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Segunda-feira, 30 / 03 / 20

What Is Cognitive Ease and How It Blocks Your Critical Thinking.

What Is Cognitive Ease and How It Blocks Your Critical Thinking.

Janey Davies, B.A.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 29th, 2020.

 
 

 
Now before you start reading this article, I just want to promise you it is not a political piece. I am only using an event in recent British politics to highlight a way of thinking called cognitive ease.
Last December, the Conservative Party won the General Election with a huge majority not seen since WWII. This is despite the fact that many voters disagreed with their policies and preferred the Labour manifesto. So what went wrong? Cognitive ease, dear readers. Cognitive ease.
I say again, don’t worry, this isn’t a political article. It’s the easiest way I can tell you about this particular way of thinking. Let me explain. Going into the election the Conservatives had a very brief and succinct message. It was: ‘Get Brexit Done’
On the other hand, the Labour party was wishy-washy about where they stood on Brexit. Their leader told the UK he would be an ‘honest broker of the people’ (whatever that meant, no one really knew). He wouldn’t take sides and the Labour party message was one of ‘we’ll go with want the people want’, or something like that. I don’t recall. And that’s the problem.
The Conservatives won a massive majority. After the dust had settled, many people cited the clear message from the Tories about Brexit. It was easy to understand they said. They knew what it meant. It was catchy, concise, and simple to remember. It chimed well with the public. Audiences took to it.
On the other hand, no one understood what Labour was trying to say.
The Conservatives won because they took advantage of cognitive ease. So what exactly is it?

What Is Cognitive Ease and How It Works

Put simply, cognitive ease is the ease in which our brains process information and this then has a direct impact on how we then view that information. In other words, if something is easy to understand, like ‘Get Brexit Done’, we immediately understand it and we view it in a positive way.
Not only that, but the easier a thing is to process and understand, the more time and effort we’ll invest in it. Conversely, when something becomes harder to understand, and we need to take more of a mental effort, this leads to a negative view. In fact, we can become suspicious, distrustful and lose confidence.
The problem is that not everything in life is easy to understand. If it was, Einstein would never have come up with the theory of relativity. So why are we drawn to cognitive ease?
It’s because we are most likely to believe what is familiar and what is easy. Going back to the ‘Get Brexit Done’ slogan again, even when members of the opposition told the British public that Brexit absolutely would not ‘be done’ in a matter of months (which was what Boris Johnson had been saying) because it would take years to negotiate the trade deals, we all ignored them and voted him in.

Familiarity Breeds Cognitive Ease

So the phrase became so familiar that in the end, it was the truth. Studies show that if something is repeated enough times, we believe it. There’s an old saying: ‘a lie travels around the world several times before the truth is putting its shoes on‘.
This repeating something until we are familiar with it is the mere-exposure effect. Many people use this to their advantage, including politicians. The purpose of repeating a certain phrase is that it gives us a sense of cognitive ease. Our brains don’t have to work that hard because we’ve heard it before, therefore, it must be true.

Simplicity Is Key

Again I’m using the Brexit phrase because it is so simple it was so effective. When something is simple, it requires less processing and that gives us cognitive ease.
For example, if I give you two options, Option A is very simple to understand and Option B is extremely difficult, then I ask you to choose which option you prefer, statistically, you are more likely to say Option A.
This is because you find option A easier to understand and we like things we understand. We find them easier to process. They take less mental strain.

Cognitive Ease Validates Our Existing Beliefs

But there’s another reason why cognitive ease is such a pervasive thought behaviour and that is the information we think is true and right and that we already understand makes us feel better.
Information that is consistent with what we already believe validates our opinions. We are more likely to accept information that already fits in with our belief systems, with our values. It’s like big green ticks along all our confidence boxes.
Conversely, information that is inconsistent with what we believe is held up to much greater scrutiny. We don’t easily accept it as we do information we already believe in. In fact, the opposite is true.
We instantly distrust it, we look at the source of the information, and we dislike the characters that are talking about the information. We find reasons to dismiss the information.
This is because it is taking us much greater cognitive processes to dissect the information than the simple or familiar stuff.
The problem is that cognitive ease is a cognitive bias and a shortcut to processing the world around us. As with all cognitive biases, they can distort our thinking. So how do we stop falling into the trap of cognitive ease thinking?

How to Avoid Cognitive Ease Thinking

  • Accept different views
  • Don’t believe because something is simple, it is true
  • Don’t believe because you’ve heard it before, it is true
  • Listen to as many different people as you can
  • Don’t get trapped in an echo chamber
  • Be wary of the feel-good response that cognitive ease thinking gives you
  • Start accepting that feeling uncomfortable is a sign you are thinking properly

Final Thoughts


It’s hard to escape the trap of cognitive ease. When we feel validated, we get a rush of confidence and our mood is lifted and we are happy. But it’s important to realise that some factions of society use cognitive ease as a way of fooling the public. So be on your guard. Is something too simple? Do you keep hearing or seeing it? It could be cognitive ease.


Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 17:59
Sábado, 28 / 03 / 20

How Mass Hysteria Is Making the Pandemic Worse and How to Cope.

How Mass Hysteria Is Making the Pandemic Worse and How to Cope.

Janey Davies, B.A.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 28th, 2020.

 
mass hysteria.

 
 
 
I like to think of myself as a fairly rational and calm person, but in the last few weeks, I have felt close to tears. Since the coronavirus has taken hold, I have seen mass hysteria on an unprecedented scale.
 
Never before in my lifetime have I witnessed empty supermarket shelves, people walking around wearing masks and daily updates from the government. It seems as if we are living in some kind of nightmare. Common-sense no longer applies. Rules are turned upside down.
 
In times of hardship and struggle, we pull together, we hug each other and visit our family and friends more often. However, we can’t do that with this new threat. Instead, we must self-isolate and socially distance ourselves.
 
Our normal routines and daily lives have to follow a strict safety code. No more unnecessary travel. Only shop for essential products. If you do go out, stay 2 metres apart from other people. It’s enough to bring on mass hysteria.
 
What Is Mass Hysteria?
 
It is a psychological condition shared by groups of people who feel threatened by a certain event or person. There are many examples of mass hysteria throughout history.
 
 
Examples of mass hysteria
 
Salem Witch Trials
 
In late February 1692 in a small village called Salem, Massachusetts, two young girls began having fits. They would twitch and shriek uncontrollably. The parish and community blamed the fits on witchcraft and singled out women who had supposedly afflicted these young girls.
 
Soon the numbers started to rise and eventually many more were showing signs of witchcraft. In 1693, more than 200 women had been accused of witchcraft. In fact, 30 were convicted and 19 were executed.
 
Remember, only two girls were ill, but it ended up with countless of women being held captive and subject to ridiculous ‘witch tests’.
 
The Louisiana Twitching
 
Talking of twitching, in early 1939, one Louisianan schoolgirl developed a strange twitch in her leg. Suddenly the twitching spread to others. The number of cases rose sharply but no doctor could pinpoint the problem.
 
All tests came back negative. Meanwhile more and more girls were succumbing to this strange leg-twitching phenomena.
 
Parents removed their children from schools, refusing to allow them back until the cause was known. After a few weeks, the incidences of leg-twitching seemed to calm down, but what had caused the outbreak in the first place?
 
Those who investigated narrowed it down to one girl – Helen – who had the first symptoms. Helen couldn’t dance. In fact, she hated dance classes but was worried that her boyfriend would be tempted by another girl who was a better dancer than her.
 
She pretended to have an uncontrollable twitch in her leg so that she could get out of dance class and have a readymade excuse to her boyfriend.
 
The Bin Laden Itch
 
After the tragic 9/11 attacks of 2001, reports started to surface of children complaining of a strange skin rash. The rash could last from just a few hours to a couple of weeks. But doctors and parents were none the wiser.
 
Some parents started to speculate that this could be a result of a bioterrorist attack. Remember, at the time we were all terrified about viewing the broadcast of the two aeroplanes.
 
People started calling it the Bin Laden Itch after an extraordinary number of elementary students appeared to come down with this rash. As more and more children fell victim to the rash, so did the panic and hysteria begin to rise. So what was the cause?
 
The Center for Disease Control investigated. They found that because of the initial fear of a biological attack, children and parents had been paying closer attention to their skin. More cases were reported and numbers rose. In fact, it was these rising numbers that started the mass hysteria.
 
The problem with mass hysteria
 
So what about today and the virus that everyone is talking about? Has mass hysteria led to panic buying in supermarkets? Does the constant updating of cases and deaths help to fuel our anxiety? Are the orders from governments beginning to scare us?
 
It’s really not surprising that people are becoming hysterical. We feel overwhelmed by the sheer scale of events when we are bombarded with information from many different sources.
 
However, despite the fact that we are all living in very crazy times, there is a real problem when it comes to mass hysteria.
Mass hysteria can lead us to believe things that are simply not true.
  • It can also fool us into thinking the problem is much worse than it really is.
  • It can change our behaviour and make us act foolishly or selfishly.
  • It leads to the spread of misinformation which only fuels our anxiety even further.
  • How to cope with mass hysteria
 
It is true that this pandemic is more deadly than the recent outbreak of swine flu in 2009, but that doesn’t mean we need to panic.
 
Take, for example, the SARS epidemic in 2003 which killed around 10% of those who caught it. Not to mention the MERS outbreak, which killed 34% of those infected.
 
So far, this virus is not as deadly as SARS and MERS. Today there are around 600,000 confirmed cases and a mortality rate of 4.4%.
 
And what does this tell us? Well, with SARS and MERS we weren’t seeing massive shutdowns and forced changes to our behaviour. But the facts and figures speak for themselves. Coronavirus is no more deadly than the last few recent epidemics the world has had to face.
 
Final thoughts
 
In these strange and unprecedented times, it can be easy to sit at home and worry. If you feel anxious and hysterical, remember, it’s easy to pass this onto others.
 
Instead, why not go to reputable sites like the World Health Organisation and get the facts from the horse’s mouth. You’ll feel much better, I promise.
 
Meanwhile, stay safe.
 
References:

  1. www.verywellmind.com
  2. www.businessinsider.com


Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 19:09
Terça-feira, 24 / 03 / 20

5 Ways Impact Bias Is Making You Unhappy

5 Ways Impact Bias Is Making You Unhappy

Lottie Miles, M.A.

learning-mind.com

Posted March 23, 2020.

 
Impact Bias unhappiness.

 


 
 
When we dream of winning the lottery, we imagine that we will always be happy. But what if the way we imagine the future is not reflective of how we truly experience it? The impact bias explores the phenomena whereby we tend to overestimate our emotional response to future changes in our environment.
 
In this post, we outline what impact bias is, 5 ways it is making you unhappy, and how you can seek to address these issues.
 
What Is Impact Bias?
 
It refers to the tendency to overestimate how much future events will affect our mood. We also tend to overestimate how long a given emotion will last as a result of major events in our lives. This is particularly true of extreme events whether they are positive or negative.
 
When it comes to extremely negative experiences, this could be down to something Gilbert metaphorically describes as the ‘psychological immune system’. If we imagine an extremely negative event in the future, this is unlikely to be triggered. However, in a traumatic event, it is likely to kick in and enable us to take a positive outlook on a seemingly inescapable situation.
 
When it comes to extremely positive events, if we imagine them, we tend to focus solely on the positive change to our circumstances. However, if we come to actually experience an extremely positive event, our focus will be broader than the extremely positive event.
 
Events in our daily life, from a rough night’s sleep to challenges in personal relationships, will be in our purview. This is also true of negative events where we may ignore positive aspects of our lives when imagining something traumatic in the future. As such, impact bias is also apparent when we imagine positive and negative events.
 
“The great source of both the misery and disorders of human life, seems to arise from over-rating the difference between one permanent situation and another” Adam Smith, the Theory of Moral Sentiments
How does impact bias make you unhappy?
 
So what does this all mean for our own happiness? Here, we outline 5 ways impact bias can make you unhappy and what you can do to avoid this.
 
1. ‘The grass is greener’ thinking
 
We all like to think that we are good predictors of what will make us happy. However, according to research by Wilson & Gilbert (2003), this is not the case.
 
We might think that our lives will be improved if only we can get a bigger house, a faster car, a promotion, or a new partner. However, when we seek to predict our emotional response to changes in our future, we almost always fail.
 
We may invest a lot of time and energy in the anticipation of a new dawn of positivity. Unfortunately, when the moment arrives and we realize nothing much has changed, this can lead to severe disappointment. Being aware that we have a tendency to reach for the next thing indeterminately, can help us learn to appreciate what we have in the here and now.
 
2. False expectations of wealth and happiness
 
Similar to ‘the grass is greener’ analogy, much of what we expect of the future never turns out to come true. This is particularly apparent in studies of wealth, such as books like “The Spirit Level” by Katie Pickett and Richard Wilkinson.
 
People often intuitively expect that as their wealth increases, their happiness will continue on a correlative upwards curve. However, the spirit level shows how beyond middle-class security, or essentially comfortable subsistence living, the correlation between money and happiness almost disappears.
 
If we focus too much on money and wealth rather than on what truly makes us happy, we may not be able to recognize the source of our unhappiness.
 
3. Narrow focus
 
When we think about the future, we tend to focus on one thing. If we plan a change in our life, we imagine only the change and not everything that stays the same. However, unless we move out into the woods and cut off all contact with society, most decisions we make will only affect a small percentage of our overall lived experience.
 
As such, when thinking about the future, it is important to try and broaden our horizons. Consciously widening your focus will help you avoid impact bias.
 
4. Things won’t be as good (or as bad) as you think
 
If you win the lottery, will you be happy? If your relationship finishes, will you be devastated? Would you never be able to cope with losing a vital sense or a limb?
 
People may intuitively think that they know the answers to all these questions. However, our intuition may not be as good as we think. Moreover, if we fail to recognize the dominance of one of our competing fast and slow thinking systems, we may fail to reap the benefits of slow thinking according to science.
 
Equally, when we envision the future, we fail to account for the human ability to make sense of what happens to them. Humans seek to rationalize what has happened and find underlying reasons, whether good or bad. When we do this, we dampen the impact of any event on us, reducing the effect of the good and the bad.
 
This is perhaps best highlighted by a study comparing the happiness of lottery winners and people who had lost the use of their limbs. A year after each event, the happiness levels of each group were the same.
 
5. Failing to live in the now
 
“The secret of health for both mind and body is not to mourn for the past, worry about the future, or anticipate troubles, but to live in the present moment wisely and earnestly” – Buddha
 
We cannot accurately predict our level of happiness (or unhappiness) in the future. Does this mean that any expectations we place on happiness in the future are necessarily a waste of time?
 
Clearly, our hopes for the future play a positive role in our present mental well-being. Thus, knowing about the impact bias shouldn’t make us stop dreaming. However, it is important to be aware that our expectation will almost certainly not be matched by reality.
 
Moreover, ultimately, the present is the only experience that exists in time. If we dwell on the past or the future, we often allow the present to pass us by.
 
Practices such as yoga can help you train the mind to be present in the moment and there are numerous other life lessons you can learn from it. Focusing on enjoying the present is one of the key ways of overcoming the impact bias and stop us from planting seeds for future unhappiness in our minds.


 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 00:46
Sexta-feira, 20 / 03 / 20

What Is Willful Ignorance and 5 Examples of How It Works

What Is Willful Ignorance 

and 5 Examples of How It Works

Lottie Miles, M.A.

learning-mind.com

Posted March 19, 2020.

 
Willful Ignorance Examples.

 
 
 
Willful ignorance is built on the deliberate avoidance of evidence that doesn’t match one’s existing beliefs. This can be a defense mechanism as it allows us to create a world we feel safe in, akin to confirmation bias.
 
However, it is also often apparent in behavior that is socially harmful. In this post, we will explore what willful ignorance is and explore this in examples of how it works in everyday life.
 
What Is Willful Ignorance?
 
As already outlined, it necessarily involves the deliberate omission of information in a decision-making process. If we are unaware of information, then we would simply be ignorant of something.
 
It can appear in all sorts of ways in our everyday lives, from ignoring issues that make us feel bad to rejecting irrefutable evidence that doesn’t match our world view. Willful ignorance is also sometimes termed willful blindness, as in Margaret Heffernan’s interesting exploration of the topic. She notes that:
 
“what we choose to let through and to leave out is crucial. We mostly admit the information that makes us feel great about ourselves, while conveniently filtering whatever unsettles our fragile egos and most vital beliefs”
 
Being willfully ignorant can sometimes protect the brain and work as a defense mechanism. It helps people overcome situations they would otherwise find too much. However, in extreme cases, it can actually lead us to take certain courses of action that can be harmful to ourselves or others. It can also prevent us from taking necessary actions that we should do but do not.
 
5 Examples of How Willful Ignorance Works in Everyday Life
 
Being deliberately ignorant about certain matters can help to protect us from scenarios we cannot face. However, being too willfully ignorant can also lead us to cause social harm. It can prevent us from making changes in our lives and be potentially dangerous for our entire existence.
 
Here, we outline 5 different ways willful ignorance plays out in our daily lives from the mundane through to the serious.
 
Sport
 
Sport offers a useful way to explore common benign ways people enact willful ignorance in their lives. For example, be it basketball or soccer, if you are the player on a team, more often than not every decision that goes against you appears to be wrong.
 
Even though sports stars know their actions are on video, they can still appeal against decisions seemingly convinced that what they just did, didn’t happen. Equally, fans watching the game may employ willful blindness to the bad actions of players on the team they support.
 
Creationism & Intelligent Design
 
Creationists necessarily have to create new narratives to explain away evidence for evolution. Rather than looking at evidence as building blocks, creationist science seeks to manipulate the building blocks until they match the existing ideology.
 
Indeed, both creationists and intelligent design ‘scientists’ have to ignore hundreds of studies. These studies verify certain facts of evolution confirmed at both a micro and macroevolutionary scale so they cannot be confronted, only circumvented. This protects them on an emotional level by defending their world view.
 
Education
 
Self-deception through willful ignorance can have beneficial and detrimental effects when it comes to education. For example, if we receive a low score in a test and blame it on the course content not matching the exam, we may feel better about ourselves. However, to do this, we may need to ignore the fact other people we know scored highly on the test.
 
If we feel okay with a low score, we may not take the time to reflect on what we could have done differently to achieve a better result. As such, it is important to recognize if we are willfully ignoring things that may help us take positive actions in our lives.
 
Health
 
A common area where most people will have a personal understanding of willful ignorance is being healthy. In this case, being willfully ignorant can have negative consequences for the individual and society at large.
 
We all know smoking is bad, alcohol is bad, ice cream is bad. However, this fact alone is insufficient to prevent many of us from consuming these things. This is akin to cognitive dissonance. But there are ways we can recognize and overcome this way of thinking and being.
 
Health also provides an example of where willful ignorance can harm others as well as ourselves. For example, according to the WHO ‘vaccine hesitancy is one of the top 10 global health threats’.
 
Movements like the anti-vaxxers have grown in popularity, especially in Europe. This has seen a rise in people unsure about the safety of vaccines. In fact, 21 percent of the global population is now feeling this way.
 
Climate change
 
Climate change perhaps best represents how being willfully ignorant can be both useful as a defense mechanism and socially harmful to ourselves and others. More and more people are experiencing climate change distress. Thus, a certain amount of willful blindness is necessary for many people in order to protect their mental well-being.
 
However, if everyone practices willful blindness about the issue of climate change, then climate catastrophe for most on the planet will lie ahead.
 
Final Words
 
From this exploration of common examples of willful ignorance in everyday life, it is clear that it is somewhat of a double-edged sword. It can be an effective defense mechanism protecting us from events that challenge our comfortable world view. But it can also have negative consequences if we leave it unchecked.


 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
Archives:

 

 
and https://www.facebook.com/mel.tavares.75


A Trusty with Privacy Search 
Alternative to Google
startpage.com

Alternatives to YouTube
bitchute.com
brighteon.com
 
 



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 01:01
Domingo, 15 / 03 / 20

Known Unknowns vs Unknown Unknowns: Two Sides of Ignorance

Known Unknowns vs Unknown Unknowns:  

Two Sides of Ignorance.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 15th, 2020.

 
known unknowns unknown unknowns.
 
 
 
If I asked you how a CD worked, how confident would you feel in explaining it to me? Let’s say from 1-10? A 7, 8 perhaps? Okay, go on then, explain it, but in so much detail that I completely understand. Not so confident now? We’re talking about a phenomenon called known unknowns and unknown unknowns.
What are known unknowns and unknown unknowns?
 
Don’t worry, it sounds complicated and a bit confusing, but it really isn’t. It’s all about ignorance and how we perceive our knowledge to be of something.
 
I want to give you some more examples of known unknowns vs unknown unknowns before I explain this further.
  1. Can you explain how a zipper works?
  2. How about a tape recorder?
  3. How does a toilet flush?
  4. Can you draw a bicycle?
  5. Could you explain space travel to me?
  6. How does a neurosurgeon work on the brain?
 
You probably feel quite confident in your ability to answer the first four but pass on the last two. In fact, studies show that we are actually quite ignorant when it comes to everyday things.
 
We like to think we know more than we do, but we don’t. And this is where known unknowns and unknown unknowns come into play.
 
We are quite happy to admit we are not rocket scientists or that we couldn’t perform brain surgery, but the simple things in life? We like to think we know everything we need to know.
What is the difference between known unknowns and unknown unknowns?
 
Known unknowns

Known unknowns are the things we know we don’t know about, if that makes sense. Like space travel, brain surgery, how self-driving cars work. We know we need to research these topics to learn more about them. But the important thing is we also know that we’re not really expected to know about things as complicated as rocket science.

Unknown unknowns

Now, unknown unknowns are the things we think we should know about, but we actually don’t. Like, how a bicycle works or what makes a toilet flush.
These are the simple, everyday things in life we take for granted and assume we know how they function. But we don’t. But we don’t know we don’t. The important thing with unknown unknowns is that we think we are expected to know about them.

Why do we sometimes wildly overestimate our intelligence?

It’s called the illusion of explanatory depth.
“Most people feel they understand the world with far greater detail, coherence, and depth than they really do.” Leonid Rozenblit and Frank Keil (2002)
Rozenblit and Keil conducted multi-phase studies to test the illusion of explanatory depth (IOED).
In the first phase, they asked participants to rate how well they understood the workings of objects such as sewing machines, mobile phones or bicycles.
In the second phase, they were asked to explain in a detailed report of how each object worked. They then re-rated their understanding of how each one worked. The results showed again and again that their confidence in understanding the workings of an object fell drastically from phase one to two.
In another study, Rebecca Lawson asked participants to draw a bicycle in her Science of Cycology report. Some of the results are featured below:
known unknowns unknown unknowns
In fact, it doesn’t matter whether we are talking about the workings of objects or scientific theories or the stock market. IOED is this pervasive feeling we know more than we do.

Why do we accept that some things are beyond our knowledge whilst others are not?

We don’t need to know how things work

The main reason for the ignorance of our own ignorance is that we don’t need to know how everyday things work. They just do. Generations that came before us invented them and they have been in our lives for decades.We are used to seeing them wherever we go. They are part and parcel of the fabric of life. Thanks to others, we haven’t had to invent them; we just use them. So there’s no need for us to know the ins and outs of the workings of a toaster or a bicycle.
I liken it a little to spellcheck. Sure, we could learn every difficult word there is in the world by heart, but why bother? Our computers have spellcheck, so we don’t need to make the effort to learn. But we wouldn’t call ourselves stupid because of this.
It’s the same with gadgets, theories or mechanics.
Now, more than ever, thanks to search engines and sharing information, we can find out a lot more than our predecessors. We can look things up on Google, share content but more importantly, build on what our previous generations have already made.
And we don’t need to know how things work to be able to do this.

Sharing knowledge makes us think we are smart

The other thing about our generation compared to previous ones is that by sharing information, we give ourselves the illusion of knowledge.
If I asked you why the planets are round, or what causes gravity, you wouldn’t throw your hands up in the air with despair. You’d look it up and tell me the answer.It’s this instant access to knowledge that gives us all expert status when we are not experts. But the lines are blurred. And we certainly don’t consider ourselves to be stupid when we can research the answer.
But it’s not just this kind of instant access to information that gives us IOED, it’s the way we consume this knowledge.
We skim the top of news items, we click on salacious headlines for the juicy parts of a story, and we allow tweets to inform us of global political moves. We tap into viral videos, we listen to soundbites and agree with memes.
This is a superficial way of ingesting knowledge. We never really deep dive into a topic. As a result, we know a lot of stuff, but not in that much detail. In other words, we know a little bit about a lot.

Why the Illusion of Explanatory Depth Is Dangerous

When we believe we know more than we actually do, it can lead us to prejudice without us even knowing.
One study tackled how understanding people and IOED could help reduce political extremism. In 2013, Philip Fernbach et al asked participants to rate how well they understood a range of policies such as:
  • A national flat-rate tax
  • A single-payer healthcare system
  • A cap-and-trade system for carbon emissions
Participants were then asked to explain in detail how each one worked. Afterwards, they had to re-rate their knowledge on the subjects. As expected, their confidence fell after they were asked to fully describe the policies.
But here’s the interesting part, as their confidence fell, so did their extreme views on the policies. Those that either strongly opposed or supported the policies became more moderate in their views. And as their views became more moderate, so did their reluctance to fund these policies also reduce.
This study is an example of how IOED could be used to encourage a more moderate approach to political extremism.
I always use this example to show how people always think they are right, if for no other reason than it makes you think about the other side. Amaryllis Fox was a former undercover officer for the CIA and has met a lot of opposing factions in her time.
“If I’ve learned one lesson from my time with the CIA, it is this: Everybody believes they are the good guy,” CIA Officer Fox

Final thoughts

We can’t possibly know everything and we can’t always be right. Understanding that we are all susceptible to IOED could lead to a more empathetic world for all of us.
 
References:




Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 20:03
Sexta-feira, 13 / 03 / 20

‘I Hate People’: Why You Feel This Way and How to Cope.

 

‘I Hate People’: 

Why You Feel This Way and How to Cope.

Sherrie Hurd

learning-mind.com

Posted March 13th, 2020.

 
 

 
 
I have been guilty of saying “I hate people”, but I really don’t. There’s much more to my emotions, and I wish to think positively.
 
Even the most friendly and extroverted person may say they hate people, but they don’t really mean it because, after all, they usually like people more than some of the rest of us. To be honest, I think we’ve all let this slip out a time or two.
 
People stuck on the negativity
 
Then there are others who proclaim their hate more often too, and there are a few reasons they do this. Sometimes hate springs from frustration, fear, and even when you see someone who thinks or looks different from you.
 
This sort of hate can get stuck inside and change you. There’s another important factor as well. If you start off hating someone, the more negative things you do, the more you will hate them. So how can we cope with these intense feelings?
Coping with the “I hate people” mindset
 
1. Recognize your true feelings
 
You may not think you’re guilty of hating people just because you mouth it a couple of times, but you really do carry a bit of strong distaste. Words have more power than you think. In order to cope with hatred toward others, you must first acknowledge that you say these things and sometimes even genuinely feel this way.
 
It was hard for me to realize what I was saying and feeling, and I always used the excuse, saying, “I just don’t like them, and it’s not the same as hate”, but I came to realize that I did have hatred in my heart. And so, I had to accept it before I could successfully cope with it.
 
2. Mindfulness exercises
 
Another way of coping with hatred toward others is by practicing mindfulness. Similar to meditation, mindfulness places you in the present time and coaxes you to think about what’s going on now.
 
The first thing you will want to do is wish good thoughts on yourself. Then wish kindness and happiness to friends and family, which is pretty easy to do. After that, wish good things for neutral people, those who really have little impact on your life in general.
 
Then, in a harder act of concentration, wish the same happiness on those who you do not like. When you practice this last one, you may feel the tension in your body. This is when you take deep breaths and try to relax. Then, wish happiness on everyone else in existence. Practice this often to help soften your hatred.
 
3. Let it go, let it go
 
No, I’m not about to sing that Disney song, but you do need to use a certain pattern to let hateful feelings go, like… letting it go. So, try this way of coping:
 
When you see someone you really don’t like, or even that someone you secretly hate, go ahead, for just one moment and let yourself feel it. Then imagine that dark feeling passing from your mind, down your neck, through your body and down to your feet. Imagine it soaking into the ground beneath you. Then calmly move from the place you were standing.
 
As you do this, it will distract you from the hatred you’re feeling and calm you enough to deal with them.
 
4. Grow up
 
Sometimes you hate people because they have different opinions than you, and that’s it! That is literally the only reason you hate them. I know it may seem petty, and truthfully, it is. Different folks have different standards and they despise each other in many cases.
 
One way to stop hating people is by accepting that they have an opinion of their own, an opinion that is their right, and your opinion could see just as silly or infuriating to them. So being mature enough to accept differences and move on is one good way to stop hating people.
 
5. Go ahead now, get to that root
 
If you’re actually hating on a number of people, group of people, or just everyone, that’s not natural. You weren’t born hating everyone. There is a root to that hatred.
 
In fact, you could have started hating one particular person, and the feelings spread due to the hurt they caused. Then it spread further until there really wasn’t anyone you did like. The good news is, you can reverse this hatred by tracing it back to its origin. Then start working on healing from there.
 
6. Recognize why hate is wrong
 
There are more reasons why hate is wrong than right. For one, hate is never included in anything if you are spiritual because you cannot hate your spiritual brother or sister or you hate yourself.
 
You see, some believe we are all one, and in ways, we are. It’s also just not fair to hate someone. We all have problems and show really unattractive sides to our personalities sometimes. We want to be forgiven, and we want a second chance to be liked, and so would you. There is never a good reason to hate, but there is always a good reason to love. Recognize this and work on it a bit at a time.
 
Never say “I hate people” again
 
Yes, I mean it. Never say those toxic words again. They can do no good and really make you feel bad about yourself later on. Those words have the power to make you feel sick both physically and mentally. So, try, really hard, to practice love instead of hate. I promise it brings a much better reward.
 
So, do you really hate people? I don’t think so.
 
 
References:

  1. https://www.forbes.com
  2. https://www.cnbc.com

 

Sherrie Hurd


 

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Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


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publicado por achama às 21:15
Sexta-feira, 21 / 02 / 20

4 Psychological Skills Truly Smart People Have.

4 Psychological Skills Truly Smart People Have.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

February 19th, 2020.

 
psychological skills smart people.
 
 
 
Some people just seem to sail through life, don’t they? They face problems with determination, successes with humility, and are just all-around likeable, smart and decent folk. Perhaps they are using psychological skills that we don’t know about?
 
There are certainly lots of life hacks that people use in order to get ahead. For instance, studies show that if you want someone to do you a favour, do something nice for them a few days before. Humans have a need to balance the scales; they like to reciprocate, it’s a tit-for-tat kind of mentality.So are there any other psychological abilities and skills that truly smart people use? Here are four of them:
 
4 Psychological Skills Smart People Have (and You Can Master Them Too)
 
They control their own thoughts
 
‘Our life is what our thoughts make us.’ Marcus Aurelius
It’s very easy to get into the trap of thinking that our thoughts are just ideas and phrases that pop in and out of our heads, and not something we can control. I remember going to see Paul McKenna in London for a phobia workshop weekend. If you don’t know who he is, he is an expert in NLP, getting rid of phobias, hypnotism, that kind of thing.
 
Onstage he asked the audience to imagine a typical Monday morning, getting up for work, going through the motions. Then describe our feelings and our moods. The majority of us said things like ‘Monday blues’, depressed, tired, drained, heavy, lacklustre, no energy.
 
He then asked us to imagine that instead of going to work on a Monday, we were jetting off to a luxury holiday resort on an exclusive island with 5-star facilities. Now he asked how we felt. The audience responded with ‘excited, raring to go, relaxed, can’t wait, happy, positive, lifted.’
 
‘You see the power of the mind?’ he said. Neither of those things happened but just by changing your thoughts you also changed your mood.
 
Now, why is this important?
 
Of course, we can’t spend our lives on holiday. But we can take those feelings of excitement, happiness, relaxation, and positivity and use them on tough days like Monday mornings.
 
Why will it make a difference? Because positivity attracts positivity. But more importantly, negativity does the same. Sure, you’re not on holiday, but you are bringing those feelings and emotions of excitement and happiness to work. This has a knock-on effect on your day.
 
Yes, you’ve still got to go to work, but perhaps it will be more pleasant because of your attitude? Likewise, our whole life is made up of our thoughts. If we are grateful for what we have, we’ll live a contented life.You could call this particular way of thinking a ‘psychological skill’ that smart people use. I guess it’s a little like cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). A way of actively changing the way we think on purpose to improve our lives.
 
They are socially intelligent, which means they don’t always show their intelligence
 
The second of our psychological skills is all about intelligence, but it involves a certain kind of intellect.
 
Imagine you’ve just passed your degree and you’re excited and you’re telling friends. How would you feel if someone piped up: “Oh, I got an honour degree in that subject.” Really?
 
Or there’s always someone who knows more than you and doesn’t hesitate to tell you. We all want others to know how clever we are. But when it costs other people, or steals their thunder, or ruins their moment, it’s not clever. In fact, it’s downright stupid.
 
If you need to boost your own ego by climbing over or trashing other people’s achievements, you are not socially intelligent.
 
Social intelligence is the understanding that we all need our moments as the centre of attention. We all deserve the spotlight on our achievements. Recognition for our knowledge, our smarts. But allowing others to revel in the limelight is a more intelligent way to show your intelligence. Why? Because people associate their feelings of importance and pride with you when you let them share their best moments.
 
In future, don’t be the know-all that everyone dreads being around.They know that most things will pass
 
There is an ability that truly smart people have which is the knowledge that most things will pass. I remember when my boyfriend died in 2013. At the time I thought I’d never get over the loss and pain. Now it’s 2020 and I can reflect on those tragic times and know that whatever dreadful thing happens in the future, it will pass. I will get through it.
 
Of course, at the time, if someone had tried to give me this advice on grief I would have probably lamped them. People who are going through horrific trauma and grief don’t need advice. They need support.
 
This knowledge comes from your own experience. All we have to do is simply exist. And that’s what I did, for a long time. I took minutes, then hours, then days at a time. Until one day I was coming out of a migraine and was lying on the bed when a cooling breeze flowed over my hot, throbbing head.
 
I remember thinking ‘This feels nice.’ Up until that point, nothing had felt nice since my boyfriend’s passing. But I knew that if something as simple as the wind could be pleasant, I would get through the pain of his death.
 
This is one of those psychological skills that comes with time and experience. Because you have to pass through trauma and come out the other side to know it.
 
Of course, these days staying in the present through mindfulness is considered to be extremely therapeutic. However, there’s nothing wrong with revisiting the past in order to arm yourself to face the future.
 
They accept the blame for their own predicament
 
Now, more than ever, there’s a trend to want to blame anyone but ourselves for our own predicament. How often do we see those TV adverts ‘Where’s there’s a blame, there’s a claim.’ It’s written into our DNA that we should blame someone else for what’s gone wrong in our lives.However, there’s something very powerful about accepting that we are at fault when we’ve made a mistake. Psychologists call this ‘locus of control’.
 
Locus of Control
 
Locus of control is the degree in which an individual feels they have control over their own life. This can refer to our successes as well as our failures. We attribute this control to internal factors (ourselves) or external factors (others, environment, etc.).
For example, say that a person has failed an exam. If they have an internal locus of control, they’ll attribute their failure to a lack of revision, partying the night before the exam, not paying attention in class. In other words, they’ll blame themselves for the outcome.
 
However, someone with an external locus will say the reasons for failure were their parents not waking them up in time to get to the exam on time. Or that their tutors didn’t teach them from the right books, or that the classroom was too hot/cold. They will blame other reasons for the failure.
 
Now, why is this important? Surely in life, some things are out of our control. Sometimes things happen that do ruin our chances. And yes, this is true. But studies show those who consistently take responsibility for their own successes or downfalls, in other words, have an internal locus, are happier, healthier and more successful in general.
 
Final Thoughts
 
These are just four psychological skills that anyone can master. Do you know of any others? I’d love to hear them!
 
 
 
References:
 
 

 

 
Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 21:11
Domingo, 16 / 02 / 20

Mirror-Touch Synesthesia: the Extreme Version of Empathy

Mirror-Touch Synesthesia: 

The Extreme Version of Empathy.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

February 14th, 2020.

 
mirror-touch synesthesia.
 


 
 
When a person says ‘I feel your pain,’ you take it to mean emotionally, not physically. But people that suffer from mirror-touch synesthesia feel exactly that; other people’s physical pain.
What Is Mirror-Touch Synesthesia?
 
The Condition of Synesthesia
 
Before we discuss this strange condition, let’s get some background on the basics of synesthesia.
 
The word ‘synesthesia’ comes from Greek and means ‘joined perception’. It’s a condition whereby one sense, such as seeing or hearing, triggers another overlapping sense. People with synesthesia are able to perceive the world through multiple senses.
 
For instance, those with synesthesia experience seeing music as colourful swirls. Or they might associate letters or numbers with different colours. Smells are linked to colours or sounds.
 
Mirror-Touch Synesthesia
 
It is a condition whereby the sufferer feels the sensations another person is experiencing. It’s called mirror-touch because the feelings occur on the opposite side of the body; as if you’re looking in a mirror.
 
For example, if I were to stroke the palm of my left hand, a sensation would occur on the sufferer’s right palm. Sights and sounds trigger feelings that can be painful or pleasurable.
 
Mirror-touch synesthesia is incredibly rare. It occurs in just 2% of the world’s population. Experts have described it as ‘an extreme form of empathy’. This is because the sufferer feels exactly what the other person is experiencing on and in their own body.
 
Meet Dr. Joel Salinas – the doctor who can feel your pain
 
One person that knows all about mirror-touch synesthesia is Dr. Joel Salinas. This doctor is a Harvard neurologist and a clinical researcher at Massachusetts University. He comes into contact with sick and ailing patients on a daily basis. But it’s not just their pain and discomfort he feels.
 
Dr. Salinas describes the pressure on the bridge of his nose as he watches someone walk past wearing glasses. The sensation of vinyl against the backs of his legs as he glances at a woman seated on a plastic chair in the waiting room. How her hat fits snugly around his head. The way his hip automatically contracts to mimic a volunteer shifting from one leg to another while taking a break from pushing a wheelchair.
 
“Through mirror-touch synesthesia, my body physically feels the experiences I see others have.” Dr. Joel Salinas
 
What Causes Mirror-Touch Synesthesia?
 
Experts believe it’s all to do with neurons and the part of our brain which is responsible for forward-thinking and planning. For instance, I look at my coffee and want to drink some of it. The neurons in my premotor cortex spring into action. This prompts me to reach out and take the cup.
 
Scientists in Italy discovered something interesting whilst researching macaque monkeys and neurons in the premotor cortex. They noticed high activity in this part of the brain when the monkeys reached to take an object, but also when they observed another monkey reaching out for an object. They called these particular neurons ‘mirror-touch’ neurons.
 
I find this all pretty incredible; it’s almost like a superpower built into our brains. But more importantly, it suggests a deeper connection between us.
 
What’s It Like to Experience This Type of Synesthesia?
 
People with mirror-touch synesthesia can have very different experiences. For some, it can be incredibly intense and disturbing. In fact, it’s not uncommon to hear this condition described as: “shocking electricity – like bolts of fire.”
 
One woman referred to a particularly distressing incident as: “It was a moment of trauma for me.” Another talks about his partner and how exhausted she felt on a daily basis: “Sometimes after being out in the world with everyone else’s feelings pulsing through her body, she’d come home and just pass out.”
 
Of course, we cannot forget there are also good feelings as well as bad. Moreover, some people with this condition seem able to focus on positive experiences.
 
One woman talks about the sense of freedom she goes through: “When I watch a bird in the sky, I feel like I’m flying. That’s a joy.” Another recalls the pleasure he senses: “When I see people hug, I feel like my body is getting hugged.”
 
Is Mirror-Touch Synesthesia a More Extreme Form of Empathy?
 
For some people, having this condition could be seen as a benefit. Certainly in Dr. Salinas’ view, it is.
 
“It is up to me to reason through that experience so that I can then respond to my patients from a truer, more enduring place of compassion and kindness. Or, I can respond with whatever else is needed: Sometimes that means prescribing a medication.” Dr. Salinas
 
However, anyone with empathic traits will know just how exhausting it can be. Putting yourself in another’s person’s situation and feeling their emotions is physically draining in its self. Regardless of actually physically experiencing pain or discomfort, empaths have a hard enough time as it is.
 
Final Thoughts
 
Dr. Salinas believes there are good reasons for some of us to be able to feel what others feel. And it’s all about curiosity and understanding another person.
 
“Being curious about where another human being is coming from, and wondering why they might think, feel, or do what they do.”
 
Because it’s the fear of the unknown that can lead to prejudice, radicalisation, stereotyping minority groups and hate crimes. Surely, the more we know about a person, the better for all of society.
 
 
References:
  1. www.bbc.co.uk
  2. www.vice.com
  3. www.sciencedirect.com
  4. www.theguardian.com
 

 

 
Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 02:49
Sábado, 04 / 01 / 20

Mere Exposure Effect: 3 Examples Show Why You Love Things You Used to Hate

Francesca Forsythe.

https://www.learning-mind.com

January 4th, 2020.

 

 
 
The mere exposure effect can guide our preferences without us even realizing. In a year, you may like something you hate right now.
 
 
Have you ever wondered why your preferences change as you get older? Maybe you hated olives and now you love them. Maybe you and your best friend hated each other and now you can’t imagine life without them. These are both examples of the mere exposure effect, a powerful psychological phenomenon that can change our preferences as we go through life.
 
 
If you catch yourself saying, ‘Oh, I used to hate that,’ then you may be experiencing this effect. Familiarity is a powerful thing, and we have three examples to prove that the mere exposure effect really does work.
 
 
What Is the Mere Exposure Effect?
 
 
It is a psychological phenomenon that causes people to develop a preference for things simply because they are familiar with them. The more you are exposed to something, the more you may find yourself liking it.
 
 
This may occur consciously or subliminally, but it is strongest when you don’t realize you’re experiencing something. The more times you experience the same thing, the more familiar you become with it and you may find yourself enjoying it more than you expected.
 
 
The mere exposure effect works because we enjoy familiarity. It makes us feel safe and secure, so we tend to seek it out when we can. If you’re still not sure this is true, consider the next three examples of the mere exposure effect. I promise you will have experienced one if not all of these examples.
 
 
Music
 
 
Have you ever heard a song and not liked it at first, then, the more you hear it, the more you like it? This is a classic example of the mere exposure effect. If you hear a song over and over on the radio, you will most likely enjoy it a lot more the tenth time than the first.
 
 
This is a common example of subliminal mere exposure because you may not even realize you are listening to the song as often as you are. Then, once you consciously listen to it, or realize you are listening to it, you will find you enjoy it much more than you did the first time. Eventually, you might find yourself singing along or even putting the song on purposefully.
 
 
People
 
 
They say that first impressions are the most important, but this may not be true. The more time you spend with someone, the more familiar they become to you. This means that you will find more in common with them. The things that might have annoyed you at first will also become more familiar and you will be used to them the longer you spend with them.
 
 
Once you know someone in this way, you may tend to like them more as you are familiar with their quirks. Many friendships can begin with two people severely disliking each other. However, over time, the relationship grows as familiarity sets in.
 
 
Food
 
 
Of course, it is true that as we get older, our taste buds change and we may enjoy things we didn’t previously. However, this can also be a product of the mere exposure effect.
 
 
You may not like the taste of olives right away, but you may eat them on pizza or in sauces. Eventually, you will become used to the taste in other things and it will become familiar to you. It is a slow process and you may not even notice it happening. As time goes on, however, you find yourself more readily eating olives on their own.
 
 
How Far Does the Mere Exposure Effect Go?
 
 
Studies have shown that the mere exposure effect is at its most powerful when there is a period of time between exposures. So, when you experience something for the first time, you may not like it. Then, when you experience it a second time, maybe a few days later, you like it a little more. As this continues and the experience becomes more familiar, you will begin to like it more and more.
 
 
It will take a few exposures for the familiarity to develop, so it does take time for the effect to really take hold. This means that if you experience the same thing over and over, you won’t begin to enjoy it as much as you would if you had a break from it between experiences.
 
 
Children have also been found not to suffer from the mere exposure effect as much as adults. This is because children tend to enjoy new things rather than the familiar ones. For children, the familiar is more of a comfort than a novelty. As you get older, the more familiar you are with something, the more you tend to enjoy it.
 
 
Time can change many things, but it is definitely true that it can change how you feel. The mere exposure effect may not cause you to like anything and everything. Yet, it is a powerful phenomenon that can change our preferences and have us enjoying things we previously hated.
 
 
References:
 
 

Francesca Forsythe





 

About the Author: Francesca Forsythe

Francesca is a freelance writer currently studying a degree in Law and Philosophy. She has written for several blogs in a range of subjects across Lifestyle, Relationships and Health and Fitness. Her main pursuits are learning new innovative ways of keeping fit and healthy, as well as broadening her knowledge in as many areas as possible in order to achieve success.
 
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 
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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


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publicado por achama às 08:09
Sexta-feira, 27 / 12 / 19

What Is Slippery Slope Fallacy and How to Handle It in an Argument

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted December 26th, 2019.

 
Slippery Slope Fallacy.

 


The slippery slope argument is frequently used in a variety of contexts from our own internal reasoning to political propaganda. It takes the view that a certain action will lead to a specific chain of events, usually resulting in a negative outcome. But how helpful is this argument and why has it been termed the ‘slippery slope fallacy’?

In this post, we explore the fallacy of the slippery slope argument and look at how to handle this viewpoint when faced with it in an argument.

What Are the Different Types of Slippery Slope Arguments?
Slippery slope arguments come under many guises and philosophers have distinguished them under the following three categories:

1. Causal Slippery Slopes
A causal slippery slope relates to arguments that suggest a minor action will lead to a major (and potentially catastrophic) event. The causal nature of this argument is that the minor event leads to further events that gradually escalate until the ultimate tragic ending.

An extreme example of a causal slippery slope is someone suggesting that legalizing prostitution would cause lead to an increase in marital breakdown. This then escalates into the destruction of the constitution of the family and results in the very destruction of civilization itself.

2. Precedential Slippery Slopes
These suggest that in treating a minor issue a certain way, we will be obliged to treat a related issue that is more major in the same way in the future.

A common example of this type of slippery slope is the argument against the legalization of cannabis. Those that oppose this use the slippery slope to suggest it will lead to more positive attitudes towards harder drugs and the subsequent legalization of drugs like heroin.

3. Conceptual Slippery Slopes
This form of slippery slope argument is linked to the concept of vagueness and draws no distinction between the possibility of getting from one thing to the next and removes all decision-making processes from this. From this perspective, if you decide to do one thing, then you will inevitably decide to do every next step that occurs. Eventually, this will lead you to the ultimate negative result.

What Is the Slippery Slope Fallacy?
The slippery slope fallacy disputes arguments that predict such an escalation of events. In philosophy, certain discussions on logic and critical thinking have deemed the slippery slope argument a fallacy. It is deemed one of the logical fallacies because there is only a small possibility that one event will actually lead to the predicted (often negative) outcome.

The probability of such a cumulative effect of disastrous events occurring is actually quite slim. The argument also ignores the human ability to learn from experiences and take a different track when a decision may not have been the right one. Slippery slope arguments are also criticized for leveraging fear in jumping to extreme hypothetical consequences which are based on very little evidence.

How to Handle This Type of Fallacy in an Argument
You may be new to the world of slippery slopes or have found this article because you’re frustrated with your acquaintances using this logic. Here we highlight how you can tackle the slippery slope fallacy head-on.

1. Ask for justification
A good place to start when faced with the slippery slope fallacy is to ask your opponent to provide evidence behind their cause. In asking them to justify the reasons behind their belief that one event will inevitably go down the slippery slope to another, you will likely make them think again about their reasoning.

2. Highlight the missing pieces
Another way to tackle the slippery slope argument is to highlight the events that are missing from the slope. In emphasizing the key events that will occur between the start of the slope and the end, you can show your opponent that their argument rests on very tentative foundations.

3. Use an example
When it comes to winning an argument, it is always helpful to have an example up your sleeve.

The slippery slope argument that has gained significant attention is relating to the right to die movement. The use of the slippery slope argument in this context suggests that if the right to die was legalized, then this right would be abused. It implies that no matter what safeguards are put in place, the doctor now has the ‘power to kill as well as cure.

Benatar (2011) helpfully picks apart this argument in applying this same logic to driving. People drive dangerously, under the influence, and drive cars that are not roadworthy. All of these actions lead to accidents and death. However, the idea that driving should be banned is absurd.

In other words, the slippery slope argument does not create a justification to withhold a legal right from someone just because some people have abused this right (i.e. not everyone can be tarnished with the same brush).

Final Words
The slippery slope argument can be an influential tactic. However, when you stop to think about it, it becomes clear that these arguments are often based on very tentative foundations.


When you tune into this idea, you will no doubt spot the slippery slope fallacy in many outlets including the media, politics, and discussions with your peers. To counter these arguments, try out the steps above and you’re sure to get one step closer to revealing the fallacy.
 
 
 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 05:45
Quarta-feira, 25 / 12 / 19

Do Binaural Beats Work? Here Is What Science Has to Say

Sherrie Hurd.

learning-mind.com

Posted December 24th, 2019.

 
 



 

As humans who suffer from a multitude of disorders, we look for cures that work, so have we found healing in binaural beats?
 
Being diagnosed with an anxiety disorder among other things, I’ve tried many so-called solutions and medications to improve my quality of life. I also tried yoga, nature walks, prayer, and martial arts – you name it. Then I started to experiment with sound, mainly ambient music and things of that sort.
 
 
For a while, the sounds seemed to transport me to another place, soothing me and removing the husks of tension from my brain. But it would always come back, the anxiety, so I’m not sure what really works the best for me. Now, I’m researching binaural beats, in hopes that this will be the key to my healing. So, do binaural beats work?
Working with binaural beats
 
Many people back up the idea that binaural beats can relieve anxiety and pain. There are also those who put their faith in these sounds to correct cognitive issues, ADHD, and even mental trauma. There is such a large consensus of those that think binaural beats reduce headache pain, that Bayer, the manufacturer of aspirin, has seven files of binaural beats on its website in Austria.
 
Bayer’s statement is that it’s not necessarily used to stop headache pain, but to bring about relaxation which may help with headache pain. But all this talk about how well the beats work makes us want to understand exactly what binaural beats are.
What are binaural beats and how do they work?
 
To some, these sounds, or absences of sound, are illusions. In a way they are, but in truth, they do exist. They are beats created by opposite sounds being poured into each ear, thus the name “binaural”.
 
Here’s the basic concept: one ear hears a tone that is slightly different than the other ear. Just a few hertz difference, and your brain perceives a sort of beat that isn’t even present within the song or sound that you’re listening to. You cannot hear binaural beats with one ear. This is why it’s called an illusion.
 
What we do not know is which region generates the binaural beat sound – the sound that isn’t really there. While there are theories, it’s uncertain, and it’s also uncertain which tones and frequencieswork best for improvements.
When were binaural beats discovered?
 
In 1839, Heinrich Wilhelm Dove, a German physicist, discovered the concept of the binaural beat. However, much of what we understand about how binaural beats work only surfaced in 1973 in an article by Gerald Oster in Scientific American. Oster’s purpose was to use binaural beats in medicine, but its uncertain which area of medicine.
 
In modern times, these auditory illusions are seen as tools to improve mental wellbeing in conjunction with meditation, relaxation, and sleep – these among other mental exercises for mental health. They are also being used to alleviate pain as well. If proven to work, binaural beats could be the answer to a plethora of serious issues.
 
How these beats pertain to brain waves
 
Brain waves, or the activity of neurons, are oscillations that appear on an EEG. Two examples of brain waves are Alpha waves, which are responsible for relaxation, and Gamma waves which are responsible for attention or memory.
 
Those who stand behind the validity of binaural beats claim that these illusionary sounds can actually shift the brain waves from Gamma to Alpha or vice versa, moving you either into a state of rest or improvement of memory.
 
Most studies that focus on whether binaural beats work or not, unfortunately, are inconclusive in this area. However, as far as anxiety is concerned, there are consistent reports from those who suffered from disorders that binaural beats reduce levels of anxious feelings.
 
Studies concerning anxiety have proven to be the most promising for proving the effectiveness of binaural beats in improving life for the future. On more than one study, participants with anxiety reported being less anxious when listening to these sounds in the delta/theta range, and even more so, for longer periods in the delta range alone.
 
It’s not clear why this happens, regardless of the tests and studies on these non-sounds. While some patients reported a decrease in pain listening to beats around 10 hertz, in the alpha range, further research is needed to back up this claim.
 
Where children with ADHD are concerned, the tests show that binaural beats can improve focus for a temporary time, including during the tests themselves, but not for the long-term. There is still a bit of research that must be done in this area, including finding the right tone and frequency which seems to work after the initial effects of the study.
So do binaural beats work, according to science?
 
Joydeep Bhattacharya, professor of psychology at the University of London, states,
 
 
 
“A lot of big claims have been made without adequate verification.”
 
And he is right. While many people claim to experience an improvement in the quality of life, science hasn’t found the hard evidence it needs to produce a helpful system for the whole of society, and that’s really what we need. We can take Bhattacharya seriously due to his 20 years of study in the neuroscience of sound, which includes binaural beats, or as some are now calling auditory hallucinations.
 
Science has unearthed contradictions concerning binaural beats with different conditions. The studies to understand the localization of sound in order to treat anxiety, modulate cognition, and treat brain injuries, among other issues are, as of now, inconclusive.
 
The positive results, which point toward binaural beats being a significant cause for improvement in certain areas, are short-lived success stories. They are still without an idea of the definite region of the brain which is stimulated during these illusionary sounds. Also, most studies that produced positive results for helping anxiety or cognitive function did not use EEG measurements to do so.
 
Another factor in the study of binaural beats is tone. It seems the lower the tone and beat frequency, the more chance of positive results in this area. Each condition, each case and each level of frequency all play a part in whether binaural beats really work and improve conditions in our lives.
 
 
“In the electrophysiological neuroimaging studies, you will find the results are split. And that gives you a good indication that the story is more complicated than many of the behavioral studies want to convince you”
 
-Prof. Bhattacharya
How should we take this information?
 
Whether or not science has conclusively proven the effectiveness of binaural beats, which apparently it hasn’t, it doesn’t stop us from trying them out. I might not suggest making a large investment in a program targeted completely toward these concepts. However, if you have a chance to listen to binaural beats, then sure, it’s worth that try.
 
As a sufferer of anxiety, depression and other mental illnesses that can prove almost impossible to endure, I’m not against trying new ways to improve my life. So, as for me, I just might try binaural beats for myself, just a few options here and there that I find. If I notice any difference, I will be sure to let you know. While I’m doing that, maybe science can conclusively let us know if binaural beats are the answer to many of our problems.

 

Sherrie Hurd

 

 

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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

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publicado por achama às 04:14
Sábado, 21 / 12 / 19

Why Is Logical-Mathematical Intelligence Important and How to Improve It?

Michelle Liew 

Contributor writer to Learning Mind.

December 20th, 2019.

 
 
 
 
Do you enjoy brain teasers? Do you find yourself thinking more rationally than emotionally? Are you fond of science? If you have answered yes to any of these questions, you probably have a high level of logical-mathematical intelligence.
 
What is this type of intelligence, and why do people prize it so highly? We answer these questions and share a few ideas about how to develop it.
 
What Is Logical-Mathematical Intelligence?
 
Psychologist Howard Gardner first proposed the idea of the logical-mathematical type of intelligence in the 1980s as part of his theory of multiple intelligences. He said that humans have various types of intelligence instead of just one. He thus suggested that we have nine types of them, including logical-mathematical thinking. It refers to our deductive, mathematical, and scientific abilities.
 
Why Is This Type of Intelligence Important?
 
Logical-mathematical intelligence ranks highly in Gardner’s list of intelligence types. People regard it highly, and it’s not hard to understand why.
 
1. Applicable in nearly all contexts
 
First, we need a logical-mathematical type of intelligence to complete a wide range of tasks. We need it to manage minor details like putting things in order or scheduling activities. It enables us to organize our clutter and make sense of our spaces.
 
We learn these skills as early as in kindergarten, and they are applicable in nearly all areas of life. Logical-mathematical intelligence includes classifying, seriation, comparing, and ordering.
 
Logical-mathematical thinking and intelligence enable many life skills. It’s what allows us to make to-do lists, prioritize activities, and put our clothes in proper order. A study shows that it has an impact on our ability to understand our finances.
 
2. It allows us to see patterns
 
This type of intelligence also allows us to see patterns in a series of shapes, and even language text. It’s what prevents you from repeating unnecessary details.
 
3. Ability to understand relationships
 
Our ability to process things logically allows us to appreciate the cause and effect of events. The logical-mathematical type of thinking enables us to understand the consequences of our actions.
 
4. Allows us to decipher details
 
Our logical-mathematical intelligence enables us to observe essential details and analyze situations critically. We usually associate it with scientific ability, but it also helps us to grasp the facts that are necessary to manage nearly everything, including languages.
 
5. Development of rational and critical thinking
 
An abundance of the logical-mathematical type of intelligence encourages rational thinking. It enables a person to take a step-by-step approach to solve problems. Such intelligence also accounts for our ability to interpret information critically and analytically.
 
How to Develop Your Logical-Mathematical Intelligence?
 
Logical-mathematical thinking skills can carry us far. Honing them makes a difference in daily living. It even lets us enjoy bonding activities – count Cluedo, Monopoly, and Risk among the board games you’ve played with your family that require logical intelligence. So, how do we develop it?
 
1. Play board games
 
As said before, board games like Risk and Cluedo entail logical thinking. Playing more of these is a sure way to develop it in ourselves, friends, and family members.
 
2. Logic puzzles and brain teasers
 
Logic puzzles like the Rubik’s Cube or Mathematical Brain Teasers also hone a person’s logical thinking processes. Finding out how to get the six faces of the cube to match will give them a fair amount of exercise.
 
3. Learn the abacus
 
Children in Japan learn how to use this before, or instead of calculators. It is an efficient problem-solving tool because it encourages children to use quick calculation, memorization and analysis techniques.
 
One of these is Anzan, which allows a child to memorize multiplication tables and solve arithmetic problems mentally. It teaches children to add and subtract large numbers within a few quick minutes.
 
4. Take courses
 
Logical-mathematical intelligence has become necessary in today’s digital world. Where would we be without websites and computers?
 
Even bloggers using WordPress need coding skills so that they can embed pictures and videos in their posts. Granted that there are apps that ease the process, but knowing simple coding makes it even quicker (and allows them to show off their technical skills).
 
Attending basic computer programming courses not only prepares a person for today’s fast-paced digital world but also nurtures logical thinking processes.
 
Taking science or maths courses would do the same.
 
5. Use flowcharts
 
Flowcharts are maps of a person’s thoughts. They let us organize our ideas and seriate processes, which is an aspect of the logical-mathematical type of intelligence. We can better understand the order of the events to take place.
 
6. Visit science museums
 
Paying visits to science museums may seem like an odd way to develop logical thinking, but it does help. Where else can you get a detailed explanation of the thought processes behind inventions and scientific concepts?
 
7. Tape yourself trying to solve maths and science problems
 
One of the best ways to track your thought processes is to record them. Do this the next time you have to consolidate financial statements. As you observe these processes, you’ll notice your arithmetic skills.
 
8. Help your children with their maths and science homework
 
Parents learn with their children. The next time your children have maths or science homework to complete, give them a hand. You’ll find your ability to process equations improve.
 
9. Buy a microscope and a telescope
 
Use these devices to take note of the things around you. Solar and lunar eclipses fascinate everyone; take the time to discover our universe and the solar system. You’ll find out how scientific processes occur naturally as the planets revolve around the sun.
 
 
Encourage your child to examine insects under a microscope. They’ll understand how the bodies of these creatures function and develop their abilities to classify, seriate, and put items in an order.
 
10. Ask how-to questions
 
One of the best ways to develop the logical aspects of your intelligence is to ask yourself how-to questions.
 
Ask yourself how the roller blinds at home operate (they function with the help of a pulley system), what DNA is, or how a microwave oven cooks food. These questions will kickstart logical thinking processes and develop this learning style.
 
Logical-mathematical intelligence may not be as well-developed in some of us as it is in others, but all of us can nurture it. Use these simple strategies for a start.
 
Michelle Liew.
 

 


About the Author: 

Michelle Liew


Michelle is a freelance writer who loves all things about life. She has a broad range of interests that include literature, history, philosophy, human relationships, and psychology. When she is not busy writing her heart out, you will find her tinkering jazz tunes on her piano. She loves anything that helps her to grow as a person, including her pet terriers, Misty and Cloudy.

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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 
 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 00:08
Quarta-feira, 04 / 12 / 19

Foreign Accent Syndrome: a Curious and Extremely Rare Brain Condition

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted December 3rd, 2019.

 
Foreign Accent Syndrome.

 

 
 
Foreign Accent Syndrome (FAS) is a rare speech disorder that can happen after a head injury, stroke, or some other form of damage to the brain and sees you suddenly start speaking with a different accent beyond your control.
 
This condition is extremely rare, with only around 100 people known to have been diagnosed since the first recorded case in 1907. But what causes this little known condition that causes the adoption of a new accent and the loss of part of a person’s identity in the process?
 
In this post, we will look at what the different explanations for Foreign Accent Syndrome are, its symptoms, how it gets diagnosed, and what treatment options you have if FAS strikes.
 
What Is Foreign Accent Syndrome?
 
FAS is characterized by the patient taking on a new accent to their native language, with examples more common amongst speakers of English as a native language but not restricted to English speakers.
 
FAS can involve changes in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary as well as changes in phonological intonation. It is important to note that the person’s voice sounds foreign both to themselves and the person they are speaking to.
 
What Are the Causes?
 
As already mentioned, FAS is usually caused by some form of stress caused to the brain causing a brain lesion. Specifically, when there is damage to the left-hand side of the brain in the Broca’s area which is linked to speech production, there is a heightened risk of FAS.
 
However, more recently, a study by McWhirtner et al. for the BMJ found there may also be a psychological component to the disorder. Indeed, even when there has been structural damage to the brain, this study found that psychology could also be involved.
 
The medical literature breaks FAS down into 3 main types which each have unique characteristics:
  1. Neurogenic (eg. linked to structural damage caused to the brain from things like a stroke, brain injury, aneurysms, etc.)
  2. Psychogenic (eg. where there is no apparent structural damage to the brain but where the person may have suffered emotional or mental stress or psychological or psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia)
  3. Mixed (where there is structural damage to the brain but there seems to be a psychogenic component).
What Are the Symptoms of Foreign Accent Syndrome?
 
Examples of FAS include a British lady called Julia Matthias who started speaking with an accent somewhere between French and Chinese after she was involved in a car accident. An American woman suffered a headache one night and woke up speaking in a combination of British, Irish and Australian accents.
 
However, cases have also been reported of a 44-year-old Japanese lady speaking with a Korean accent and a Spanish person taking on a Hungarian one.
 
Other common symptoms include things like:
  • Difficulty pronouncing certain sound clusters, particularly consonant clusters, such as S-P-L in words like “Splash”
  • Vowels and consonants may be reduced, made simpler, or appear unarticulated or broken.
  • Intonation and stress on words may become more frequent, ie. rather than highlighting some words through stress or tone, someone with FAS may highlight every word
  • Sounds requiring the tongue to tap against the roof of your mouth can become problematic
  • The “uh” sound can frequently be added within words
 
Can This Syndrome Be Medically Diagnosed?
 
If you notice symptoms like the ones above or any other changes in your normal speech, it is a good idea to seek medical help. Changes in the way you speak can be a sign of more serious issues so you should not put off seeing a doctor when you notice a change. Doctors can diagnose FAS using a variety of tools, such as SPECT, PET, MRI or CT scans which provide detailed images of activity inside your brain.
 
As mentioned, FAS is incredibly rare. For this reason, if you do present with symptoms, you will need to see a variety of specialists to confirm a diagnosis. A speech and language pathologist can record your new accent and look into where the changes have occurred in order to rule out other types of speaking disorder.
 
A neurologist can interpret the CT and MRI scans, whilst a psychologist can help you deal with the potential emotional stress caused by the changes and seek to explore any psychological causes of FAS.
 
Going to sleep and waking up with a new accent can have a profound effect on people’s sense of self and make it feel like they have lost a vital part of their own identity. Indeed, the accent can sound strange and be unconnected to our class, educational level, and where we come from so it is easy to see how challenging this can be.
 
Can Foreign Accent Syndrome Be Treated?
 
Given the 3 different variants of FAS, there is a range of treatment options that people can try. In terms of targeting psychogenic causes and effects, these include speaking to a speech and language therapist who can give you targeted exercises targeting past pronunciation, counseling, and therapy to help you deal with your new identity.
 
You can also practice things like Psychological First Aid and positive affirmation to help you cope with the challenges thrown up by FAS.
 
On the neurogenic side, medication to prevent strokes, anti-seizure medication, and even surgery may be suitable treatment options. However, because the condition is so rare, more work needs to be done to understand the various treatment options and the causes of the condition itself.
 
Foreign Accent Syndrome is a very rare condition that can cause those who suffer it serious emotional distress due to the loss of identity associated with a change of accent.
 
It is important to seek medical advice if you notice any of the symptoms even if you are unaware that you may have suffered physical damage to the brain. Treatment is possible, as is a full recovery, however, more research needs to be done to better understand both the causes and treatments for FAS.
 

References
  1. https://www.utdallas.edu
  2. https://www.bbc.com
  3. https://www.healthline.com
  4. https://www.discovermagazine.com
 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 09:20
Domingo, 24 / 11 / 19

8 Types of Logical Fallacies and How They Distort Your Thinking

Alexander Nyland

https://www.learning-mind.com/

November 24th, 2019.


 
 
We often come across various types of logical fallacies when engaging in an argument or debate. These can slip into our reasoning when trying to argue a claim. Perhaps this is due to building a poor argument, for deliberate aims or simply through laziness.
 
However, what is meant by types of logical fallacies? For instance, we need to know what logical fallacies are before we can scrutinise some of the many forms they take.
 
What Is a Logical Fallacy?
 
A logical fallacy is a flaw in reasoning. It is a point that is made that’s logically false. This renders the argument defective due to the plausible validity of it being undermined.
 
Sometimes they are easy to spot and sometimes they are much more subtle. This can depend on how they arise is an argument. As mentioned, someone may just have constructed a weak argument. As a result, these logical inconsistencies may begin to appear.
 
On the other hand, a seasoned rhetorician may use them in a more tactical way. They will purposely use them to dupe the audience to their way of thinking.
 
In whatever situation they may appear in, you should know and recognise the many types of logical fallacies in the most basic sense. Then you can benefit greatly in various different aspects of your life.
 
Notably, it will help you become more adept in your own reasoning. In addition, it can also equip you with means to deconstruct an opponent’s argument effectively.
 
In this article, we will explore many common types of logical fallacies that can crop up in a debate. We will discuss how you can spot them and recognise how they can manipulate debate and distort your thinking.
 
8 Types of Logical Fallacies and How to Spot Them
 
Logical fallacies come in many different types and forms. Here is a list of 8 of the most common that you may come across. Each one comes with an explanation so that you may be able to see them at work for yourself.
 
Ad Hominem Fallacy
 
An ad hominem is a personal attack. One would use a personal attack on their counterpart rather than using sound reasoning to advance their argument. This is usually done when someone is criticising or disagreeing with another person’s view.
 
However, they show this criticism and disagreement through personal insults. Moreover, these insults are not connected or applicable to the subject at hand.
 
Verbal attacks replace logical thinking. It proves nothing except a poorly built argument. Indeed, it does nothing to develop the debate.
 
Look out if someone starts to personally insult you in some way when engaging in an argument. Identifying the ad hominem will allow you to expose it. In turn, this might strengthen your position in the debate.
 
Strawman Fallacy/Argument
 
The strawman fallacy is a poor ploy to try and make your own position stronger. You achieve this by criticising a position that the opponent never held. You would not deal with the actual matter at hand. Instead, you would respond to a genuine stance that your opponent has taken.
 
For example, one would manipulate this position and attack a superficial stance that you have created for them. This position may seem similar to what they have argued but it is ultimately false and unequal.
 
Hence, you end up criticising a position that your opponent never wanted to argue for in the first place. The strawman fallacy cheaply manipulates the discourse to strengthen a position. Listen carefully for this. Scrutinising this immediately will allow you to uncover this weakness.
 
Appeal to Authority
 
Sometimes citing an authoritative figure or organisation to back up your argument can be an effective way of strengthening it. However, relying on this can make your position weak. Not to mention, it can steer the debate away from the real issues at hand.
 
The appeal to authority fallacy occurs when you wrongly apply authority to your argument. This is done to provide proof of what you are trying to say.
 
Appealing to authority can initially seem like a persuasive tool. However, often it needs additional support to really be effective. Otherwise, it can be just a cheap way of falsely making an argument look stronger.
 
Appealing to authority can be relatively easy to spot. What important is to evaluate it in the context of the subject of the debate. Only then can you see whether it is relevant or appropriate.
 
Bandwagon Fallacy
 
The bandwagon fallacy is another addition to this list of types of logical fallacies. It is also perhaps one of the easiest to deduce. Most people will be familiar with the phrase ‘jumping on the bandwagon’. The bandwagon fallacy is essentially this but using it as a means of gaining support and credibility.
 
This fallacy is judging something to be true just because many others believe it to be. Or, taking up a position, without any prior belief in it, because many others support it. To put it another way, deceitfully gaining support for a position and bolstering in the process.
 
Slippery Slope Fallacy
 
The slippery slope fallacy occurs with a reasonable proposition and then spirals into fanciful and extreme suggestions or consequences.
 
Someone may begin their reasonable proposition, then suggest something will happen as a consequence, and this relates to a chain of linked events. However, as the proposition unfolds it eventually ends in a highly improbable outcome.
 
This can be easy to spot. The ridiculous or inconceivable outcome has little to no evidence to suggest that it may actually come about.
 
Hasty Generalisation
 
A hasty generalisation is exactly as it sounds. Someone may hastily generalise their argument. Then they will reach their conclusion swiftly without any substantial evidence to back it up. This could be for several reasons:
  1. Rushing to a conclusion
  2. Making a sweeping assumption
  3. Making a wild exaggeration without any sort of credible proof
 
It is essentially jumping to a conclusion erratically without much thought and without enough evidence to support that conclusion. It can occur through a poorly structured argument.
 
If an opponent in a debate seems to have reached their conclusion quite quickly and without much evidence, then it’s probably a hasty generalisation.
 
Circular Argument
 
A circular argument is when someone arrives at a conclusion in which they just repeat what has already been established or assumed.
 
It is a type of logical fallacy doesn’t really prove anything new. Actually, all it does is repeat previous arguments in the same way. However, it insinuates a new conclusion is reached.
 
An example of this would be “the bible is true, therefore, you should accept the word of god”. We have no new conclusion after the original premise of assuming the bible is true. All we have is a conclusion that resembles the original premise.
 
Tu Quoque Fallacy
 
‘Tu Quoque’ is Latin for “you too”. This logical fallacy diverts attention from the argument at hand and the attention on yourself. Rather, it seeks to expose the hypocrisy in your opponent.
 
It works by taking away the criticism of yourself by throwing it back at your opponent. It does this effectively by either making a similar or the same accusation.
 
Imagine you are watching a political debate and ‘politician A’ accuses ‘politician B’ of lying to the electorate about a particular policy. A tu quoque fallacy would occur if politician B would just retaliate by pointing out that politician A has also lied in the past. They would make no attempt of defending that accusation put against them.
 
Focusing on an opponent’s hypocrisy is a false attempt to discredit them. This is because it does not further the argument in any way – it just answers criticism with criticism.
 
How Do These Types of Logical Fallacies Distort Your Thinking?
 
These types of logical fallacies have the potential to distort our thought process in a debate. This is due to the illogical and irrelevant stance that they may take. They can often throw us off course if confronted with them.
 
At the same time, they can divert the argument into another direction or weaken your own argument if you do not know how to recognise or expose these logical fallacies.
 
Final Thoughts
 
The first step to overcoming this and strengthening your debating and reasoning skills will be learning what these logical fallacies are and how to spot them. Once you understand what they are you can credibly present your argument.
 
References:
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.



About the Author: Alexander Nyland

 
Alexander Nyland is an avid writer, blogger and traveller with a Bachelor of Arts degree in English Literature and Philosophy, graduating in 2018 from the University of Sheffield. His particular focus and interests in his studies included Film and Ancient Greek philosophy. Alex has always been fascinated by art, culture and philosophy and believes they are an integral and important part of all of our lives. He has his own blog, thefilmpheed.com, which discusses these subjects and their role in our lives and society in-depth.
 
 
 


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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

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publicado por achama às 16:27
Sábado, 23 / 11 / 19

3 Ways Freedom of Thought Is Being Compromised Today and What to Do

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

November 22nd, 2019.

 
FREEDOM OF THOUGHT.
 
 

 
Luckily, the majority of us have free speech, but what about freedom of thought? Surely we own our thoughts? There is nothing that can influence them? I mean, we are not living in some dystopian future where we have to monitor what we think. And as far as I’m aware, no one can delve into our minds to know exactly what we are thinking.
 
But we are being influenced. So how is this happening and what can we do about it?
 
Why Freedom of Thought Ιs So Important
 
First of all, why is the freedom to have an uninfluenced thought process so important? Undoubtedly, the Theory of Mind (ToM) is what sets us apart from other animals. This is the ability to think and to process thoughts. It’s what makes us human. But what exactly is a thought?
 
Thinking allows us to make sense of the world around us. Therefore, a thought is a single product of this thinking. The way we ponder, process emotions, plan for the future, daydream about a loved one, construct a mental shopping list, or go over an argument in our minds. These are all examples of different thoughts.
 
Lots of things influence our thoughts. Our senses, past experiences, our environment, what we read, see and hear our family and friends, basically everything around us. Thoughts are important because they lead to decisions and actions. They affect us in our daily lives. We make choices based on our thoughts. Anything from what kind of sandwich to eat at lunch to who we’ll vote for at an election.
 
Therefore, freedom of thought is essential. We don’t want anyone or anything influencing our way of thinking. But research shows this is exactly what is happening.
The Way We Think Is Changing
 
We have made great strides in psychology over the past few decades. In the 19-century, a person with a mental illness would be labelled ‘feebleminded’. Fast forward to the 21-century and we now have 265 actual mental disorder diagnoses in the most recent DSM-5. We should know how freedom of thought can be compromised. Instead, the very advances in understanding the human mind are being used to restrict it.
 
Likewise, the way technology works now compared to even a decade ago is far-reaching. Was the term ‘fake news’ even a thing 10 years ago? Who had heard of Russian troll farms or bots a few years ago? However, these technological innovations are manipulating our thoughts, even though we still believe we have the freedom to think the way we do.
How Freedom of Thought Is Compromised
Psychological Understanding
 
Understanding the way we think is crucial if you want to manipulate it. Now experts in psychology know all about mental biases, how we make decisions and what influences our behaviour.
 
So, how does this work in the real world? Say you were a small company selling your products. You wanted to increase sales. You would use every psychological trick in the book to get your customers to buy, not only in the first place but repeatedly. This is a basic example of how thought and the freedom to think clearly are compromised.
 
 
Anyone with this knowledge can use it to their advantage. For example, politicians, social media sites, large brands. Politician play on their voter’s natural stereotypes or biases. Big brands exploit customer’s mental affiliation with their logos and symbols. Social media sites have a huge pool of data, ready to be captured, analysed and put to use.
Social Media Manipulation
 
Talking of social media, the founder of Facebook got into a lot of trouble in 2014. He admitted to a ‘mood experiment’ carried out on its users. In a vast experiment, the social media site found that by posting certain information on people’s pages it could make them feel more positive or negative.
 
Now, obviously this has far-reaching ramifications. We assume Facebook is not purposely manipulating the way we feel. But this is just the tip of the iceberg.
 
Facebook has recently acquired a ‘mind-reading’ company. The company makes a wristband that decodes electronic signals from the brain. The purpose? To control your computer with your mind. As one Facebook member said:
 
 
“Oh. Look at that. Facebook’s newest venture: harvesting thoughts,” Facebook member
 
But Facebook isn’t the only one who is using mindreading tech. Other major computer tech firms, such as Microsoft, are also in the game of gathering up our thoughts and restricting our freedom in the process.
Advanced Technology
 
We are certainly influenced by social media. Many of us, in fact, get our news from online sources, and not the paper versions. This is highly susceptible to manipulation. In fact, only yesterday, one political party was severely warned by Twitter for changing their Twitter name to FactCheckUK, during a contentious leader’s debate in the UK.
How to Ensure Your Thoughts Are Not Manipulated
 
We often react instinctively and quickly. This reflex action comes from the old reptilian part of our brain. This old ancient brain makes quick mental shortcuts. It has to, in order for us to survive. It helped our ancestors quickly make decisions that were life-saving.
 
 
But, in today’s world, we don’t need this rapid reflex-thinking so much. The problem with thinking instinctively and quickly is that we rely on past stereotypes. And this is where biases can occur.
 
We can stop these biases by taking a reasonable amount of time to think and then make our decision. In this way, we weigh up all the evidence, not just what is being presented to us, but what we research ourselves. Then we can make an informed choice.
 
Furthermore, if we have a clearer understanding of how our minds work, we can spot the manipulators a mile off. Don’t con a con I always say!
Tips to Protect the Freedom of Your Thoughts
Don’t make instant decisions
Allow yourself the space to walk away and come back to the issue
Think about why you are getting so emotional
Has what you have read/watched quickly reinforced your own beliefs?
Are you only getting the same views echoed back to you?
Take time to get other people’s views
Don’t be pressurised to make a choice
Participate in discussions where others share an opposing view
Final Thoughts
 
It’s hard not to feel instantly gratified when someone agrees with you. Or when you get your bias confirmed. It is much harder to step back and analyse your own way of thinking.
 
Are you really expressing your own thoughts? Or has your freedom been compromised? Ensuring that we have the freedom to think an authentic thought is essential. Otherwise, how will we ever know if the choices and decisions we make are from our true self?
 
References:
Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 13:34
Domingo, 17 / 11 / 19

The Illusion of Truth and How Liars and Manipulators Are Using It to Trick You

Sherrie Hurd.

learning-mind.com

Posted November 17, 2019.

 

 

 
 
Maybe what you’re hearing is not factional information. You could be the victim of the illusion of truth.
 
Truth is the truth and a lie is a lie, right? Well, it can get a little blurry at times. Yes, we all have problems with recognizing the truth from lies, but sometimes it’s because we’re dealing with manipulators.
 
To make things worse, liars and manipulators are using the illusion of truth to convince us that what they say, or omit, is fact. Their tactics seem to be working better than ever.
 
What Is the Illusion of Truth?
 
The illusion of truth is not just a statement in a sentence describing how someone deceived you.
 
Psychologist Tom Stafford has shared a secret with us about this illusion. He says the secret of avoiding lies is to avoid repetition. Yes, some of the best liars and manipulators use repetition toinstill a sort of familiarity in the brain. What seems familiar often seems truthful, wouldn’t you think?
 
This way of thinking has been coined the illusion of truth effect. It works by comparing truth with a lie, by only changing a small portion of the lie to resemble a second truth.
 
Let’s look at an example. The truth would be, “A penny is brown”, and a lie would be “a dime is brown”. I guess this one is a little too obvious, but it can easily be twisted if the dime just happens to be tarnished or covered with something. This would actually be a breeze for a liar.
 
Now, back to repetition. If you were told the lie about the coins once, and then again, you might believe it, especially if your perception was off.
 
However, it would be easier to fool someone with repetition by using fruits or vegetables. You can convince someone that peanuts grow on trees if you repeat it enough and show nothing to prove otherwise. I believe it’s how politicians pass off lies for the truth for so long and develop quite a large following.
 
Now, this effect may be interesting, but in the worst of hands, it can prove to be catastrophic to the lives of honest people. When toxic people, such as manipulators, learn the ability to lie in this manner, they can lie in all sorts of ways.
 
Here are ways the illusion of truth is used by manipulators:
 
Rationalization
 
Some people are easily convinced and manipulated by people who use rationalization. When it comes to lying, rationalization is a way to hide the inner lies.
 
For example, if you confront someone about their behavior, they may try to rationalize why it happened. If something missing is found in a man’s coat pocket, he may never admit that he stole the item. 
 
Instead, he may say something like this,
 
“Oh, I don’t know how that got in there. I did let a friend of mine use my coat when they came over.”
 
The truth is, the man stole the item, maybe a broach or even money. He passes the blame to an unknown friend and then rationalizes how the item got into his pocket.
 
This same person probably uses the same strategy whenever he is caught red-handed. No matter what he’s done wrong, he rationalizes and shows that there was a perfectly honest reason for what happened.
 
Minimalization
 
This tactic which shows how the illusion of truth can be used focuses mostly on making real lies seem like nothing.
 
Many people lie about where they are or what they’re doing. When their loved ones or partners find out the truth, they try to minimalize the situation likes it’s no big deal. One thing that might be said when someone is confronted about lying about being at a concert is,
 
“It’s not such a big deal. I just didn’t want you to worry about me being in that large crowd.”
 
Whether this is the real reason or not, it’s still a lie, and usually, when someone does this once, they have always done it and will always keep doing it as long as the situation isn’t improved. A lie is a lie, no matter how small. This, we must remember.
 
Omittance
 
Have you ever heard someone you love tell a story, and then later hear a whole lot more that they left out. The part they left out, yes, that part was the part that they knew would make you upset. To keep you happy with them, they omitted a part of their story. Do you know what this is? It’s lying.
 
Yes, I’m sorry to inform you, but omittance is lying, just like telling a stark lie. If you have information that you purposefully hold back, you are doing nothing less than hiding the truth from the ones you love.
 
It’s a prime example of the illusion we’re given in place of the truth. It’s as if the important information had become invisible.
 
Persuasion
 
There are ways of persuasion that can make lies seem like truth. Persuasion creates an illusion by reasoning and speaking of one’s own good reputations. When lies seem attractive, they also start to look like truth, depending on how much persuasion is being used and in what manner.
 
For instance, if someone does and speaks many good things, then it’s easier to believe that they would be honest. Unfortunately, sometimes these are the ones who lie the most. The good deeds and persuasive talk are ways of covering their heinous acts.
Don’t be fooled
 
I will be honest with you, I think I’m dealing with most of these tactics in my life right now. I will keep quiet about which people are doing this. Anyway, the illusion of what seems to be true looks so much like the real thing that you can go years before learning the truth behind the falsities.
 
The best way to recognize when the illusion of the truth is being used against you is to become educated and watch for the signs. There are many red flagsthat will help you become alert and ready for the lies. When they happen, then it’s up to you about whether or not you will tolerate the disrespect.
 
Are you being tricked?
 
References:
Sherrie Hurd
 
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us. 
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 21:14
Sábado, 09 / 11 / 19

...

Francesca Forsythe.

https://www.learning-mind.com

November 8th, 2019.

 


 

We’ve all heard of Déjá Vu, meaning to have already seen, but déjá rêvè is an interesting phenomenon meaning already dreamed.
 
How Is Déjá Rêvè Different to Déjá Vu?
 
Déjá vu is a common phenomenon in which we think we have already lived a certain event. Usually, we experience déjá vu in situations we should have no familiarity with. This makes the feeling all the more bizarre because we know an experience entirely new to us.
 
 
Déjá vu is very common and has been said to regularly occur in 60-80% of all people. This can mean simple similarities, or it can be a play by play of the same moment. It can be smells, events, locations, and many other things.
 
Many researchers believe that déjá vu is a memory-based experience and assume that it is an associative phenomenon between what we experience at the moment and what we have experienced in the past.
 
Others believe there is a split-second delay between the transferal of into from one side of the brain to the other, meaning it is effectively processed twice. This causes the effect of experiencing something twice.
 
The random nature of déjá vu makes it difficult to study empirically. Much of the research is reliant on self-certification and individual testimony. Therefore, it cannot be induced or exposed to understand it fully.
 
Déjá Rêvè Means ‘Already Dreamed’
 
Déjá rêvè, on the other hand, is even more bizarre of an experience. It causes us to believe that we have already dreamed that we would be in a real-life situation, or that you somehow knew you were going to be in that situation.
 
The temporal scope of this phenomenon is endless. You may have had a recent dream, or even a dream years ago that you were going to be in a situation you then experience. However, in all cases of déjá rêvè, the subject believes they have somehow prophesized an event that happens.
 
What separates déjá rêvè from déjá vu is that the former feels inextricably linked to dreams. The latter, on the other hand, is a much more definitive feeling that experience has already been lived. Déjá vu makes us believe we have lived something before and are simply repeating the same experience.
 
Déjá rêvè is more of a premonition; a feeling that we dreamt this was going to happen or somehow envisaged the future. It is not simply repeating the same experience but predicting a new one.
 
Three Kinds of Déjá Rêvè
 
What is interesting about this phenomenon is that there are three different ways in which people experience it. Each way is unique, making déjá rêvè much more complex than déjá vu.
 
The first is in an episodic manner. Some believe that they can pinpoint the exact moment they had a prophetic dream that something was going to happen. These episodes feel much more like a prophecy, or the ability to see into the future.
 
The second is a familiarity-based manner. This is a hazy, dream-like memory that echoes current circumstances. This kind is easy to mix up with déjá vu because it is simply the experience of already seeing something.
 
The final kind is in a dream-like manner. This kind isn’t so much recalling a dream as much as feeling the experience itself was dream-like. This can be a strange and even nightmarish experience, almost like lucid dreaming except the subject knows they are awake.
Déjá Rêvè in Literature
 
Déjá rêvè has been a subject of much interest, legend and myth. In Greek mythology, Croesus, the Lydian King dreams that his son will die from a spear wound which happens later in the story.
 
In Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, Caesar’s wife has a prophetic dream which accurately depicts his death, which happens the very same day. Even in modern literature, such as Harry Potter, prophetic dreams have a key role to play.
 
Who Suffers from This Phenomenon?
 
Research on déjá rêvè is not as extensive as déjá vu. However, it is highly common in epileptic patients as a common side effect of different kinds of therapies. These therapies include electro-therapy which induces activity in the brain. Subjects with epilepsy then report déjá rêvè as a side effect to their seizures.
 
However, it can also occur in perfectly healthy subjects. Yet, scientists have not found its cause in healthy patients.
 
Final Thoughts
 
We know enough about the human brain to know that there is still a lot we don’t know about the human brain. We have learned much in the past 50 years through new technologies, such as CT and MRI scanning.
 
Yet, there is still so much that we don’t know. We are still finding new types of neurons, particles with magnetic potential, and even a virus that could explain human consciousness.
 
All in all, the brain is still very much a mystery. It may take us a long time to figure out how and why the brain tricks us with experiences such as déjá vu and déjá rêvè. Yet, it is interesting to observe them when they happen, and even learn from them when they do.
 
Who knows, perhaps your prophetic dreams are trying to tell you something.

References:
  1. www.inverse.com
  2. www.livescience.com
 
Francesca Forsythe





 

About the Author: Francesca Forsythe

Francesca is a freelance writer currently studying a degree in Law and Philosophy. She has written for several blogs in a range of subjects across Lifestyle, Relationships and Health and Fitness. Her main pursuits are learning new innovative ways of keeping fit and healthy, as well as broadening her knowledge in as many areas as possible in order to achieve success.
 
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 
Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

 
No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 


All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 
 
 
 

 
 
Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily
 
 
 
 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 05:39
Sexta-feira, 08 / 11 / 19

5 Types of Ruminating Thoughts and How to Deal with Them

By Sherrie Hurd

learning-mind.com

on November 8th, 2019.

 
ruminating thoughts.


 
 
Ruminating thoughts are different than just sorting through problems to find a solution. Rumination is not a healthy option.
 
Yes, I fall into ruminating and negative thoughts all the time. When you struggle with mental illness, it’s easy to do this sometimes.
 
 
Unfortunately, rumination is not a healthy thing to do. When you sit around and run scenarios through your head over and over, you never really come to a viable solution. And if you do reach a solution, it’s been built off more worry than logic.
 
Are ruminating thoughts our brain’s fault?
 
The thing is, ruminating on things and having worrying thoughts are fueled a great deal by the memory. We may remember how something went wrong in the past, recognize an approaching similar situation, and start to ruminate about how we’re going to deal with the issue.
 
This rumination, most times, upsets us. If the past situation was negative, then stress will set in and make us think even more about the near future. In a way, imprints on our brains do have an impact on how we ruminate about things right now. But the good news is we can learn how to deal with them.
 
A few types of ruminating thoughts:
 
1. Thinking too much and too hard
 
Sometimes rumination comes in the form of unorganized thought. You can start with one thought which leads to another and so on. Most of the time, you’re thinking about chores or errands which must be completed. Unfortunately, instead of things getting done, you sit for hours thinking about it.
 
How can we deal with this?
 
For heaven’s sake, just put on those brakes. Think about one thing at a time, do what you need to do, and then think about the next project. Meditation usually helps with organizing thoughts and changing ruminations that cause mind traffic jams. If you’re not familiar with meditation, now’s the time.
 
2. Making assumptions
 
Some ruminating thoughts are born from making assumptions about things that could be going on. For instance, just because you think someone is ignoring you, say they haven’t called in a while, doesn’t mean it’s true. And just because a friend answered in an angry tone doesn’t mean they’re angry with you.
 
After things like this happen, we often ruminate about our friends and acquaintances, and we wonder if something we’ve done is the problem. Thus, we make assumptions that may not even be true. We can make ourselves depressed for no reason at all.
 
How can we deal with this?
 
Well, the best way to deal with these sorts of thoughts is to keep in mind that you are not the center of the universe. Not everything going on is about you. Sorry to break it to you like that, but it’s true.
 
Your friends could be dealing with serious issues or having fights with other people, so be calm and just give it some time. Your assumption could be wrong.
 
3. Thoughts of expectations
 
Before you go out with your head held high, or with your head hanging low, think about how you’re using expectations. Ruminating and certain thought patterns cause unreal expectations to form.
 
Say you need a loan, and you believe you’re qualified, well, don’t go running to the bank thinking you got this loan in the bag. I made this mistake a few weeks ago. My credit was good and I had high expectations on the outcome. Unfortunately, I was turned down anyway.
 
The same goes for people. You shouldn’t sit around and ruminate on the high expectations you have for your wife or girlfriend. They might just let you down, and that will be depressing.
 
How can we deal with this?
 
Never put anyone or anything on a pedestal, and they won’t fall down. It’s as simple as that. Don’t think of your bank as “your buddy” just because you’ve lived in town for 20 years. If you aren’t qualified for a loan, you’re just not qualified.
 
As for people, no one is perfect, stop trying to create perfect boyfriends and friends. Find someone you can deal with or just lower your expectations. They’re probably way too high anyway.
 
4. Sitting around focusing on the negative
 
Many positive and negative things happen every day. But isn’t it strange how we focus so much more on the negative? A person can complete 15 positive tasks in one day and have two negative setbacks. Even though the positives outweigh the negative, the ruminating thoughts will focus on those two negative situations.
 
Many people sit around and think about one or two bad things that happened during their day, and then proclaim the day as a failure. How do you think the dread of Mondays began?
 
How can we deal with this?
 
It’s really hard to focus on positive things when you’ve been trained or raised to think negatively most of the time. There are people who just always think of the glass half empty and not half full.
 
If you’re one of those people, practice considering that the best will come out of a day instead of the worst, and celebrate those two positive things instead of giving so much time to the bad.
 
5. Knowing the future
 
Another type of ruminating that can take over your thoughts is thinking you know the future. Have you ever just sat by yourself and thought about how bad an event was going to be?
 
For some reason, someone you don’t like was going to be there, or last year’s event bombed, you know, something of the sort. Well, you’ve decided you’re a bonafide psychic, and you can read the future.
 
Ruminating is just torturing yourself with your “abilities”. Now, the truth is, no one knows the future, even if the same thing has happened for 50 years straight. Guess what, a change could occur in the 51st year. Now, that’s a fact.
 
How can we deal with this?
 
Just stop! You don’t know what will happen tomorrow and neither do I. So what, last years event was horrible. That doesn’t mean that this year won’t be the year that things go much better. You don’t know what will happen and you don’t know what people are going to do. Despite the past, the future has its own choice.
 
Challenging your way of thinking
 
Let me tell you, losing those ruminating thoughts is like starting your life all over from childhood. You have to retrain the way you think. It’s about your mindset.
 
 
It takes time to make such a large turnaround, but it can be done. Little by little your thoughts will start to take on a different form, and you won’t even believe what your own mind is thinking.
 
Am I in the process of working on this too? Why yes I am. Most of the things I write about are things I suffer from as well. No better example to help you get better and realize you’re not alone.
 
References:

 
 
Sherrie Hurd.

 

 





 

About the Author: Sherrie Hurd


Sherrie Hurd is a professional writer and artist with over 10 years of experience. She is an advocate for mental health awareness and nutrition. Sherrie studied Psychology, Journalism, and Fine Arts, receiving an Associates in Marketing. She has written for Beacon, a southern college publication, and is an author of a full-length non-fiction novel. Sherrie spends most of her time giving life to the renegade thoughts. As the words erupt and form new life, she knows that she is yet again free from the nagging persistence of her muse.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 



 

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publicado por achama às 23:01
Sexta-feira, 08 / 11 / 19

The Science of Sensation-Seeking: Why Some People Love Risky and Scary Stuff

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

November 7th, 2019.

 
sensation-seeking.
 
 


Are you the sort of person that loves horror films? Or do you hide behind a cushion at the scary parts? Psychologists call the behaviour of people who love scary movies sensation-seeking. But what draws some of us to risky and scary stuff and not others?
 
The Science of Sensation-Seeking
 
I remember I have always loved scary movies. From a young age, I would beg my parents to let me stay up late to watch Dracula films or the old Hammer House of Horror movies. There was one in particular – The Abominable Dr Phibes – starring the Prince of Horror – Vincent Price, which absolutely terrified me.
 
In the film, Dr Phibes used various tortuous means to kill off his enemies. In one, he drilled a hole in the ceiling of the bedroom of a drugged victim, poured honey through the hole and then let locusts loose to devour her face.
 
That night, I slept with a blanket over my head. In another gruesome scene, he attended a masked ball. He fixed a frog mask so that when it snapped shut it continued to keep closing, eventually snapping the neck of the victim.
 
I was around 10 when I watched these films. Despite pleading with mum and dad and them giving in, I would have dreadful nightmares after watching scary films. Every night, I would beg to watch another horror film.
 
One night, I was absolutely terrified so I kept the light on and played music all night. But still, I kept watching.
 
So, can science explain this morbid fascination with my constant needing to frighten myself? Well, yes. Psychologists call it sensation-seeking. Furthermore, there are two ways people become sensation seekers, nature and nurture.
 
Some people are born with a lower fear threshold
 
Fear comes from the most reptilian area in our brain – the amygdala. This is the oldest part that triggers the automatic fight or flight response. When this happens, our heart beats faster, adrenaline courses through our bodies, and our breathing becomes rapid and shallow.
 
Now, for some of us, these symptoms are excruciating. In fact, just one episode of a fight or flight response or panic attack can lead to a lifelong phobia.
 
However, other people are not affected. You could say that they have a higher tolerance for fear. As a result, they tend to seek out sensations that cause these feelings in their bodies. So people that favour extreme sports like sky diving or bungee jumping are seeking these extreme fear sensations to get the same effect normal people do.
 
Can you experience fear and pleasure at the same time?
 
The ‘nature’ answer would explain why it is possible for some people to experience positive and negative emotions at the same time.
 
Initially, experts believed that some people enjoy feeling scared because of the relief at the end. As humans, we are programmed to seek out pleasure and avoid pain at any cost. As such, it is not feasible for us to experience a negative experience as a positive one.
 
But studies show that sensations seekers are ‘happy to be unhappy’. It all depends on the situation. For example, if we feel safe enough, i.e. watching a film, or riding a roller-coaster, we can relax and revel in the horror.
 
“When individuals who typically choose to avoid the stimuli were embedded in a protective frame of mind, such that there was sufficient psychological disengagement or detachment, they experienced positive feelings while still experiencing fearfulness.” Study authors – Eduardo B. Andrade and Joel B. Cohen
 
Sensation-seekers are not psychopaths
 
This detachment is very important. Before all you non-sensation-seeking folks start labelling us as psychopaths, let me tell you about one interesting study.
 
This study (McCauley, et al, 1994) conducted research on disgust. Real-life documentaries depicting actual horrors were shown to college students. In graphic detail, cows were stunned, killed and slaughtered. A live monkey’s head was struck with a hammer and its brain offered up as a meal. The final video showed the facial skin of child peeled back for surgery. 90% of the students turned off the video before it had finished.
 
Yet, these same individuals would pay good money to watch a gory horror film with much more horror and violence than depicted on the videos. The researchers concluded that the students knew the films were fiction.
 
Therefore, they had a psychological barrier between the horror action and themselves. The fiction allowed them a distance. As a result, they are detached and in control. And it is this sense of fiction that gives us the freedom to seek this sensation of fear.
 
“In fact, there is evidence that young viewers who perceive greater realism in horror films are more negatively affected by their exposure to horror films than viewers who perceive the film as unreal (Hoekstra, Harris, & Helmick, 1999).”
 
Some people learn to seek out fear
 
So that’s the nature explanation, but what about nurture? Can we learn sensation-seeking behaviour? Experts think we can, and I can relate to this.
 
Growing up, I didn’t have a great relationship with my mother. She was cold and distant throughout my childhood. But, the one thing she loved was horror films. Perhaps something in me, even at a young age, knew that I could bond with her if we watched them together. Even though they scared me to death, watching them together did create a sense of closeness.
 
“I once had a client who shared with me that when they were young they used to watch scary movies alongside their mother, and this made them feel safe and that sometimes they even laughed together at the scary scenes,” Kelley Hopkins-Alvarez, a licensed professional counsellor.
 
Studies show it is how you feel afterwards is important. For example, if you watch a scary film with friends and then laugh about it, then that is what you take away from the experience. Not the scary parts of the movie. You’ll remember the friendship parts.
 
This is because our bodies remain in a heightened aroused state. As a result, emotions are intensified. Our friendships seem more intense. Consequently, our experiences after the scary event are cemented in our brains as positive.
 
On the other hand, if our experiences are negative, we will associate this negative feeling with the scary film.
 
Final Thoughts
 
People like to watch scary films for many different reasons. Sometimes we just like what we like and there’s no explanation. For me, it taps into my fascination with the dark triad and evil people. All I know that I will always be a fan of the horror film. And the scarier, the better!
 
References:
 
Janey Davies
 


About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 02:25
Domingo, 03 / 11 / 19

Why Do Psychopath Traits in Males Seem So Attractive to Women?

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

November 3rd, 2019.

 
psychopath traits in males.
 
 


 
 
We all love a bad boy, right? They are the exciting, unpredictable, alluring and mysterious men that we find attractive. I mean, who wants a cardigan and slippers guy when you can be swept off your feet by a charming seducer? But hang on a minute, what’s so wrong with a lovely, caring man? Someone who will cherish and protect you? A man who puts your needs first and above their own? Why is that considered boring to some women? Why do we find psychopath traits in males so alluring?
 
Origins of Psychopath Traits in Males
 
Bad Boys in Films
 
Hollywood has played on the bad boy image for decades. Actually, you only have to think back to Clark Cable in ‘Gone with the Wind‘, James Dean in ‘Rebel Without a Cause‘ and Marlon Brando in ‘A Streetcar Named Desire‘.
 
Fast forward to today and our modern-day equivalents include Mads Mikkelsen as Hannibal Lecter, Tom Hiddleston as Loki or Christian Bale as Patrick Bateman. Or in fact, anyone playing James Bond.
 
Similarly, actors with a bad boy image are equally as interesting. Oliver Reed, Robert Downey Jr, Colin Farrell, Jonathan Rhys-Meyers, Johnny Depp, and Mark Wahlberg. So what is it about these dark traits that women find attractive?
 
First Contact
 
Psychopaths are charming, persuasive and manipulative. Therefore, we are charmed when we first meet one. Likewise, psychopaths make us feel special. Their attention is excessive. We bathe in their spotlight. These exciting individuals have chosen us mere mortals to shine their attention on. We are the chosen ones and feel special.
 
Then they withdraw. They disappear for days. We have lost this contact. Then this special feeling turns into despair, longing, and withdrawal. And this where it gets interesting. It is this withdrawal that keeps us hooked, literally and psychologically.
 
The continual giving and withdrawing attention is what attracts us. In fact, it strengthens our feelings and makes males with psychopath traits seem even more attractive.
Studies Reveal Why We Find Males with Psychopath Traits Attractive
 
If you are one of the people thinking this is ridiculous, it might help to think of how the brain copes with withdrawal. It’s all to do with dopamine and the pleasure centre in the brain.
 
Dopamine and Withdrawal
 
When we engage in positive experiences, dopamine floods into our brain. Dopamine is the happy hormone. It is released whenever we eat delicious food, have great sex, receive amazing compliments, or get positive attention.
 
If these experiences are repeated and reinforced, this neurotransmitter then makes connections. It creates reward circuits. These circuits make automatic associations in our brains. They instantly flare up when we anticipate a particular behaviour or person.
 
However, studies have shown that dopamine works best when the reinforcements are intermittent. When the experiences are constant, the dopamine does not flow as well. This is the ‘frustration-attraction’ dilemma. It means that obstacles in the relationship are actually fuelling the attraction.
 
As a result, our brains are programmed to find men with psychopath traits attractive. Simply because their behaviour is unpredictable.
 
“The point about bad boys is that they’re not all bad. When they’re charming, they’re very, very charming. Their goodness becomes an addiction.” Virginia Ironside, The Independent Agony Aunt
 
Psychopaths are not capable of focusing their attention on others. By their very nature, their narcissism and self-centredness won’t allow them to put others first. They are masters of frustration-attraction.
  • Psychopath Traits in Males Include:
  • Lack of empathy
  • Selfishness
  • Narcissism
  • Self-centred
  • Impulsive
  • Risky behaviour
  • Parasitic
  • Insincerity
  • Duplicity
 
Consequently, we are left, much like a drug addict, searching for our next hit. We are desperate for time with our toxic partner. This is because our brain has made an association with the unsuitable partner.
 
When we think about them, we get a pang of withdrawal. We need our dopamine rush. This keeps us invested in the relationship. Whether it is good for us or not.
 
Sexual Attraction
 
 
In another study, 128 female undergraduates were given two descriptions of male characters; men with Dark Triads and a control. The study included high psychopath traits in males taken from the Psychopathy Scale III, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and the Mach-IV.
 
 
High Psychopath Male Traits include:
  • Manipulation
  • Deceit
  • Lack of remorse
  • Desire for attention
  • No morality
  • Charming others
  • Cynicism
  • Need for prestige
 
The traits in the study did not include the dark psychopath traits in males.
 
Participants had to rate the attractiveness on a scale of 1-6. The results showed that the females found dark traits more attractive than the control. But why?
Sexual Selection
 
The first reason is sexual selection. Researchers believe that the higher psychopath dark traits in males indicate a ‘masculine quality‘ unique to male sexuality. For example, traits like confidence, risk-taking and charm. These are all associated with sexual prowess.
 
In fact, these particular dark traits are linked to increased sexual activity and success in males. There is a connection between one-night stands and this type of male.
 
Sexual Conflict
 
The second reason is sexual conflict. Women find men who can sell themselves especially attractive. These are the charmers and the manipulators. The ones that can keep you hooked over time. These types don’t necessarily score highly when it comes to sexual prowess. However, they do manage to maintain multiple partners.
 
Final Thoughts
 
Males with psychopath traits might attract us in the first instance. However, studies do show that women find altruistic males more attractive in the long term. So while you might be instantly drawn to that bad boy, the chances are you will end up marrying the good guy.
 
 
Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 20:32
A Luz está a revelar a Verdade, e esta libertar-nos-á! -Só é real o AMOR Incondicional. -Quando o Amor superar o amor pelo poder, o mundo conhecerá a Paz; Jimi Hendrix. -Somos almas a ter uma experiência humana!

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