state.
We have now explored what Plato’s ideas were and how they were practically implemented in society. But what does it all mean? Why did Plato urge for education to be this way?

The theory explained

Plato’s philosophy of education strives to achieve all that Plato is concerned with: a functioning just state and eudaimonia. He believes education should be structured in a way so that it provides people and society the positive measures needed to flourish.
People will be better equipped to reach a state of fulfilment, and society will be better equipped to be the ideal, just state. Plato’s philosophy of education promotes and works towards the common and final good for everybody.
Some people will not make it through every stage of this structure of education, but this doesn’t matter. If someone does not make it past a certain stage, then it is an indication that they are best suited in a certain role in society. They can now direct their skills and efforts to fulfil this role and ultimately work towards a fulfilled life.
Those who become guardians of the state after progressing through each stage of education are effectively philosophers. They will be the wisest in society, the most rational and the most temperate.
Plato wanted to rid society of the current political leaders and replace them with those best suited to govern a just state, whilst being concerned for the common good for everyone. Only philosophers can do this in Plato’s eyes.

Why is Plato’s philosophy of education relevant to modern society?

modern education system
Plato’s ideas are relevant today because of his vision of an education that is inclusive of everyone, and its importance in creating a just and moral state. These are ideas that have recognisably influenced our society today, and there is much we can still learn from them as well.
The system of education is based on everyone having access to the same education. Its very basis is the equality of individuals.
It allows people to naturally flourish whilst also guiding them into a life that will produce a positive impact on society and hopefully guiding them to reach a state of fulfilment. It suggests everyone has liberty – this aspect arguably laid the groundwork for modern democracy.
Perhaps what we can learn more than anything from Plato’s philosophy of education is the overall intention of it; ensuring that society functions well in a just and moral way and that people live well and achieve the good life.
It is the duty of educators to implement this and to have profound care and concern for a learner’s wellbeing, and not just the knowledge they wish to instil.
It is also the guardians’ purpose to have profound care and concern for everyone in society. All of this is a guidance for people to reach a state of fulfilment, Plato’s ultimate goal.

Modern education and Plato’s philosophy

I don’t expect our political leaders to be replaced with trained philosophers and become the rulers of society any time soon, but the premise behind these ideas are important.
Modern education does a good job of preparing us for work and to be self-sustaining in the world. But we are ill prepared to face many inevitable difficulties in life. This causes us much struggle and suffering, often without much guidance as to how to deal with it. We all yearn for this guidance in dark times.
Education should be this guidance. We should learn how to live well and how to deal with suffering so we are prepared for much more than just work, so we can too become fulfilled individuals. Plato’s philosophy of education is a call for this, and we should listen to him.
References:
  1. https://plato.stanford.edu
  2. https://epublications.marquette.edu
  3. https://www.biography.com
  4. Featured image: Painting of a scene from Plato’s Symposium (Anselm Feuerbach, 1873)

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

About the Author: Alexander


I am an English and Philosophy graduate and freelance writer and blogger. I have always been fascinated by art, culture and philosophy, and believe they are an integral and important part of all of our lives. My particular interests and passions include Film and ancient Greek philosophy.
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


More @ http://violetflame.biz.ly and 
https://rayviolet.blogspot.com/




 

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publicado por achama às 06:22
Quinta-feira, 04 / 07 / 19

Dark Forest Theory and the Creepy Reason Why We Haven’t Found Aliens ~ Janey Davies.

Dark Forest Theory 

and the Creepy Reason Why We Haven’t Found Aliens.

By Janey Davies.

July 3rd, 2019.

dark forest theory
 

 



 

There are many theories that try to explain why we haven’t made contact with aliens, but the Dark Forest Theory is the most terrifying of all.
It suggests the reason why we haven’t heard from aliens is that they are deliberately keeping quiet.
 
The Search for Alien Life
The search for extra-terrestrial life captivates human beings. We make films and write books about it. We spend billions of dollars on equipment designed to listen and emit signals into the depths of the universe.
But as of yet, outer space has remained resolutely silent. But how is this possible? In the observable universe alone there are approximately 10 billion galaxies. Within each one of these galaxies are around100 billion stars, just like our own sun.
Even according to esteemed astronomer Frank Drake, it is inconceivable that aliens have not made contact yet. The Drake Equation estimates that there should be around 20 alien civilisations close enough to Earth to have been detected.
So why haven’t we found alien life if the odds are so stacked for there being life in the universe? More to the point, why is the Dark Forest Theory so scary?
Astronomer Martin Dominik alludes to the theory in an interview with The Times. He is discussing the plan by the US to broadcast a powerful radio message to a nearby star:
“Maybe,” he said, without humour, “they will come and eat us.”
But before we start fashioning ‘End of the World’ placards, let’s look at other theories why humans have not made contact with aliens.

3 Theories about Alien Existence

 

1. The Fermi Paradox

The Fermi Paradox is named after physicist, Enrico Fermi. It asks: ‘If there are billions of stars in billions of galaxies, then why haven’t we seen aliens?
There are reasonable explanations:
  • There is alien life on other planets but they haven’t got the technology to reach us yet.
  • They don’t want to visit us.
  • They have already been to Earth but at a time when humans were not on the planet.
  • Alien civilisations have only recently acquired the technology to travel through space.

2. Catch 22

For aliens to visit Earth, they have to live on another planet. However, life on other planets is extremely rare. Earth is truly a one-off, a miracle planet. It lies on the Goldilocks zone of just the right temperatures situated away from the sun.
In fact, it’s fair to say that the default state of the universe is a dead, silent, vacuum. It is totally devoid of any life. And this is where the Catch-22 comes in. For a planet to be habitable, it first has to become inhabited.
The reason for that is that the organisms that live on the planet change the atmosphere. Plants give off oxygen and take in carbon dioxide. Organisms do the opposite. You can’t have one without the other. Earth is the exception to the rule in the universe. That is why we haven’t encountered aliens – because there aren’t any.

3. We haven’t waited long enough

Human beings have been listening for and sending out signals for about 100 years. The universe itself is nearly 14 billion years old and extends 92 billion light years in diameter. We really are being incredibly impatient.
At present, we have listened to an area well under 1% of our galaxy alone. Actually, astrophysics experts from Cornell University advise it may well be 1,500 years before we have scanned enough of the Milky Way before we hear from extra-terrestrials.
 

The Dark Forest Theory

So why is the Dark Forest Theory so frightening? Because it suggests that there is alien life out there, but it is hostile. In fact, it is staying silent for a reason. The reason is this killer alien species wants to end human civilisation on Earth and take the planet for its own species.
If you think this is a storyline best suited for a Hollywood blockbuster, you only have to look back at our own history.
When explorers set foot on the new unchartered territory, they do not acclimatise themselves with the local people. In fact, if they consider themselves to be more civilised, they take over the land and the rights of the indigenous people.

Here are three reasons why experts believe in the Dark Forest Theory:

Survival of the fittest

 
All living creatures have an innate drive to live and to survive. Whether they are a human, animal, fish, bird, or alien. If one species cannot communicate effectively with another, and they don’t know their intentions, it is prudent to eliminate them first.
  • Limited resources in the universe
We already know the Earth is a rare planet in the universe. How many science-fiction moviesfeature plotlines where aliens attack because their planet is dying and they need our resources?
  • Other civilisations are keeping quiet to survive
Astronomer Dominik believes the reason we have not made contact with life in outer space is simple. The more advanced civilisations are hiding from hostile aliens.
Which begs the question, should we be trying to make contact if we don’t really know what’s out there? There are some astronomers that would prefer to keep a much lower profile and take the ‘wait and see’ approach.
However, the problem remains that just about anyone can send a message into space. In fact, in 2008, the manufacturers of Doritos blasted a 30-second advert towards Ursa Major.
What are your thoughts? Wait and see or shout loudly and hope someone visits?
“Some say (alien contact) is the greatest thing we should do. Some think we should be very quiet and this should be the last thing we should do — and it might indeed be the last thing we will do.”
– Dominik
References:
  1. bigthink.com
  2. nasa.gov

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

About the Author: Janey Davies.

Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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Archives:


 
 



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


More @ http://violetflame.biz.ly and 
https://rayviolet.blogspot.com/




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 22:27
A Luz está a revelar a Verdade, e esta libertar-nos-á! -Só é real o AMOR Incondicional. -Quando o Amor superar o amor pelo poder, o mundo conhecerá a Paz; Jimi Hendrix. -Somos almas a ter uma experiência humana!

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