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Sábado, 29 / 06 / 19

The Bandwagon Effect: How It Affects Your Decisions without You Knowing

The Bandwagon Effect: How It Affects Your Decisions without You Knowing.

By Janey Davies.

June 28th, 2019.

 
 

 



 

We all like to think we are completely unbiased when we make decisions, but, actually, there are a number of things that influence us. One of them is the Bandwagon Effect.

What is the Bandwagon Effect?

The Bandwagon Effect is a psychological cognitive bias in which people do, say or believe something, despite their own beliefs because they see others doing it. Therefore, it must be right.

Where did it originate?

Nowadays, the saying is most associated with politics, consumer behaviour and the stock market. But where did it come from?
Most of us have heard of ‘jumping on the bandwagon’, which suggests joining or supporting others in something that’s likely to have a favourable outcome. What you might not know is where this phrase originated from.
In the 19-century, performing bands played on carts during carnivals and street parades. These were called bandwagons. As the band played and the wagon went from street to street, the musicians encouraged people to jump on the bandwagon so they could carry on listening to the music as they played.
It wasn’t until 1848, however, that the phrase ‘jump on the bandwagon’ came about during the presidential campaign of US senator Zachary Taylor. Dan Rice was a clown campaigning for Taylor and while promoting him he encouraged potential voters to ‘jump on the bandwagon’ to show support for Taylor.
At the same time, he suggested that anyone who wasn’t on it was missing out on the fun. His campaign was ultimately successful. Zachary Taylor became the US president in 1849.

Examples of the Bandwagon Effect:

  • Facebook post has a lot of ‘likes’, so it gets even more.
  • An item of clothing becomes fashionable because lots of people start wearing it.
  • A beauty product sells out because everyone wants it.
  • Stocks soar as people invest in a particular company.
  • A political party is performing well in the polls and gets increased support.
  • You start a new diet because everyone else is on it.

How does the Bandwagon Effect affect us?

Herd mentality

“Collective fear stimulates herd instinct, and tends to produce ferocity toward those who are not regarded as members of the herd.”  ― Bertrand Russell
Herd mentality is another name for people following the same patterns of behaviour. Examples of this are queuing up all night for the latest Apple smartphone, parents having to buy the must-have toy for Christmas, and Black Friday. These are relatively harmless examples of a herd mentality, but when can the effects become dangerous?
In 2008, the US housing market crashed. When it became obvious that many homeowners would not be able to pay their mortgages, investors, instead of remaining calm, went into a herd mentality and panicked. Once a few starting selling shares, the rest quickly followed which led to one of the biggest financial disasters in US history.

Manipulation

No one likes to admit that they are being manipulated, but we look for validation of our beliefs every day. For instance, when you go to book a holiday, you might go on TripAdvisor, when you buy a product online, you may read the customer reviews. Even something as innocuous as watching a film, we’ll check out the rating and it will influence our choice.
So is this manipulation or being selective? Well, it depends. Studies have shown that we’ll pay more for a product if other people recommend it.

Voting

We all like to think we are on the winning side when it comes to voting for a candidate. Studiesshow that voters who are undecided are more likely to vote for who is ‘expected to win’. This is a clear case of the bandwagon effect.
But the media also plays a huge role in influencing society. Whoever controls the media can decide whether they want to give a candidate positive or negative coverage. Once a politician has the popular vote, it is easy to skim over our rational thoughts. They have the backing of the nation and the majority of voters, and the majority of us can’t be wrong, surely?

Fear and the Need for Belonging

Why is it so hard to escape this particular cognitive bias? Because we all want to belong and that’s why it is important to align ourselves with a group. Outsiders don’t do well in society. They get singled out, bullied, made fun of and isolated.
Studies have shown that as a result, teenagers are most susceptible to the bandwagon effect and it’s not surprising when you consider how much they want to fit in. As we get older, we grow in confidence. We become more assured of our beliefs and we feel able to confront those who don’t share the same ideologies as us.
Of course, there is another reason and that is that we all like to think we are right. And when we join likeminded people on our particular bandwagon, it reassures us that we are on the right path. Moreover, once we have formulated an opinion, either side of an argument, we’ll find everything we can to support that opinion. Whether it’s facts, reviews or people.
So is it possible to avoid this effect or are we destined to remain on the bandwagon? There are ways we can stop jumping on one in the first place.

How to Avoid the Bandwagon Effect

  • Take some time before you make a decision.
  • Get feedback from other sources and compare your results.
  • Make decisions on your own, away from people that share similar views to you.
  • Think about alternative views.
  • Put yourself in the other person’s situation.
  • Try and take emotion out of the scenario.
We all like to think we exercise free will over our actions. Perhaps with a little forethought and knowledge, we will be able to in future.
 
References:
  1. Medium.com
 
 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

About the Author: Janey Davies.

Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


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publicado por achama às 07:47
Sábado, 29 / 06 / 19

Terror Management Theory and How It Explains Our Beliefs and Behaviors ~ Francesca F.

Terror Management Theory and How It Explains Our Beliefs and Behaviors.

By Francesca F.

June 27th, 2019

 

 

 

We all get scared of the fatality of human life, but the Terror Management Theory may be affecting you more than you realize.
Fear of death is a natural reaction when we become aware of its inevitability. We all have our own ways of managing this fear, from acceptance to complete ignorance. The fear of death, however, is capable of shaping our behaviors without us even realizing. Terror Management Theory attempts to explain and explore how the fear of death affects us all.

What is Terror Management Theory?

It is a psychological attempt to explain a kind of defensive thinking which stems from an awareness and an acute fear of death. It supposes that humans have a biological predisposition towards self-preservation, but we are a unique species in the sense that we have symbolic thought.
This symbolic thought allows us to consider the future and reflect on the past. This brings about the realization that death is inevitable and cannot be controlled. This realization causes incredible fear and anxiety which humans must then manage.
Terror Management Theory explains how we manage this fear. It supposes that this fear and anxiousness cause people to adopt certain worldviews which protect self-esteem, self-worth, and sustainability. These worldviews then, in turn, cause behaviors in people which may vary from culture to culture.

Where does the Terror Management Theory come from?

Ernest Becker developed the concept in 1973, although it was not called this. Becker wrote The Denial of Death which addressed the tendency of humans to reject death and try to avoid it.
In The Worm at the CoreJeff Greenberg, Sheldon Solomon and Tom Pyszczynski developed what is now known as Terror Management Theory. This book reviews the myriad of scientific papers and research which support Becker’s central claim that the fear of death is ‘the mainspring of human activity.’
There are now more than 500 studies on the subject. Each examines a different facet of human behavior associated with a fear of death, such as aggression, stereotyping, self-awareness and much, much more. Research shows that the fear of death can affect our behavior without us even realizing it, making research into Terror Management Theory incredibly important.
There are three lines of research which provide empirical support for Terror Management Theory:
  1. Higher self-esteem has a direct link to lower anxiety. This highlights that self-esteem offers anxiety relief and physiological arousal.
  2. When people think about themselves dying, attempts to defend their cultural worldviews becomes stronger. They become increasingly more responsive to similar actions in others and more aggressive to those who are not. Nationalism is a key example of this during wars and times of difficulty.
  3. Research shows that when cultural beliefs or self-esteem is threatened, non-conscious thoughts of death come to mind more frequently.
All of this is to say that the Terror Management Theory has a profound effect on our behaviors as an attempt to quell the fear of death.

How does our terror of death affect our behavior?

Terror Management Theory attempts to explain human attempts to manage the terror of death through the development of cultural worldviews. Worldviews are human formed systems of belief shared by individuals which attempt to minimize the fear of death. They do so by attributing meaning and value to different people, objects and rituals.
All cultures offer their own explanation of the value of human life in the universe. They each have a system of acceptable behaviors and reassure people with the promise of immortality for those who comply. We accept these systems in different religions and cultural norms which allow us to feel we will not be forgotten or somehow live on.

We can gain immortality either literally or symbolically.

Literal immortality is provided by the belief of souls, heavens and the afterlife. Some religions even offer reincarnation for those who are particularly virtuous in the eyes of that religion.
Symbolic immortality provided by ideas of a great nation, building expansive fortunes, having children and making important accomplishments. Although they do not promise us life after death, they reassure us that we will not be forgotten and somehow live on.
Terror Management Theory also attempts to explain why individuals perceive themselves of persons of greater value. It causes people to form deep bonds within their own cultural group to boost their self-esteem and personal significance. It is these tight bonds with our respective social groups which can lead to stereotyping and discrimination. This is because we like to think of our own group as being somewhat superior.
Fear of death is a global feeling. It is a natural human reaction to the inevitability that life comes to an end. What is interesting is how it can divide us into cultures fearing and feeling threatened by one another. We all react differently to the anxious thoughts of our inevitable demise.
Terror Management Theory attempts to explain human determination to forge a place in history. True immortality may or may not be possible. Yet, somehow, if we feel as though we will be remembered, we somehow mitigate the real effects of death.
References:
  1. https://www.psychologytoday.com/
  2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/

 

 

  1.  

 

 

 

 

About the Author: Francesca F.

Francesca is a freelance writer currently studying a degree in Law and Philosophy. She has written for several blogs in a range of subjects across Lifestyle, Relationships and Health and Fitness. Her main pursuits are learning new innovative ways of keeping fit and healthy, as well as broadening her knowledge in as many areas as possible in order to achieve success.
 
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 
Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
 
 

 
No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


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publicado por achama às 07:37
Terça-feira, 25 / 06 / 19

How to Practice Modern Stoicism and Why It Will Make You Happier ~ Janey Davies.

How to Practice Modern Stoicism and Why It Will Make You Happier.

By Janey Davies.

June 25th, 2019.

 
 

 



 

Just one glance at the internet and you’ll be deluged with posts promising to reveal the secrets of everlasting happiness. But actually, there is no mystery to being happy, and modern stoicism can show you why.
The word stoic suggests a longsuffering, patient, tolerant person that bears their burden without complaint. However, to imply that this is the route to happiness would be completely wrong. The theory behind modern stoicism is simple.

What Is Modern Stoicism?

In life, we cannot control everything so we should focus on the things we can and accept what we cannot change.
Modern stoicism originates from the Stoics who were ancient philosophers living in Greece. These wise men argued that in order to live happier lives we should decide what things we can change and what we cannot.
Once we have distinguished between the two, we can work at changing what is within our power to do so. Then it is easier to accept what we cannot change as part of life. This might sound like airy-fairy nonsense, but it does make a lot of sense when you consider what is actually under our control.
What can’t we control?
  • What people think of us.
  • Our own bodies.
  • The environment
  • What people do.
What can we control?
  • How we think about all of the above.
  • What judgments we make about those thoughts.

There are two basic principles:

We can’t control everything in life. All we can control is how we think about what happens and the judgments we make, based on these thoughts. And this is where it gets interesting. The ancient Greeks believed that it is not actual things that cause us unhappiness but how we think about them.
When something happens, we make a judgment about it. If we think the thing is bad, we feel upset or angry or grief. It all depends on what the thing is, on how we have perceived and judged it. However, this same thing might not upset another person, indeed, it might even be a joyous event for someone else.
For example, take a World Cup final. The winning team’s fans will be rejoicing. The losers will feel real pain and grief. If you’re not interested in football, you won’t be affected at all.
So, the important thing to remember is that whatever judgment we add to our thoughts gives the thing value. Moreover, it is this value that produces our emotion. The good thing is that we have control over these judgments. Whatever happens, whether it is good or bad, we can decide what value we assign to them. That value will then affect our emotions.
Likewise, this emotion can be happiness or sadness or anything we choose to feel. So while we may have no control over what happens to us, we do have complete control over how we feel about what happens to us. Consequently, we are in control of our happiness.

So how does stoicism work in the modern world?

 

Figure out what’s really important

 
Many people lust after wealth, fame, power, status, but the reality is that few of us are going to attain these things. As a result, a lot of us are going to end up miserable because we haven’t achieved these goals. So why do we value these things? At the end of the day, most of us just want to be comfortable, healthy, have good friends and no stresses or worries.
Consider why you want these meaningless trappings? Is it to impress other people? Perhaps the media tells you that in order to be happy, you have to have the fastest car, the nicest watch, the latest designer dress. Do what makes you happy, not what others tell you.

It’s not about self-belief or positive thinking

 
Consider this scenario; you’ve decided to scale Mount Everest. You’re setting off with no strategy, equipment, guides and you’re unfit. Now, no amount of self-belief or positive thinking is going to get you to the top of that mountain. Modern stoicism is about setting realistic goals that are right for you and that are achievable.
You hear a lot of stories of successful business people where determination and positive thinking was the key to their success. They never gave up and it was their dogged self-belief that spurred them on. But when you consider that 9 out of 10 start-ups fail, it’s obviously not about believing in yourself. It’s about getting the right idea in the first place.

Distinguish whether the situation is under your control or not

 
If something is starting to bother you, try and distinguish whether it is one of those things that’s under your control or not. Think about this as a line that divides the actions of anything that’s out of your control on one side, and your thoughts about those actions on the other side. Then whatever is bothering you, place it either side of the line. Now, you’ve distinguished which one it is, is there anything you can do about it?
For example, a shop assistant is rude to you in the store. You immediately feel angry, but you can’t control the assistant’s actions. Perhaps they are busy and under stress? What you can dois complain about their behaviour to their manager, or you can ask them to explain their rude behaviour.
By dividing what you can control and can’t takes the pressure off you. It removes emotion from situations. It’s actually very freeing. It’s not about letting people off the hook for being rude or aggressive, it’s more about living your life without the pressure of feeling responsible for everything that happens in the world.
My final point is that if you want to start practising modern stoicism, every morning, think about the day ahead, the possible traps you might encounter. Just be ready for them and remember that you can’t control everything, but you can control how you feel about things.
 
References:
  1. http://www.bbc.com
  2. https://www.independent.co.uk
 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

About the Author: Janey Davies.

Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 


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publicado por achama às 21:12
Segunda-feira, 24 / 06 / 19

If You Feel Like an Outsider as an Introvert, This Is the Perfect Book for You ~Sofia



If You Feel Like an Outsider as an Introvert, This Is the Perfect Book for You.



 

 


 





Colin Wilson was ever the Outsider. As he huddled in his frigid room in Brockley, a South London suburb, alone on Christmas Day, he contemplated his position. He was alone, in isolation.
He had no family or close relation to share that Christmas with. His girlfriend was at her parents’ house, and he did not want to see his. For the millionth time in his twenty-four years of age, he felt like an Outsider.
And as he contemplated, he began to write what would later turn into a book that has been translated in over thirty languages and has never been out of print to this day. The book’s title was “The Outsider”.

In a later print of “The Outsider”, Wilson wrote in the introduction:

It struck me that I was in the position of so many of my favourite characters in fiction: Dostoevsky’s Raskolnikov, Rilke’s Malte Laurids Brigge, the young writer in Hamsun’s Hunger: alone in my room, feeling totally cut off from the rest of society. It was not a position I relished…”
Wilson had never received a fully formal education. He descended from a working-class family and lived almost penniless in London. “The Outsider” was written in the reading room of the British Museum, as the writer slept in a sleeping bag on Hampstead Heath.
A voracious reader since a young age and an autodidact, Wilson felt an affinity towards the perennial, literary Outsider all too well. Like many introverts and consequent outsiders, he experienced feelings of intense alienation and could relate to a large number of literary heroes.
Through their case studies, Wilson attempted to make a clear shape out of the outsider’s problem and exclusion from society. At the same time, he attempts a solution to the outsider’s problem.

The core of his ideas goes something like this:

Who is the Outsider?

 
1. Feelings of isolation, of being “out of sync with the world”, pervade the Outsider’s psyche. A lot of us can relate to this. Feeling misunderstood, lost in translation. Experiencing the society and others around us as something very overwhelming that we are unable to connect to.
The conventions and customs of one’s time seem absurd, at best, despairing at worst. The Outsider, Wilson wrote, is an individual who can see in a country filled with blind men.
It’s a feeling familiar to introverts everywhere. Most of the time, one feels like they’re looking at the world through a partition glass. Always one step behind in a dance that others seem to know all the steps to, always just a tiny bit out of touch.
This is especially true for the outsider who is thrust in a society which favors extroversion. It’s a bane of our modern civilization; we promote productiveness, efficiency, networking. There’s no time or space for introspection, for finetuning with things belonging somewhere outside the material world.
Today more than ever, there is no space for introverts. They are labelled “Outsiders”, throughout history.

The fallen Outsider

 
dont belong here
2. The problem lies in the very same thing that renders The Outsider exceptional; his (or her) heightened perception. For the Outsider can feel, and see but never express or comprehend, much less have the skill necessary to communicate their findings to their fellow men.
It’s a very frustrating conundrum, really. Introverted individuals can be extremely perceptive and uncover truths that are difficult to articulate about their fellow humans, or about the world in general. This, unfortunately, requires tremendous reserves of spiritual and mental energy and leaves one drained really easily.
More often than not, outsiders and introverts give all of their focus to the task or person at hand, leading to the forging of deeper, more intimate bonds with others. Quality wins over quantity.
But in a world that always wants more, this can be a double-edged sword. The introvert becomes “unsociable”, “boring”, “strange and unusual”.
That is to say, the fallen Outsider is imbalanced. This can have many disadvantageous effects, such as mental struggles and negative feelings, or hurdles in integrating with other people.
How does one achieve balance then? How does one acquire the self-sufficiency necessary to not be brought down by the state of the world, by the loneliness?

How to harness your introversion

 
3. Via “the great synthesis”, Wilson responds. In his opinion, the Outsider ought to look further, deeper, with an unprecedented intensity. He must acquire the vision to match his heightened perception.
It’s all about embracing who you are.
By plunging into his own depths, the introvert, the Outsider, may find the vision he so needs to make sense of everything. In making every moment count as a mystical, almost religious experience, the Outsider breaks free from his vicious cycle.
This means that the introvert need not feel inferior or lesser than, on account of being different. It is that precise difference that makes introverts see the world differently. And seeing the world differently is beneficial to all because it helps us attribute new, creative meaning to our experiences and environment!
happy alone
Perceiving the world with depth is necessary to survive, and intensity is something the majority of people desire and spend large amounts in trying to achieve it. In a world plagued by shallowness, the Outsider has one-upped everyone else.
We need introverts and Outsiders to embrace and harness their ways of seeing. We need people in touch with their inner self, with their emotions. They are the expedition leaders in the vast jungle of the human condition.
Sadly, even though the book catapulted Wilson into fame and counted him as member of “the Angry Young Men”, a new generation of promising British writers, the success did not last long.
The press and critics cannibalized Wilson and for the remainder of his life refused to take him seriously. He became, once again, an Outsider. But he never stopped working towards his own vision, leaving behind a prolific body of work.

Introverts can learn a lot from the book for a number of reasons.

The most obvious one is that an introvert is inherently an Outsider; always a bit out of touch with the noise and clamor of the rest. It is not a stretch to say that introverts experience a lot of the same negative emotions Wilson’s Outsider does.
In today’s fast-paced and production-oriented world, it can be hard to gain a more spiritual vision on life. It can be very easy, meanwhile, to feel like the madman in an oppressing crowd that does not understand.
If you’ve ever felt that way, maybe the Outsider is for you. Maybe it’ll help you break free.
References:
  1. The Guardian
  2. Enotes
 

 

About the Author: Sofia

 

Sofia has a bachelor degree in law. She is moonlighting as a writer and aspiring to one day gather enough experiences and turn them into ink and paper. The intricacies of the human mind and its peculiar ways have always fascinated her and urged her to explore more, not only humans but humanity as a whole, hopefully leading her to interesting findings. She is a literature, music and movie geek to boot.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. 
All rights reserved. 
For permission to reprint, contact us.



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publicado por achama às 17:48
Terça-feira, 18 / 06 / 19

What Is Change Blindness and How It Affects You without Your Awareness

What Is Change Blindness and How It Affects You without Your Awareness.

By Janey Davies.

June 18th, 2019.

 
 

 



 

I was watching an episode of Air Crash Investigation the other day and investigators stated that the cause of a fatal aeroplane crash was change blindness.
My ears pricked up. I thought I’d heard of every psychological trait in the book, but I’d never come across this one. What on earth was it and how could it have caused two experienced pilots to make terrible errors in the cockpit that lead to the deaths of their passengers?
I had to find out. So what are the basics behind change blindness?

What Is Change Blindness?

Basically, it is when something we are looking at changes without us noticing. But how can it happen? We all like to think that we have a keen eye for what’s going on around us. We are natural observers. People watchers. We see things. We notice stuff. If something has changed, we can tell.
Well, actually, that’s not quite true. Studies show that if we are distracted for long enough, then our focus fails. Even more surprisingly, the change can be huge and we still won’t see it. So how does it happen?
“Change blindness is a failure to detect that an object has moved or disappeared and is the opposite of change detection.” Eysenck and Keane

The Experiments

Focused Attention

This infamous study has been replicated many different times. In the original one, participants watched a video of six people and had to count how many times the ones wearing white tee-shirts passed a basketball to each other.
During this time, a woman entered the scene in a gorilla suit, stared at the camera, banged on her chest then walked away. Half the participants didn’t see the gorilla.
It appears that if we focus on one task we cannot see other things.
Focusing our Attention Limits our Resources
Our brains can only manage so much information at a time. Therefore, it has to prioritise and limit what it deems to be unnecessary.
This is why we can’t feel the clothes we are wearing, or as you are reading these words now, you are not aware of noises from outside. Of course, now I’ve mentioned them you are now beginning to pay them more attention.
However, our attention span is limited. This means whatever we focus on has to be carefully chosen. Typically, that one thing we do pay attention to gets all our attention. In fact, to the detriment of everything else. As a result, we miss out on large swathes of detail because of our laser-like focus on the one area.

Blocked Vision

In this study, a researcher talks to a participant. While they are talking two men walk between them carrying a door. The door blocks the view of the researcher and the participant.
While this is happening, the researcher swaps places with one of the men carrying the door and once the door had passed then continues chatting to the participant as if nothing untoward has happened. Out of 15 participants, only 7 noticed the change.
If something blocks our view for just a few seconds, it is enough to distract us.
We use our past experiences to fill in the gaps
If we can’t see for a few moments our brain fills in the gap for us. Life flows, it doesn’t stop and start in jerks and jolts. This is our brain taking the shortest cut necessary in order to keep us surviving and performing quickly in our ever-changing world.
In all our past experiences, we haven’t come across someone changing into someone else so we presume it won’t happen today. We simply don’t expect to see a different person when the door has passed us. It doesn’t make sense so we don’t even entertain it as a possibility.

Losing Sight of a Person

In this study, participants watched a video of a student lounge. One female student leaves the room but has left her bag behind. Actor A appears and steals money from her bag. She leaves the room by turning a corner and walking out through the exit.
In the second scenario, Actor A turns the corner but then is replaced by Actor B (the viewers don’t see the replacing) they just see her exit. When 374 participants watched the change film, only 4.5% noticed the actor had changed.
If we lose our visual reference for a few seconds, we assume it will be the same when it reappears.
If the change doesn’t make sense to us, it is difficult to see
Changes are usually drastic, sudden, they catch our attention. Just think about sirens on emergency vehicles or someone acting suspiciously. We have a tendency to see things that change because they are usually moving in some way. They switch from a static nature to a mobile one.
But people don’t change into other people. Gorillas don’t just appear out of nowhere.  That’s why we miss things that are out of the ordinary. We just don’t expect people to change into other people.

How to Reduce the Effects of Change Blindness

  • Individuals are more likely to make this sort of mistake than people in groups.
  • Changes are easier to stop when objects are produced holistically. For example, a whole face rather than just the facial features.
  • Changes in the foreground are detected more easily than changes in the background.
  • Experts are more likely to notice changes in their own field of study.
  • Visual cues can help bring the focus back onto the object of attention.
As for the aeroplane in the programme? Eastern Airlines was due to land in Florida when a small bulb in the landing nosegear light failed in the cockpit. Despite the alarm warning, the pilots spent so much time trying to get it to work they failed to notice their altitude was seriously low until it was too late. They crashed into the Everglades. Tragically, 96 people died.
It’s not likely that we are going to be faced with the task of counting a basketball and miss a woman prancing around in a gorilla suit every day. But as the air crash programme has shown, this phenomena can have devastating effects.
References:
  1. https://www.verywellmind.com
  2. https://www.bbc.co.uk

 

 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

About the Author: Janey Davies.

Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
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publicado por achama às 19:57
Quarta-feira, 12 / 06 / 19

5 Signs the Illusion of Control Is Ruining Your Life and How to Stop It ~ Sherrie.

5 Signs the Illusion of Control Is Ruining Your Life and How to Stop It.

By Sherrie.

June 11th, 2019

 

If you think you’re in control of life, think again. The illusion of control, although sometimes positive, can have negative consequences.
Sometimes, to be honest, I believe that people who do wrong toward others are punished. Hey, maybe they are. As for me, if I fall into the illusion of control in this aspect, I spend much of my time thinking that I will be avenged at every insult or attack. That’s a waste of time.
The illusion of being in control can definitely be positive, as it gives us the confidence to handle a situation. It can also be negative because we cannot possibly handle every situation. The truth is, some things are out of our control completely. Our acceptance of this fact is important.

How the illusion of control ruins our lives

If you go even deeper than that, you find those who live every day thinking they’re in control of the entirety of their existence, which isn’t true.
There are signs that the illusion and trickery of control have taken over, pushing them toward a chaotic and stressful existence. Here are a few examples.

1. Paranoia

Paranoia is a sign that you are under the illusion that you control things. You might think you’re in control, but maybe you are just watching your life unfold naturally, good or bad. If your spells and incantations don’t work, then the illusion of control will tell you that someone has transpired to bring you bad luck.
Or they could be following you, trying to do harm, or even ruin your future. If you depend on charms or other luck bringing aspects to stay in control, you could be fooling yourself.
Your paranoia could get ridiculous if not checked. If someone you love is always paranoid, you could be dealing with someone who feels like they are losing this control they once had.

2. Dwelling in the past

Someone who dwells too long on past events may be living under the illusion that they could have controlled certain situations.
When you live your life, you make mistakes. Over time, these mistakes become part of the past. Some of them affect us and our loved ones deeply. The illusion of control makes us think that if only we could go back in time and change things, that life would be different.
And maybe life would be different, but dwelling on this fact creates a fantasy world that is unhealthy to live in. If you’re constantly reliving the past and rehearsing different ways you could have approached situations, you really are ruining your life right now.
You may even look back at “now” and wish you could have changed that too.

3. Abuse

You see this is relationships when one person tries to control the actions of another. But when it all boils down to it, you cannot really control anyone. Eventually, they will do what they want anyway.
If you notice one person in the relationship trying to control the other, this is abuse. They are also under the illusion that they are in control. They’re not really in control and they never will be.

4. Cosmetic surgery obsession

You know the ones, the women and men who keep getting facelifts, tummy tucks, and breast augmentation. Yes, those individuals can be obsessed. These people think they are in total control of how they appear and how long they will remain beautiful.
The truth is, cosmetic surgery does work, to some extent, but it cannot keep us alive forever.
We have yet to discover the fountain of youth and until we do, we will age, and we will die. That’s the simple and concise truth of the matter. Plastic surgery can ruin our lives by keeping us locked into getting more and more changes and leaving us always unsatisfied.

5. Reckless behavior

You will recognize those who suffer from the illusion of total control by their reckless behavior. These individuals actually think that they are invincible.
I thought like this when I was around 18 years old. They walk down dark alleyways, drive super fast on the freeway, and even indulge in drugs and alcohol.
They really think they are in control at all times, and they will even get furious if you try to stop them. You know these people well. You can tell by their restlessness and boredom.

How can we stop thinking this way?

It’s not easy to break out of a mindset that’s been imprinted upon us from an early age. But, if you can manage to see things from a different perspective, you can learn to actually gain self-control over your illusion of control, if you get my drift.
Utilizing self-control helps you see logic instead of fantasy. It helps you realize that you are no more powerful, invincible, immortal or lucky than the rest of us.
Once you’ve realized this fact, you can focus on really enjoying a good life. Life is full of so many wonderful things, some far out of our control. So, for what we cannot control, I hope we can reach a place of acceptance. I think there we can find the peace we so deserve.
References:
  1. https://greatergood.berkeley.edu
  2. https://www.sciencedaily.com
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
About the Author: Sherrie

Sherrie is a freelance writer and artist with over 10 years of experience. She spends most of her time giving life to the renegade thoughts. As the words erupt and form new life, she knows that she is yet again free from the nagging persistence of her muse. She is a mother of three and a lifetime fan of the thought-provoking and questionable aspects of the universe.

COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 



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publicado por achama às 02:48
Terça-feira, 11 / 06 / 19

Karl Marx’s Conflict Theory and What It Reveals about Today’s Society ~ Janey Davies.

Karl Marx’s Conflict Theory and What It Reveals about Today’s Society.

By Janey Davies.

June 10th, 2019.

 
 

 



 

Brexit has caused deep divisions in households in the UK. In France, the ‘gilets jaunes’ are threatening to bring the country to a standstill over rising fuel costs. Can conflict theory help us understand why?
If you’ve noticed that the world seems to be getting a lot less tolerant these days, then conflict theory might have the answer.

What Is Conflict Theory?

Its premise is simple. Developed by Karl Marx, it suggests that society exists in a perpetual state of conflict, rather than harmony.
This is because we are all competing for the same, finite resources. In other words, for each social resource, there is a potential for conflict.
Marx stated that the wealthy in society will always protect their resources and keep them hidden away. The poor will try and obtain wealth using any means necessary.
As a result, there is a constant struggle between these two groups – the rich and the poor. Both individuals and groups within society will strive to benefit themselves over others.
Karl Marx conflict theory
Main Points of Conflict Theory:
  • Limited resources lead to competition between groups in society.
  • These groups are the rich ruling class or the poor working class.
  • The competition is usually economic or social with the ruling class dominating over the working class.
Let’s explore each of the main points in more detail.

1. Competition for resources

There are three types of resource that cause conflict:
  1. Economic resources
  2. Power resources
  3. Status resources
The most obvious resource in society is money. Wealth frees you from stress, worry, it provides you with a better life, more choices.
We all know what money can give us. Money buys you a big house. The opportunity to live in a nice area. The chance to go to a good school, to get a good education. Once you have good qualifications, you can get a better job. This perpetuates the circle of wealth.
Of course, resources don’t just include money. They are also those intangible things like time and social status. For example, a poor, working-class woman in a coercive relationship is not going to have the same opportunities as a single man with rich parents.
Therefore, it is important to understand that there are different types of struggles for resources.

2. The types of groups competing

Marx suggested two types of groups involved in the competition for resources.
  • The wealthy, the ruling class or the bourgeoisie.
  • The poor, working class or the proletariat.
The bourgeoisie account for a very small percentage of the population, but they have the power and resources. As a result, they use this power to influence and dominate the larger majority of the proletariat.
This is the pyramid theory in which a small group at the top control the power of all the other members of society below them. They achieve this in several ways. They take control of the media, they focus attention away from themselves and they will target minority groups for society’s problems.

3. Types of competition – economic and social

interpersonal conflict
So the two groups are the rich and the poor and they are competing for wealth, but they are also competing on a social level too. So what does that mean?
Take the relationship between an employer and a worker. The employer can keep wages stagnating for years, cut worker’s benefits, freeze overtime and stop pay rises. All the worker has is his or her labour to sell as a commodity. They don’t own the factory or the business. They are at the whim of the owners.
Ultimately, the owners want to get the most out of their workers with it costing them the least amount. The same applies to a tenant and a landlord. Their relationship in society is unequal. The landlord wants the most they can get for the property, no matter how nice their tenants are. Therefore there will always be conflict.

Conflict in today’s world

German sociologist Max Weber expanded on Marx’s theory. He suggested that people would be affected on many more levels, which included gender, race, education, class and social mobility. He also inferred that some might not be affected at all. Others might be influenced by the very people in power over them.
For example, if a popular leader made unpopular decisions, how would the masses react? It’s possible they would react favourably. So it’s safe to say that this theory is multi-layered and dependant on many factors, not just class and wealth.

Conflict and the Gilets Jaunes

So are we any closer to explaining the polarised views of Brexit or the protests in France? Well, yes. If the interests of an opposing group become too oppressive, then the opposed group will mobilise.
They will share a sense of belonging and social membership. They’ll create boundaries between those who belong and those don’t. Some will feel so incensed that they’ll take action.
In fact, the conflict itself tends to create a sense of solidarity and pull in others who might not ordinarily join the fight. We can see this with the gilets jaunes of France.
What began as a peaceful protest against a rise in fuel tax has now morphed into something completely different. Not only that but it has grown into a much larger anti-government movement. The protesters believe that you are either with them or against them.

Conflict and Brexit

As for Brexit, the result of the UK referendum is still a huge cause for arguments in Britain. People’s emotions are highly charged. There’s a lot of black and white thinking on this subject.
Those who voted Remain believe they are right and so do those who voted Leave. Moreover, neither will listen to opposing views. With such a small difference in the result of the Leave vote (4%), you’d think people in the UK could find some common ground.
But no. We cement our own ideologies as the truth and the way forward all the while demonising our opponents. We’ve become self-righteous and feel completely justified in our actions. What we don’t realise is that we have now become as bad as our oppressors.

How to Use Conflict Theory to Resolve Disagreements

So let’s apply the theory to human relationships and problems. What we can agree on is that the most important factor is a sense of inequality. Remember the inequality can be real or imagined, it could have happened a minute ago or be centuries old.
  • Conflict is not a contest. If you go into an argument to win at all costs, you are not going to resolve the conflict.
  • Look at the problem from the other person’s perspective. This means putting yourself in their shoes.
  • Find out the root of the inequality. Is it financial, a question of time, education, insecurity?
  • Be open-minded about resolutions and solutions. Your partner or colleague might have an idea of how to resolve the conflict.
  • Listen to the other person. When people feel listened to and validated they are more likely to open up and the level of trust increases.
  • Leave emotion out. Be matter-of-fact when discussing a possible solution. Conflict increases when emotions rise.
  • Focus on the problem, not the person. It helps to take the personality out of the equation and keep your attention on the source of the conflict.
  • Don’t criticise, respect. Nothing shuts down a conversation more than criticism. However, showing respect does the opposite.
We can’t eliminate conflict from our world. But we can change the way we deal with it. This theory shows us that understanding the reasons behind conflict will help us negotiate our waythrough it more effectively.
References:
  1. https://www.investopedia.com
  2. http://www.csun.edu
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

About the Author: Janey Davies.

Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
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publicado por achama às 14:47
Segunda-feira, 03 / 06 / 19

What Is the Barnum Effect and How It Can Be Used to Fool You ~ Janey Davies.

What Is the Barnum Effect and How It Can Be Used to Fool You

By Janey Davies.

June 2nd, 2019.

 
 

 



 

Have you ever read your horoscope and thought that it was amazingly accurate? You might just be a victim of the Barnum Effect.

The Barnum Effect, also known as the Forer Effect, occurs when people believe that vague and general descriptions are accurate representations of traits that belong to them personally. The phrase indicates a level of gullibility and comes from P.T Barnum.
Psychologist Paul Meehl coined the phrase in 1956. In those days, psychologists used general terms to fit all patients:
“I suggest—and I am quite serious—that we adopt the phrase Barnum effect to stigmatize those pseudo successful clinical procedures in which personality descriptions from tests are made to fit the patient largely or wholly by virtue of their triviality.”
But who exactly is P.T Barnum and how did the phrase originate?
Anyone that has seen The Greatest Showman will recognise P.T Barnum as the incredible 19-century circus entertainer behind the story. What many people don’t know is that in his early life, Barnum ran a touring museum.
This was a carnival full of live freak shows and sensational attractions, many of which were hoaxes. In fact, although he may not have said “There’s a sucker born every minute,” he certainly believed it. Barnum was famous in his early years for pulling off incredible hoaxes on his audiences.

Examples of P.T Barnum’s Greatest Hoaxes

 

George Washington’s 161-year-old nursemaid

In 1835, Barnum actually purchased an 80-year-old black slave and claimed she was President George Washington’s 161-old nursemaid. The lady was blind and disabled but sang songs and regaled audiences with stories of her time with ‘little George’.

The Cardiff Giant

Barnum wasn’t the only one scamming audiences in the 19-century. In 1869, workers on William Newell’s land ‘discovered’ the petrified body of a 10-foot giant. The giant was, in actual fact, a statue placed there for the hoax.
So started the exhibition with audiences paying 25 cents to see the giant. Barnum wanted to buy it but Newell had already sold it to another showman – Hannah, who refused.
So Barnum, realising an opportunity, built his own giant and called the Cardiff version a fake. This prompted Newell to say “There’s a sucker born every minute.”

The ‘Feejee’ Mermaid


Barnum convinced New York newspapers he had the body of a mermaid which had been captured by an American sailor off the coasts of Japan.
The so-called mermaid was actually a monkey’s head and torso sewn onto a fishtail and covered in paper-mâché. Experts had already proven it to be fake. This didn’t stop Barnum. The exhibit toured and crowds flocked to see it.

What is the Barnum Effect?

So Barnum started off his career with elaborate hoaxes and fooling large audiences. And that’s how we come to the effect. This effect occurs most commonly when describing personality traits. As a result, mediums, astrologers, mentalists and hypnotists will use it.

Examples of statements that show the Barnum Effect:

  • You have a great sense of humour but know when to be serious.
  • You use your intuition, but you have a practical nature.
  • You are quiet and introspective at times, but you like to let your hair down.
Can you see what’s happening here? We are covering all bases.
One study showed it was possible to run a personality test on college students and then give every student exactly the same description about themselves. Moreover, the students believed the descriptions.
In the now-famous Forer personality test, Bertram Forer gave his psychology students a personality test. A week later he delivered the results by providing each and every one of them a ‘personality sketch’ made up of 14 sentences which, he said, summed up their personalities.
He asked the students to rate the descriptions from 1 to 5. The average was 4.3. In fact, the majority of students rated the descriptions as ‘very, very accurate’. But how come?  They all got exactly the same descriptions.

Here are some examples of Forer’s descriptions:

  • You are an independent thinker and need proof from others before you’ll change your mind.
  • You tend to be critical of yourself.
  • You can at times doubt whether you’ve made the right choice.
  • Sometimes you are sociable and extroverted, but at other times you need your space.
  • You need the admiration and respect of other people.
  • Although you may have some weaknesses, you can generally overcome them.
  • You are easily bored and need variety in your life.
  • You are not using your full potential.
  • You may appear to be disciplined and controlled on the outside, but inside, you can worry.
Now, if you read the above, what would you think? Is it an accurate reflection of your personality?

Why we get fooled by Barnum Descriptions?

Why do we get fooled? Why do we believe general descriptions that could apply to anyone? It could be a phenomenon called ‘subjective validation’ or the ‘personal validation effect’.
This is a cognitive bias by which we tend to accept a description or statement if it contains something that is personal to us or is significant to us. So, if a statement resonates powerfully enough, we are more likely to believe it, without checking its validity.
Consider a sitter and a medium. The more invested the sitter is to make contact with their deceased relative, the harder they will try to find meaning in what the medium is saying. They want to find validation and make it personal to them. But that doesn’t mean it’s true.
The next time you find yourself agreeing with something you’ve read, ask yourself, does this apply to me specifically or is it a general description applicable for anyone? Remember, some people use this as a method of deception.
References:
  1. http://psych.fullerton.edu
  2. https://psycnet.apa.org

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

About the Author: Janey Davies.

Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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publicado por achama às 18:32
Quinta-feira, 23 / 05 / 19

How to Beat Fear of Flying with These 10 Science-Backed Techniques ~ Sherrie.

How to Beat Fear of Flying with These 10 Science-Backed Techniques.

By Sherrie.

May 18th, 2019

 

In this world, there are so many fears – fears of the dark, spiders, and even water. Fear of flying, however, is quite a common disturbance.
I had no idea that I was afraid of flying until I experienced my first plane ride. I was going home from Maryland to Mississippi when turbulence hit. When this happened, I grasped the shoulder of the man sitting next to me and he chuckled.
I was terrified, but he seemed to find my fear amusing. I guess he was used to this sort of thing. But I was not. It was clear from that day forward that I had a fear of flying.
I guess you can say, “Oh, you’re just afraid because of the turbulence”. Well, maybe that’s what alerted me to the fear of being in flight, but it’s not what kept the fear instilled in my heart. I will not go parasailing, I will not jump from planes, dear god, no!
When it comes to flying, I try every excuse to get out of the suggestion. I’ve even driven hundreds of miles just to stay off a plane. This is a bonafide fear of leaving the earth and flying.

Learning to fight your fear of flying

So, I guess this means, we shall learn to ditch the fear and terror of flying together. And, I’m alright with that. My brother tries to get me on a plane all the time to visit him, but I say no. So, if I lose my fear, I can make him happy and even learn to enjoy flying.
Let’s take a look at a few science-backed techniquesthat just might work.

1. Understand flying and physics

One way to start your journey away from the terror of flying is to learn the facts. If you’re unsure about how flying works, this could be a huge reason why you’re so afraid. You can learn facts about flying by simply doing an online search.
The bottom line is this: you cannot just fall from the sky in normal flight. You have to think of flying through the air as if you are swimming through water. The air does have a bit of support.
Research and learn more. Better than that, research and calm your anxieties. Also, make sure you learn the truth about turbulence and how the plane handles this issue.

2. Separating danger from anxiety

If you have a fear of being in flight, you’re probably seeing your anxieties as real dangers. Well, that’s a given, I guess. The key to this is to somehow separate the two so you can understand the logic.
One thing you must know is that your body reacts to anxiety in the same way that it reacts to genuine danger. If you can recognize your fear as anxiety and not real danger, you can harness this fear.
Please understand, and I am telling myself this too, just because you’re anxious doesn’t mean something is really wrong. You can use this mentality in so many other areas of your life as well.

3. Identify triggers

If you understand how triggers work in other situations, you will understand this as well. Identifying the triggers that upset you on the flight will help you work through these triggers.
The key is to examine the triggers you know before you ever get on the flight. This helps you work out a system to calm those feelings before they even begin. This is a precautionary action to stop giving in to the fear that you will soon be flying. I think this could work really well for those like us.

4. Build up to a flight

Instead of taking a long flight first, try making short hauls to help you build up the courage. When you experience a few uneventful take-offs and landings, you will feel more confident in taking longer flights. It’s like learning how to lose any other fear. One small step at a time generally works for us all.

5. Talk to others

Before the plane takes flight, talk to those sitting with you or near you. Tell them about your fears and if they will, give them ways to help you if fear takes over.
Most people will help in these situations, and you will find at least one person who will be your support. It’s worth a try to alleviate your fears, wouldn’t you say?

6. Fly often

When I read this tip, it sent a shiver down my spine, seriously. As I try to avoid flying altogether, this one seemed like pure torture. But, as I researched further, I started to see the logic behind this solution. It means, the more you fly, the less you will fear flying.
It’s like you get used to the sensations of flying, the feelings from the turbulence and even the crowded atmosphere. It may take a bit of prodding to keep you in the air, but over time you will be grateful you’ve pushed yourself to conquer this fear.

7. Look anxiety in the face

If you can anticipate the anxiety, you will feel when entering the plane, then you can outsmart this feeling. Most of the time, we feel much more anxious before getting on the plane than when we are flying.
We should, in a way, “embrace” the anxiety we feel before a flight, so it doesn’t seem so big afterward. You can then ask yourself, “Now, what was so bad about that?”

8. Distract yourself

If these don’t work, then try distraction. For example, when the doctor takes blood samples from my arm, I distract myself. This is because I get woozy when they do that. So, I think about yellow sunflowers waving in a field. It works.
So, with that being said, distracting yourself, by maybe listening to music, reading a book, or watching a movie can all help you get through the flight with less anxiety.
You can even talk to the person beside you if they seem talkative. Talking to someone enjoyable often seems to pass the time quickly.

9. Meditation

Yes, you can meditate to a certain extent on the plane. It’s not like a distraction but more like focus. When you meditate, you focus on your breathing and place yourself in a safe place for the flight.
To focus on your breathing, you pace your breaths while counting slowly. This technique is used to alleviate panic by promoting a calm anxiety free mind and being.

10. Use confidence builders

Here’s something you might not think about on a regular basis. I bet you think driving is safer than flying. Well, according to SerioiusAccidents.com, this is not true. Statistics show that while aircraft crashes can be more catastrophic, taking more lives at one time, there is more chance that you will be in an automobile accident than a plane crash.
I think we have such a misconception about flight because while driving, we are closer to the ground and we seem to have control of the vehicle. What’s more, even though automobile crashes happen quite often, the deaths seem to be spread out more through time than with one plane crash.
The fear of flying, in this case, is just anxiety ruling over the facts and statistics.

So, we can help each other

As I said before, I do have a fear of flying. However, I plan to utilize these steps above to help cure a bit of that. Yes, I am going to take it slow and no, I leave no promises about how quickly I will cure this. But, I do have a determination about things, and I believe you do too.
Let’s cure the fear of flying together. What do you say?

 

 

 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
About the Author: Sherrie

Sherrie is a freelance writer and artist with over 10 years of experience. She spends most of her time giving life to the renegade thoughts. As the words erupt and form new life, she knows that she is yet again free from the nagging persistence of her muse. She is a mother of three and a lifetime fan of the thought-provoking and questionable aspects of the universe.

COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 



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All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 

 

No religious or political belief is defended here. (Investigate yourself)

 

Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 

If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 


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publicado por achama às 18:08
Quarta-feira, 01 / 05 / 19

3 Interesting Decision-Making Theories Which Explain the Choices We Make ~ Sherrie.

3 Interesting Decision-Making Theories Which Explain the Choices We Make.

By Sherrie.

April 30, 2019


 

Decision-making theories come are quite useful. When it’s time to make an important choice, there’s no need to delay.
Whether we are familiar with theories regarding decision-making or not, in this day and age, choice is in abundance. What do we want to eat, which sofa should we purchase, do you get a dog or not? Because we have way too many options, it can make choosing much harder than it should be.
Choice is our ability to make decisions when presented with two or more options. When we have more than two options, we must make a choice. This is what the world presents to us. Therefore, it is the truth of how free will works. We can then live and artistically create the life we want to.
So, why is it so difficult? Ultimately, choice represents the sacrifices we must make. We automatically give up something else when we make a choice between two or more things.
This means, if we find ourselves wanting something else next month, chances are that choice will be gone – non-existent. We have to take what we have today, and this depends on what we choose.

Decision-making theories – the basics

Different approaches to decision-making are sometimes called Choice theories. William Glasser founded this term from a book with the same title. According to Glasser, freedom, fun, power, love and belonging, and survival are basic satisfied needs which come from choices we make.
The idea that choices are mostly made by humans, which enhance what we really want, is an idea that’s been around for quite some time. Choice and the psychology behind it is the reason we make the decisions that we do. It’s a subconscious decision that motivates our satisfaction and meeting those satisfactions.

Here are three decision-making theories that will help you to understand the choices you make. It might even encourage you to make better ones!

1. Our emotions connect to our actions

Neuroscientist and professor at USC and Salk Institute, Dr. Antonio Damasio says that our decisions come from visceral emotion. The definition of his theory is that there is a link between “raw” emotions and the part of the brain which governs decisions. He, therefore, concluded that decision making and judgment come from a critical neural circuit.
Damasio concludes that non-rational and rational processes bridge feeling and emotion. If meaning and motivation, would not be possible if emotional input was absent, and decision making could not happen.
Damasio believes that we don’t only base our choices on logic and fact, but also on memories and emotions. This is why we make decisions on unconscious levels. Our intuition guides us.

2. Decisions can be costly – literally!

Does making decisions result in reduced self-control? A study from the University of Minnesota points to yes. The study also showed more procrastination, lack of ability to persist in failed circumstances, decrease in physical stamina, and worsening of arithmetic abilities
Researchers, to conduct the study asked students for help. After dividing into two groups, the teams take on studies much like the others but to understand how choices affect things. Identical product lists were given to all the students in the initial experiment.
A singular group was asked questions revolved around how often, in the past, that the product was used. However, one group was about how often they’d used the products in the past. The same product, with variations, were chosen by the other group. In another experiment, one group answered questions such as this and the other did not.
“Making choices apparently depleted a precious self-resource,” wrote the authors in the conclusion of their study. “This is because subsequent self-regulation is poorer among those who had made choices than it was among those who had not. This pattern became clear in the laboratory, classroom, and shopping mall.”

3. Watch out for bias!

There is absolutely no doubt that our biases affect our choices. However, there is one particular bias that focuses on decision-making theories in many situations.
Loss aversion bias is one such example. No one likes to be left out or miss important things. Fact. However, it isn’t as important to gain something than it is to avoid losing something. This is the way aversion works. The endowment effect shows us through our desire to keep what we have instead of striving for more.
Daniel Kahneman, in yet another study, gave test subjects either an empty mug, nothing or chocolate.  They could trade or choose between two other objects. Half of them wanted the mugs, but those who already had mugs did not want to give them up – about 86% of participants, showing the desire to keep the possessions a person already has.

How to make hard decisions easier

Choices are hard, you see. I guess you understand now. No matter what, some choices you make will always be hard. However, some of these decision-making theories might just help you understand your own choices.
We don’t always have a rational reason to make decisions. They cannot separate from our identity, our location, or what helps us decide what to wear. Maybe we will be able to make wiser choices and help others make proper decisions too, as long as we understand psychological influences and factors that affect our decisions.
References:
  1. https://www.psychologytoday.com
  2. https://www.forbes.com
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
About the Author: Sherrie

Sherrie is a freelance writer and artist with over 10 years of experience. She spends most of her time giving life to the renegade thoughts. As the words erupt and form new life, she knows that she is yet again free from the nagging persistence of her muse. She is a mother of three and a lifetime fan of the thought-provoking and questionable aspects of the universe.

COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 



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Archives:

 

 
 



Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.

 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 

 

No religious or political belief is defended here. (Investigate yourself)

 

Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 

If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 


More @ http://violetflame.biz.ly and 
https://rayviolet.blogspot.com/




 

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publicado por achama às 19:50
Sábado, 27 / 04 / 19

What Is the Gambler’s Fallacy and How It Affects Your Decisions ~ Sherrie.

What Is the Gambler’s Fallacy and How It Affects Your Decisions.

By Sherrie.

April 26, 2019


 

Do you make decisions based on probability, or take the chance? Maybe you have a gambler’s fallacy thought process.
If you flip a coin and do this three times, and it lands on heads, can you say the next toss will also land on heads? Your answer may well determine whether you have gambler’s fallacy or not.

What exactly is the gambler’s fallacy?

Researchers Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahnemanrationalized thought processes related to the fallacy of gambling on their research paper “Judgement under uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases” 1.
They said: “Many decisions are based on beliefs concerning the outcome of an election, the guilt of a defendant, or the future value of a dollar. These beliefs express themselves in statements such as “I think that…” or “chances are….” Or even “It is unlikely that…” and so forth.”
These statements use heuristic principles. People rely on these to reduce the complex tasks of assessing probabilities. They can also predict values to simpler judgmental operations.
Going back to the coin-flipping example. A decision maker, using rational thinking, knows the chance of another coin flip landing on heads is 50-50. However, according to Tversky and Kahneman’s definition, it’s never by chance that winning streaks happen, so we shouldn’t adopt this belief.
It’s a misconception many call the gambler’s fallacy.  Research has shown this fallacy is alive and well in a multitude of everyday scenarios. In fact, there is evidence that it can cause bias in decision making.

How can it impact your decision making?

Tversky and Kahneman’s research describes three heuristics that are used to make judgments under uncertainty. These include representativeness, availability of instances or scenarios and adjustment of an anchor.
These heuristics summarizes that Tversky and Kahneman, are highly economical and usually effective, but they lead to systematic and predictable errors. A better understanding of these heuristics and biases could improve judgments and making decisions in situations of uncertainty.
This “better understanding” is present in other recent research. This research shows how individuals might, in subjective cases, be biased against decisions.
Decision-Making under the Gambler’s Fallacy: Evidence from Asylum Judges, Loan Officers, and Baseball Umpires” by Daniel Chen, Tobias J. Moskowitz and Kelly Shue 2 is one example.
Their research found that with all else equal the judge approves the case before an asylum seeker has higher points of 3.3 % within fair situations. This was true with several settings that were different.
They noted that it is likely that a judge influences decisions related to a previous event and that with both negative or positive decisions and previous cases of similarity, The sequence lengths will be increased.
Similar happenings occurred in India. Completed research came from loan officers who were also students. Reviews of processed files were completed by the same officers. Recommendations were considered on the subject of loan approval.
Pressure was placed on true assessment at various levels. This was because of schemes faced for different reasons. The previous review of the files helped authors study how well and fair the officers made decisions. Plus, they were able to explore whether loans on recommendation were, on average, performing better.

Can circumstances affect the gambler’s fallacy?

Looking at the same research of the loan officers, a basic plan rewards loans despite the quality of these loans. Loan officers who previously rejected loans, even though incentives were good, had a small decrease in chance of approval in the review when the loan before was approved. There was little concern about bias when accuracy with strong incentives were present.
There is also evidence of this in the sporting world. The researchers looked at baseball and analyzed umpires in the major leagues. After 1.5 million pitches were analyzed, between 2008 and 2012, batters did not swing when going to bat.
The researchers then controlled many situations of the game including the speed of the pitch, count of pitches, what happens in the game, the winner, and if the home team had the batter. Whatever data that was collected was their reliance. To track speed and understand trajectories in the major league, they had to use the PITCH/system.
When a pitch was a strike, umpires rarely called the next one a strike. In fact, this was 1.5 % true. There was a bias even more if two calls were the same. The next call has a higher percentage in this bias.
When it comes to regretful calls do umpires make subsequent calls? Is it fair? Is there a gambler’s fallacy? Umpires were reluctant to make an opposing call after an incorrect call but felt comfortable with this same act after a correct decision. This was noticed by researchers.

Here are the facts as we know them

“Fairness concerns and a desire to be equally nice to two opposing teams are unlikely to explain our results.”
The gambler’s fallacy can be seen in studies by various researchers where identical situations and numbers of decisions are going in the same direction and happening close together.
Experienced decision-makers took less notice of this at all. And this could be a reason for concern.
References:
  1. https://www.researchgate.net
  2. https://academic.oup.com
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
About the Author: Sherrie

Sherrie is a freelance writer and artist with over 10 years of experience. She spends most of her time giving life to the renegade thoughts. As the words erupt and form new life, she knows that she is yet again free from the nagging persistence of her muse. She is a mother of three and a lifetime fan of the thought-provoking and questionable aspects of the universe.

COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Thanks to: Learning Mind <noreply+feedproxy@google.com>
 

Archives:

 

 
 



Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.

 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 

 

No religious or political belief is defended here. (Investigate yourself)

 

Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 

If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 


More @ http://violetflame.biz.ly and 
https://rayviolet.blogspot.com/




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 

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publicado por achama às 00:43
Terça-feira, 16 / 04 / 19

What Is the Halo Effect and 5 Ways It Distorts Your Perception of Others ~ Caroline Hindle

What Is the Halo Effect and 5 Ways It Distorts Your Perception of Others.

By Caroline Hindle.

learning-mind.com

April 15, 2019. 

 


 

Have you ever thought you could tell what a person was like just from a superficial impression of them? You might have been under the influence of the halo effect.
This term refers to a tendency of people to make global evaluations of people they don’t know based on specific perceived characteristics.

There are several ways in which the halo effect can distort our perception of others:

  1. Physical attractiveness throws us off

The most obvious way the halo effect can influence our perceptions of others is that it can make us think that people who are physically attractive will also have attractive personalities. We tend to perceive them to be generally more successful or capable in their lives.
This psychological effect was first noted by Thorndike (1920) who conducted a study entitled “A Constant Error in Psychological Ratings” on servicemen. In this study, he asked commanding officers to rate soldiers that they didn’t know on intelligence, physique, leadership and character.
The results of the study showed that the officers tended to make assumptions about soldiers based on unrelated characteristics. Specifically, if they rated officers as tall or attractive, they tended to rate them as intelligent or more capable soldiers!
Thorndike also noted that colleagues saw similar effects in other institutions. He mentions that superiors were rating teachers in a school in the very same way. At the same time, these ratings were affecting promotions and salaries for the teachers in question.
  1. First impressions count

Another way the halo effect can influence us is that we tend to stereotype people based on a first impression of them. Solomon Asch conducted a study in 1946 in which he gave participants a list of adjectives about people. He ordered the adjectives either from positive to negative or from negative to positive, depending on the group the participants belonged to:
Group 1
  • Intelligent, industrious, impulsive, critical, stubborn, envious
Group 2
  • Envious, stubborn, critical, impulsive, industrious, intelligent
He found that when the first adjectives in the list were positive, the participants tended to rate the person positively. Similarly, if the first adjectives in the list were negative, the reverse would be true. This is an effect that is related to the halo effect called ‘the primacy effect’.
The primacy effect seems to occur as a result of our paying more attention to the information we get first. As a result, we tend to allow the information we get first to colour our perceptions of the information that we get later.
  1. People’s impressions can be easily manipulated

As more studies on the halo effect were conducted, it became clear that this phenomenon was not as clear-cut as it might at first seem. It would be easy, for example, to assume that this psychological effect is as simple as ‘physical attractiveness makes us think people have positive characteristics’.
Well, no, it is more complicated than that: the way we rate physical attractiveness can be manipulated by other factors as well.
Nisbett and Wilson (1977) did a study with students where teachers presented themselves as warm or cold and gave presentations. Students were then asked to rate them in both their warm and cold guises. When the teachers were in their warm guise, the students rated them higher on physical attractiveness and other positive characteristics.
On the other hand, when they were acting coldly the students rated them negatively on physical attractiveness and a whole host of perceived traits.
Moreover, this study also found that the students making these ratings were completely unaware of how this manipulation of one characteristic was influencing their blanket evaluation of completely unrelated characteristics!
  1. Marketing departments and politicians use the halo effect to their advantage

Two groups of people who are very interested in the halo effect are politicians and marketing departments. Since whether you buy a product or not or whether you vote for a politician or not can be so easily manipulated on so little information, it is easy to see why.
It is also pretty scary to think that people who are looking to profit from either your vote or how you spend your money can so easily sway your opinions. As we have already seen from the studies that psychologists have conducted on the halo effect, your global evaluation of a person can be influenced by physical attractiveness, an appearance or warmth, and even the order in which things are presented to you.
This makes the job of an advertiser or a politician very simple. This is why politicians, for example, needn’t talk about issues at all! All they need to do is appear well-dressed and friendly. You are more likely to make a decision based on how they appear than what they are saying. And they know it very well!
  1. The halo effect impacts your whole life

We have seen that the halo effect makes you a terrible decision-maker in terms of who you choose to run the country or who you choose to listen to as your teacher or doctor. Apart from that, however, it is affecting how other people are judging you, too, on a daily basis.
People are making snap judgements about your capabilities and your whole personality based on superficial impressions of you all the time. This can have huge implications: how you dress, your speaking voice, or whether you are coming across as warm and gregarious could be affecting your likelihood of getting a promotion or the size of your salary.
Your boss or colleagues are probably making these judgements regardless of how good you are at your job. In fact, if somebody says something bad about you to someone who doesn’t know you, that could change their whole perception of you, based simply on the fact that they heard something bad about you before meeting you.
And worst of all…?  – the people forming these impressions of you have no idea that they are doing it!

It is worth keeping in mind how much the halo effect can influence us from all of these perspectives.

The bottom line is that although sometimes we can judge people correctly on very little information, we really shouldn’t overestimate how good we are at making judgements.
From the outset, the first psychologist to conduct a study on this subject, Thorndike (1920), showed that people were making false evaluations of others based on this psychological phenomenon.
Later, Solomon Asch showed us that all they need to do to manipulate our impressions of something as positive or negative is to order positive and negative traits in a certain way. Nisbett and Wilson (1977) showed us that not only can we be easily manipulated, but we have absolutely no idea it is happening.
So next time you make an evaluation of somebody, whether it be a co-worker, a potential friend, or a potential leader for your country, try to make sure that you are making a decision about them for the right reasons. Or even better, try not to make any snap judgements without having solid evidence to support your views.
Do you think you have ever been affected by the halo effect, either in forming judgements of others or as regards how others have judged you? Tell us about your experience in the comment section.
References:
  1. Britannica.com
  2. Griffin, A. M., & Langlois, J. H. (2006). Stereotype Directionality and Attractiveness Stereotyping: Is Beauty Good or is Ugly Bad?. Social cognition24(2), 187–206. doi:10.1521/soco.2006.24.2.187
  3. Nisbett, R. E., & Wilson, T. D. (1977). The halo effect: Evidence for unconscious alteration of judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(4), 250-256 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.35.4.250
  4. Surawski, M.K. & Ossoff, E.P. (2006). The Effects of Physical and Vocal Attractiveness on Impression Formation of Politicians. Curr Psychol 25: 15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-006-1013-5
  5. Thorndike, E.L. (1920). A constant error in psychological ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 4(1), 25-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0071663

 




About the Author: Caroline Hindle

 

 

Caroline Hindle is a freelance writer, editor, and translator based in the UK. She has an MA in Ancient World Studies but has a wide spectrum of interests, including philosophy, history, science, literature, politics, morality, and popular culture.

 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 



 

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Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.

 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 

 

No religious or political belief is defended here. (Investigate yourself)

 

Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 

If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 


More @ http://violetflame.biz.ly and 
https://rayviolet.blogspot.com/




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily


 




 
 
publicado por achama às 18:53
Sábado, 26 / 01 / 19

What Is a Positive Bias and How It Distorts Your Perception of Other People ~ Margaret B.

What Is a Positive Bias and How It Distorts Your Perception of Other People.

By Margaret B.

January 26th, 2019. 

 

positive bias.

 

 

What is a positive bias, you ask? A positive bias is a tendency in humans to overestimate when good things will happen.

There is even a specific use of the term positive bias in research. It refers to when someone in research only publishes positive outcomes.
A positive bias is normally seen as a good thing – surely, it’s best to have a good outlook. But just because it is positive, it doesn’t mean we should ignore the ‘bias’ part.

A positive bias is still a pre-conceived notion.

These notions can be about abilities, personalities and values, or anything else. What matters is that they affect the way you view people, including someone you have never met before.
Many people miss this because they assume bias must be negative. This is not the case – it can be positive too. A positive characteristic still affects the way you see and interact with people.
A positive bias can be as harmful as a negative one. Any type of cognitive bias is unfair to the people who are on the receiving end of it. A bias, even a positive one, can restrict people, and keep them from their goals. It makes you act in specific ways, which is restrictive and unfair. People are individuals and they should be seen as such.
Many of us fall into the trap of feeling good about our positive biases, don’t we? After all, they aren’t negative, so what harm could they be? Think about your biases for a moment. What do they tell you about the people you are going to meet? What do they lead you to expect when you meet someone new?
Positive biases provide us with the illusion that we are tolerant, loving people. In fact, these positive biases are just the flip side of negative ideas and beliefs. They can be just as destructive to workplace relationships.
A positive bias can trick us into thinking we have no problems. Unfortunately, any kind of bias can have an impact on the way we work.

Biases work in a number of different ways:

 

They determine your perception

How you choose to see people – which bias you choose – determines your perceptions. A positive bias means that you put people in a different kind of box. It determines how you think about them. It determines how you react when they don’t act according to your preconceived notions.
A negative bias means that you can react negatively when your preconceptions are shattered. A positive bias works in much the same way. A positive bias is still limiting, even if we don’t see it that way. It limits both sides of the bias. It keeps us from fully appreciating the beauty of humanity. It also keeps the subject of our bias from fully being able to be human.

People use bias because we don’t like uncertainty

We put other people into tiny boxes because that works to make our lives easier. If we label someone, we can understand them. This is how a positive bias gets started.
Labelling people with a positive bias means that you are much less likely to understand when they act outside the box. Or, to put it another way, labelling people makes it much less likely that you will understand their humanity.
Using boxes is a shorthand for the huge numbers of people we are likely to meet throughout our life. It can serve a purpose in helping us store first impressions. It has limited uses, though.

First perception wins

People rarely change their first impressions. A positive bias works in the same way; what you assume of a person is what you think of them.
Unfortunately, a first impression is rarely enough to tell us about the person we meet. So much goes into an individual that only comes out with time. A first impression doesn’t give anybody enough time. It doesn’t matter if that is time to show people who you are or time to learn who other people are.
First impressions are just that: first. They should not be the last.

Your imagination is a powerful tool

What you perceive is what you draw towards you. In the case of a positive bias, this means that you will only ever find bases of the bias appearing around you.
This is limiting in its own way. You should try and avoid any such ruminations, as it means that you will lose out on a lot of what makes people who they are.
Positive bias is better than negative bias. But that does not mean it is good to have. Biases keep up from fully realising the potential in both ourselves and the people around us.
Rather than trying to make people conform to the specific stereotype we have of them, it is much better to simply let people be. Let them be who they are, and learn about the wonderful variety of humanity.
References:
  1. https://www.psychologytoday.com
  2. https://www.verywellmind.com

 

 

 

 

 
 
About the Author: Margaret B.
 
Margaret is a freelance writer and tutor. She spends her time reading and writing, hoping to learn why people act the way they do. She is a lifelong fan of both philosophy and fantasy.
 
COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 



 
 

Archives:



Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.

 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 

 

No religious or political belief is defended here. (Investigate yourself)

 

Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 

If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 


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publicado por achama às 22:50
A Luz está a revelar a Verdade, e esta libertar-nos-á! -Só é real o AMOR Incondicional. -Quando o Amor superar o amor pelo poder, o mundo conhecerá a Paz; Jimi Hendrix. -Somos almas a ter uma experiência humana!

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