A Chama da Ascensão

pesquisar

 
Domingo, 24 / 05 / 20

How to Put Yourself First and 5 Situations When It’s Necessary.

How to Put Yourself First and 5 Situations When It’s Necessary.

Lauren Edwards-Fowle,

M.Sc. and B.Sc.

learning-mind.com

Posted May 24th, 2020.

 
 

 

A pessimist is somebody who always sees the negative side. Pessimistic people expect the worst and are generally seen as unhappy, gloomy individuals. However, how thin is the line between a pessimist and a realist?

Traits of Pessimistic People

1. Always expecting the worst

This can relate to anything; the outcome of a job interview, the reason the phone is ringing, or how fun tonight’s party is going to be. A pessimist is a solid ‘glass half empty’ person and never has hopeful expectations that things will work out better than expected.
2. Finding it hard to see the joy in life
Somebody pessimistic doesn’t decide to be a downer; that would be a negative person who deliberately finds the bad in life. A pessimist might desperately want to feel as excited as everybody else but find it impossible to rationally think the same as others.

3. Difficulty with trusting relationships

As a natural pessimist, a person will take a lot of hard work before they can look to the future with positivity. It can, therefore, be really hard for these people to form close emotional bonds since their innate expectation is that it will turn out badly, and their trust will be crushed.

4. A tendency towards anxiety

Whilst the world around a pessimist will seem naïve, it can be tough to not feel overwhelmed by all the potential for things to go wrong. This can lead to stress and anxiety, feeling isolated with worries and concerns that nobody else can seem to see.

5. Excellent at contingency planning

A pessimist might see himself or herself as a realist; either way, they always have a Plan B. If you can’t accept the likelihood that plans will work out well, you will always be planning for the fallout, and have a back-up plan for when that happens. This makes pessimistic people excellent team members who can cope better than most with problems and challenges.

What Is the Difference between Pessimistic People and Realistic People?

Many pessimists will claim to be realists. They don’t have any other way of thinking and probably feel that all the optimists are gullible and reckless for not seeing the impending danger.
However, realism and pessimism are two different things.

Logic vs. assumption

Realists use their logistical reasoning to decide on what they believe is the most likely outcome. Pessimistic people don’t have this power of logic and will automatically assume the worst, regardless of the evidence to suggest otherwise.

Acceptance of other opinions

A pessimist finds it hard to accept that other people might feel differently from them. They might even feel it is their responsibility to convince others that they are right. A realist, on the other hand, can acknowledge different viewpoints and not take it personally if people disagree with them. They will be sure they are still in the right though!

Keeping control

Being incapable of seeing the positive in anything can be a demotivating experience. It often leads pessimistic people to experience anxiety and stress. Realists don’t suffer in the same way, knowing that their opinions are borne from fact and deduction.

What Are the Benefits of Being a Pessimistic Person?

It isn’t all doom and gloom. So if you think you may be a natural pessimist, there are some positives to take away from this personality trait!

1. Limited expectations

This may seem like a downside, but in fact, a pessimist who sets the bar for their expectations low will be more often happily surprised than other people. This can be an effective defense mechanism to cope with previous disappointments and mitigate the chance of being badly hurt.

2. Preventative healthcare

If you always expect the worst, you are very likely to be convinced that every lump and bump is a terminal illness. Pessimists tend to take very good care of themselves and react quickly to any potential health problems. This makes them much more likely to effectively manage any illnesses that do come their way.

3. Resistance to pressure

Pessimistic people are less prone to believing fake news or listening to bad advice than most of us. They use a negative outlook as a cognitive tool to analyze and respond to new situations. Thus, they have better courage in their convictions than most. This makes pessimists far less likely to buy into propaganda than any other people.

4. No forced feelings

An optimist will often be crushed when something works out badly. A pessimistic person will have seen it coming all along, so they will have been emotionally preparing for the fallout. Usually, an optimist will feel the need to continually be upbeat, to the point of faking it when they are feeling bad, which can be a stressful experience.

Conclusion

The reality is that most of us don’t choose our personalities and need to learn coping strategies to manage our less positive traits. However, there is always the capacity to change. Recognizing any tendencies that you would like to work on is the first step to effecting personal development.
There isn’t anything wrong with being a pessimistic person, much as there isn’t anything bad about being an optimist. Both have pluses and negatives, and both will leave you vulnerable to certain outcomes that will impact harder on your psyche than somebody with a different mindset.
Accepting who you are, and how best to deal with your personality to ensure it doesn’t negatively affect your relationships and social interactions is critical for all of us to make sure we are true to ourselves and living our best lives.
References:
  1. Psychology Today
  2. The Conversation

 

Lauren Edwards-Fowle

 
 
Copyright © 2012-2020 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 

 

 
About the Author: Lauren Edwards-Fowle


 
Lauren Edwards-Fowle is a professional copywriter based in South East England. Lauren worked within Children's Services for five years before moving into the business sector. She holds an MSc in Applied Accountancy and BSc in Corporate Law. She now volunteers within the community sport sector, helping young people to live healthier, more productive lifestyles and overcome the barriers to inclusion that they face. With a keen interest in physical wellbeing, nutrition and sports, Lauren enjoys participating in a variety of team sports in her spare time, as well as spending time with her young family and their dog Scout.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
Archives:

 

 
 

A Trusty with Privacy Search 
Alternative to Google
startpage.com

Alternatives to YouTube
bitchete.com
brighteon.com

 
 
 



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
Free counters!

  geoglobe1
 
 
publicado por achama às 18:33
Sexta-feira, 27 / 12 / 19

What Is Slippery Slope Fallacy and How to Handle It in an Argument

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted December 26th, 2019.

 
Slippery Slope Fallacy.

 


The slippery slope argument is frequently used in a variety of contexts from our own internal reasoning to political propaganda. It takes the view that a certain action will lead to a specific chain of events, usually resulting in a negative outcome. But how helpful is this argument and why has it been termed the ‘slippery slope fallacy’?

In this post, we explore the fallacy of the slippery slope argument and look at how to handle this viewpoint when faced with it in an argument.

What Are the Different Types of Slippery Slope Arguments?
Slippery slope arguments come under many guises and philosophers have distinguished them under the following three categories:

1. Causal Slippery Slopes
A causal slippery slope relates to arguments that suggest a minor action will lead to a major (and potentially catastrophic) event. The causal nature of this argument is that the minor event leads to further events that gradually escalate until the ultimate tragic ending.

An extreme example of a causal slippery slope is someone suggesting that legalizing prostitution would cause lead to an increase in marital breakdown. This then escalates into the destruction of the constitution of the family and results in the very destruction of civilization itself.

2. Precedential Slippery Slopes
These suggest that in treating a minor issue a certain way, we will be obliged to treat a related issue that is more major in the same way in the future.

A common example of this type of slippery slope is the argument against the legalization of cannabis. Those that oppose this use the slippery slope to suggest it will lead to more positive attitudes towards harder drugs and the subsequent legalization of drugs like heroin.

3. Conceptual Slippery Slopes
This form of slippery slope argument is linked to the concept of vagueness and draws no distinction between the possibility of getting from one thing to the next and removes all decision-making processes from this. From this perspective, if you decide to do one thing, then you will inevitably decide to do every next step that occurs. Eventually, this will lead you to the ultimate negative result.

What Is the Slippery Slope Fallacy?
The slippery slope fallacy disputes arguments that predict such an escalation of events. In philosophy, certain discussions on logic and critical thinking have deemed the slippery slope argument a fallacy. It is deemed one of the logical fallacies because there is only a small possibility that one event will actually lead to the predicted (often negative) outcome.

The probability of such a cumulative effect of disastrous events occurring is actually quite slim. The argument also ignores the human ability to learn from experiences and take a different track when a decision may not have been the right one. Slippery slope arguments are also criticized for leveraging fear in jumping to extreme hypothetical consequences which are based on very little evidence.

How to Handle This Type of Fallacy in an Argument
You may be new to the world of slippery slopes or have found this article because you’re frustrated with your acquaintances using this logic. Here we highlight how you can tackle the slippery slope fallacy head-on.

1. Ask for justification
A good place to start when faced with the slippery slope fallacy is to ask your opponent to provide evidence behind their cause. In asking them to justify the reasons behind their belief that one event will inevitably go down the slippery slope to another, you will likely make them think again about their reasoning.

2. Highlight the missing pieces
Another way to tackle the slippery slope argument is to highlight the events that are missing from the slope. In emphasizing the key events that will occur between the start of the slope and the end, you can show your opponent that their argument rests on very tentative foundations.

3. Use an example
When it comes to winning an argument, it is always helpful to have an example up your sleeve.

The slippery slope argument that has gained significant attention is relating to the right to die movement. The use of the slippery slope argument in this context suggests that if the right to die was legalized, then this right would be abused. It implies that no matter what safeguards are put in place, the doctor now has the ‘power to kill as well as cure.

Benatar (2011) helpfully picks apart this argument in applying this same logic to driving. People drive dangerously, under the influence, and drive cars that are not roadworthy. All of these actions lead to accidents and death. However, the idea that driving should be banned is absurd.

In other words, the slippery slope argument does not create a justification to withhold a legal right from someone just because some people have abused this right (i.e. not everyone can be tarnished with the same brush).

Final Words
The slippery slope argument can be an influential tactic. However, when you stop to think about it, it becomes clear that these arguments are often based on very tentative foundations.


When you tune into this idea, you will no doubt spot the slippery slope fallacy in many outlets including the media, politics, and discussions with your peers. To counter these arguments, try out the steps above and you’re sure to get one step closer to revealing the fallacy.
 
 
 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
Archives:

 

 
and https://www.facebook.com/mel.tavares.75


A Trusty with Privacy Search 
Alternative to Google
startpage.com

Alternative to YouTube
brighteon.com
 
 



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
Free counters!

  geoglobe1
 
 
publicado por achama às 05:45
Sábado, 21 / 12 / 19

Why Is Logical-Mathematical Intelligence Important and How to Improve It?

Michelle Liew 

Contributor writer to Learning Mind.

December 20th, 2019.

 
 
 
 
Do you enjoy brain teasers? Do you find yourself thinking more rationally than emotionally? Are you fond of science? If you have answered yes to any of these questions, you probably have a high level of logical-mathematical intelligence.
 
What is this type of intelligence, and why do people prize it so highly? We answer these questions and share a few ideas about how to develop it.
 
What Is Logical-Mathematical Intelligence?
 
Psychologist Howard Gardner first proposed the idea of the logical-mathematical type of intelligence in the 1980s as part of his theory of multiple intelligences. He said that humans have various types of intelligence instead of just one. He thus suggested that we have nine types of them, including logical-mathematical thinking. It refers to our deductive, mathematical, and scientific abilities.
 
Why Is This Type of Intelligence Important?
 
Logical-mathematical intelligence ranks highly in Gardner’s list of intelligence types. People regard it highly, and it’s not hard to understand why.
 
1. Applicable in nearly all contexts
 
First, we need a logical-mathematical type of intelligence to complete a wide range of tasks. We need it to manage minor details like putting things in order or scheduling activities. It enables us to organize our clutter and make sense of our spaces.
 
We learn these skills as early as in kindergarten, and they are applicable in nearly all areas of life. Logical-mathematical intelligence includes classifying, seriation, comparing, and ordering.
 
Logical-mathematical thinking and intelligence enable many life skills. It’s what allows us to make to-do lists, prioritize activities, and put our clothes in proper order. A study shows that it has an impact on our ability to understand our finances.
 
2. It allows us to see patterns
 
This type of intelligence also allows us to see patterns in a series of shapes, and even language text. It’s what prevents you from repeating unnecessary details.
 
3. Ability to understand relationships
 
Our ability to process things logically allows us to appreciate the cause and effect of events. The logical-mathematical type of thinking enables us to understand the consequences of our actions.
 
4. Allows us to decipher details
 
Our logical-mathematical intelligence enables us to observe essential details and analyze situations critically. We usually associate it with scientific ability, but it also helps us to grasp the facts that are necessary to manage nearly everything, including languages.
 
5. Development of rational and critical thinking
 
An abundance of the logical-mathematical type of intelligence encourages rational thinking. It enables a person to take a step-by-step approach to solve problems. Such intelligence also accounts for our ability to interpret information critically and analytically.
 
How to Develop Your Logical-Mathematical Intelligence?
 
Logical-mathematical thinking skills can carry us far. Honing them makes a difference in daily living. It even lets us enjoy bonding activities – count Cluedo, Monopoly, and Risk among the board games you’ve played with your family that require logical intelligence. So, how do we develop it?
 
1. Play board games
 
As said before, board games like Risk and Cluedo entail logical thinking. Playing more of these is a sure way to develop it in ourselves, friends, and family members.
 
2. Logic puzzles and brain teasers
 
Logic puzzles like the Rubik’s Cube or Mathematical Brain Teasers also hone a person’s logical thinking processes. Finding out how to get the six faces of the cube to match will give them a fair amount of exercise.
 
3. Learn the abacus
 
Children in Japan learn how to use this before, or instead of calculators. It is an efficient problem-solving tool because it encourages children to use quick calculation, memorization and analysis techniques.
 
One of these is Anzan, which allows a child to memorize multiplication tables and solve arithmetic problems mentally. It teaches children to add and subtract large numbers within a few quick minutes.
 
4. Take courses
 
Logical-mathematical intelligence has become necessary in today’s digital world. Where would we be without websites and computers?
 
Even bloggers using WordPress need coding skills so that they can embed pictures and videos in their posts. Granted that there are apps that ease the process, but knowing simple coding makes it even quicker (and allows them to show off their technical skills).
 
Attending basic computer programming courses not only prepares a person for today’s fast-paced digital world but also nurtures logical thinking processes.
 
Taking science or maths courses would do the same.
 
5. Use flowcharts
 
Flowcharts are maps of a person’s thoughts. They let us organize our ideas and seriate processes, which is an aspect of the logical-mathematical type of intelligence. We can better understand the order of the events to take place.
 
6. Visit science museums
 
Paying visits to science museums may seem like an odd way to develop logical thinking, but it does help. Where else can you get a detailed explanation of the thought processes behind inventions and scientific concepts?
 
7. Tape yourself trying to solve maths and science problems
 
One of the best ways to track your thought processes is to record them. Do this the next time you have to consolidate financial statements. As you observe these processes, you’ll notice your arithmetic skills.
 
8. Help your children with their maths and science homework
 
Parents learn with their children. The next time your children have maths or science homework to complete, give them a hand. You’ll find your ability to process equations improve.
 
9. Buy a microscope and a telescope
 
Use these devices to take note of the things around you. Solar and lunar eclipses fascinate everyone; take the time to discover our universe and the solar system. You’ll find out how scientific processes occur naturally as the planets revolve around the sun.
 
 
Encourage your child to examine insects under a microscope. They’ll understand how the bodies of these creatures function and develop their abilities to classify, seriate, and put items in an order.
 
10. Ask how-to questions
 
One of the best ways to develop the logical aspects of your intelligence is to ask yourself how-to questions.
 
Ask yourself how the roller blinds at home operate (they function with the help of a pulley system), what DNA is, or how a microwave oven cooks food. These questions will kickstart logical thinking processes and develop this learning style.
 
Logical-mathematical intelligence may not be as well-developed in some of us as it is in others, but all of us can nurture it. Use these simple strategies for a start.
 
Michelle Liew.
 

 


About the Author: 

Michelle Liew


Michelle is a freelance writer who loves all things about life. She has a broad range of interests that include literature, history, philosophy, human relationships, and psychology. When she is not busy writing her heart out, you will find her tinkering jazz tunes on her piano. She loves anything that helps her to grow as a person, including her pet terriers, Misty and Cloudy.

COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Thanks to: Learning Mind <noreply+feedproxy@google.com>

Archives:
 



Alternative to Google

Alternative to YouTube
 
 
 



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 
 
 
 
Free counters!

  geoglobe1
 

 

publicado por achama às 00:08
Terça-feira, 21 / 05 / 19

7 Great ISTJ Careers Which Are Perfect for Logistician Personality ~ Janey Davies.

7 Great ISTJ Careers Which Are Perfect for Logistician Personality.

By Janey Davies.

May 20th, 2019.

istj careers
 
 
 
 

 


 

If you are an ISTJ type, you will want to know what the best careers for the Logistician personality are.
After all, who wants to spend years studying or working in the wrong job? But to understand which careers suit this personality type, we should first look at the traits of an ISTJ:

Personality traits of the ISTJ type

  • Introverted
  • Responsible
  • Conservative
  • Logical
  • Methodical
  • Dependable
  • Straightforward
  • Practical
  • Serious
  • Organised
  • Conscientious
Of all the personality types, ISTJs are regarded as the most prolific, making up an estimated 13% of the population. And this is just as well because they form the backbone of society.
They are hardworking, dependable, dedicated individuals that people can rely on. If you want something done, ask an ISTJ and it will be done. ISTJs love tradition.
Likewise, they have an innate sense of duty and loyalty. They take pride in whatever they do. They never assume, instead, they use facts and figures and then analyse the situation in a practical and methodical manner.

Famous ISTJ Personalities

Sigmund Freud, Queen Elizabeth 11, Harry S. Truman, Henry Ford, Jack Nicklaus, Robert De Niro, Sting, Johnny Carson, Julia Roberts, Condoleeza Rice.

ISTJ Strengths and Weaknesses

It is important to know your strengths and weaknesses when you are choosing a career. So what are an ISTJ’s strengths?

ISTJ Strengths

  • Integrity
You won’t find a more honest person than the ISTJ personality. They pride themselves on being honest and they will be straightforward with you from day one.
In fact, you’ll always know where you are with them. They don’t see the point in playing mind games or using manipulation. They just want to get the job done.
  • Responsible
You can leave an ISTJ to get on with the job and rest assured that they will do just that. There will be no messing about and no slacking off. These people are responsible and committedto getting the job done. As a result, they require very little supervision.
  • Strong sense of duty
Need someone to stay late and help? Ask an ISTJ. Their sense of duty will always prevail. The ISTJ type has a strong sense of duty and is always loyal to those they have committed to.
  • Methodical
This personality type likes to work in an organised and methodical way. What this means is that nothing gets missed. Not only do they see the small details, but they can also see the bigger picture.
They are analytical in their approach to working and like to conduct themselves in a systematic way, working through problems or workloads until they are finished.
  • Practical
As they are analytical, so do ISTJs have a very practical side to their nature. This allows them to make exacting decisions based on logical data. They look at all the facts, the figures and the information in front of them and use it to come up with plans or a solution.

ISTJ Weaknesses

  • Always think they are right
Because ISTJs rely on facts and figures, they can get into the habit of believing they are always right. As a result, it is very hard for them to see another person’s point of view.
  • Blunt and insensitive
This personality type is straight talking and to the point, and all because they want to get the job done quickly and efficiently. It’s not that they don’t have people skills but they can be insensitive at times.
Furthermore, they believe that the truth is the best policy at all times and never tell little white lies so they won’t hurt someone’s feelings.
  • Do things ‘By the Book’
ISTJs are not natural rule breakers. Everything has to be done by the book, to the letter of the law without exception. But, as we all know, life is full of grey areas and sometimes a little wriggle room is required.

Ideal ISTJ Careers

Now that we have a clear idea of what an ISTJ is like, let’s look at ISTJ careers. What kind of careers should ISTJs be looking for?
ISTJs work best where they have dependable jobs where they can build a career, with long-term goals and a sense of security.
However, they do not work well in environments with little job security, flexible work hours, temporary work, unclear expectations and no structure.

Accountant

Accountants have to get things right and this appeals to the analytical mind of the ISTJ. Maths and accountancy are an exact science and not only that but you will always need accountants.
ISTJs love the structure of this work. It suits their logical thinking and the way their minds work. They love working on clear, analytical problems with a solid outcome at the end of their work. ISTJs work very well in any number of financial services, including forensic accounting as well as tax fraud.

Bank Teller

This appeals to the ISTJ’s honest side. People working in banks have to have the utmost integrity as they are working with money on a daily basis.
They are at the frontline of transactions and have to be completely responsible for large sums of cash. Likewise, this type of employment is also a great match for ISTJs because of their sense of duty.

Civil Engineer

ISTJ’s practical nature makes civil engineering one of the best jobs for this personality type. Civil engineering requires a logical mind, capable of using data from many different sources and combining them to construct a practical solution.
Consequently, the way an ISTJ can see both minor details and the whole picture means this job is a perfect career choice.

Dentist

Are you surprised to see a dentist on our list of careers for ISTJs? Well, when you consider the practical nature of the dentist perhaps it will make more sense.
Dentists use their analytical skills of detection to diagnose problems which they then fix. It is also a stable career choice with good job security.

Financial Analyst

Financial analysts look at premarket stock trading or bond performances and advise clients accordingly. It takes skill and a great analytical mind to decipher markets, but not only that, you are dealing with investments and capital from individuals or companies.
Therefore, you have a great responsibility to act with your client’s best interests at heart.

Military

ISTJ’s sense of duty and loyalty makes them perfect candidates for military service. They are happy to follow orders, they like the fact there is a clear structure and chain of command, and the job security is second to none.

Quality Control

Any job that involves controlling or checking is ideal for this personality type. Not just because they always think they are right, but because they have a moral sense of duty to ensure whatever they are inspecting or checking is fit for purpose.
Moreover, you know that as they are responsible people you can leave them to get on with the job.

What kind of careers should ISTJs avoid?

There are some careers that are just not suitable for ISTJs.
  • Artist – This is simply too vague and abstract for the ISTJ.
  • Bartending – This is too noisy and is a very sociable job that an ISTJ would struggle with.
  • Consultancy work – This is too unpredictable for the ISTJ who prefers a 9-5 job.
  • Event Management – You might think the logistical aspect of this work would suit an ISTJ, but they would not like the unpredictable nature of this industry.
  • Freelancer – ISTJs prefer a stable and secure job where they know when their next salary cheque is coming and where from.
  • Journalism – There’s no structure to this work and it would be very difficult for the introverted ISTJ.
  • Psychology – ISTJs like exact sciences like maths. Psychology is full of theories, which bother ISTJs.
  • Public Relations – ISTJs prefer to stay out of the public eye if they can.
  • Tele-sales – Cold calling is just too unpredictable for the ISTJ. Plus they are introverts so this goes against their shy nature.
As with all career choices, knowing your personality will help you to find the right one that matches your strengths.
 

 

About the Author: Janey Davies.

Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 




Archives:


 
 



Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.

 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 

 

No religious or political belief is defended here. (Investigate yourself)

 

Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 

If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 


More @ http://violetflame.biz.ly and 
https://rayviolet.blogspot.com/




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
Free counters!

  geoglobe1
 
 
 
publicado por achama às 20:23
Sábado, 27 / 04 / 19

What Is the Gambler’s Fallacy and How It Affects Your Decisions ~ Sherrie.

What Is the Gambler’s Fallacy and How It Affects Your Decisions.

By Sherrie.

April 26, 2019


 

Do you make decisions based on probability, or take the chance? Maybe you have a gambler’s fallacy thought process.
If you flip a coin and do this three times, and it lands on heads, can you say the next toss will also land on heads? Your answer may well determine whether you have gambler’s fallacy or not.

What exactly is the gambler’s fallacy?

Researchers Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahnemanrationalized thought processes related to the fallacy of gambling on their research paper “Judgement under uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases” 1.
They said: “Many decisions are based on beliefs concerning the outcome of an election, the guilt of a defendant, or the future value of a dollar. These beliefs express themselves in statements such as “I think that…” or “chances are….” Or even “It is unlikely that…” and so forth.”
These statements use heuristic principles. People rely on these to reduce the complex tasks of assessing probabilities. They can also predict values to simpler judgmental operations.
Going back to the coin-flipping example. A decision maker, using rational thinking, knows the chance of another coin flip landing on heads is 50-50. However, according to Tversky and Kahneman’s definition, it’s never by chance that winning streaks happen, so we shouldn’t adopt this belief.
It’s a misconception many call the gambler’s fallacy.  Research has shown this fallacy is alive and well in a multitude of everyday scenarios. In fact, there is evidence that it can cause bias in decision making.

How can it impact your decision making?

Tversky and Kahneman’s research describes three heuristics that are used to make judgments under uncertainty. These include representativeness, availability of instances or scenarios and adjustment of an anchor.
These heuristics summarizes that Tversky and Kahneman, are highly economical and usually effective, but they lead to systematic and predictable errors. A better understanding of these heuristics and biases could improve judgments and making decisions in situations of uncertainty.
This “better understanding” is present in other recent research. This research shows how individuals might, in subjective cases, be biased against decisions.
Decision-Making under the Gambler’s Fallacy: Evidence from Asylum Judges, Loan Officers, and Baseball Umpires” by Daniel Chen, Tobias J. Moskowitz and Kelly Shue 2 is one example.
Their research found that with all else equal the judge approves the case before an asylum seeker has higher points of 3.3 % within fair situations. This was true with several settings that were different.
They noted that it is likely that a judge influences decisions related to a previous event and that with both negative or positive decisions and previous cases of similarity, The sequence lengths will be increased.
Similar happenings occurred in India. Completed research came from loan officers who were also students. Reviews of processed files were completed by the same officers. Recommendations were considered on the subject of loan approval.
Pressure was placed on true assessment at various levels. This was because of schemes faced for different reasons. The previous review of the files helped authors study how well and fair the officers made decisions. Plus, they were able to explore whether loans on recommendation were, on average, performing better.

Can circumstances affect the gambler’s fallacy?

Looking at the same research of the loan officers, a basic plan rewards loans despite the quality of these loans. Loan officers who previously rejected loans, even though incentives were good, had a small decrease in chance of approval in the review when the loan before was approved. There was little concern about bias when accuracy with strong incentives were present.
There is also evidence of this in the sporting world. The researchers looked at baseball and analyzed umpires in the major leagues. After 1.5 million pitches were analyzed, between 2008 and 2012, batters did not swing when going to bat.
The researchers then controlled many situations of the game including the speed of the pitch, count of pitches, what happens in the game, the winner, and if the home team had the batter. Whatever data that was collected was their reliance. To track speed and understand trajectories in the major league, they had to use the PITCH/system.
When a pitch was a strike, umpires rarely called the next one a strike. In fact, this was 1.5 % true. There was a bias even more if two calls were the same. The next call has a higher percentage in this bias.
When it comes to regretful calls do umpires make subsequent calls? Is it fair? Is there a gambler’s fallacy? Umpires were reluctant to make an opposing call after an incorrect call but felt comfortable with this same act after a correct decision. This was noticed by researchers.

Here are the facts as we know them

“Fairness concerns and a desire to be equally nice to two opposing teams are unlikely to explain our results.”
The gambler’s fallacy can be seen in studies by various researchers where identical situations and numbers of decisions are going in the same direction and happening close together.
Experienced decision-makers took less notice of this at all. And this could be a reason for concern.
References:
  1. https://www.researchgate.net
  2. https://academic.oup.com
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
About the Author: Sherrie

Sherrie is a freelance writer and artist with over 10 years of experience. She spends most of her time giving life to the renegade thoughts. As the words erupt and form new life, she knows that she is yet again free from the nagging persistence of her muse. She is a mother of three and a lifetime fan of the thought-provoking and questionable aspects of the universe.

COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Thanks to: Learning Mind <noreply+feedproxy@google.com>
 

Archives:

 

 
 



Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.

 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 

 

No religious or political belief is defended here. (Investigate yourself)

 

Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 

If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 


More @ http://violetflame.biz.ly and 
https://rayviolet.blogspot.com/




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 

Free counters!
  geoglobe1
 
 
 
publicado por achama às 00:43
Sábado, 13 / 04 / 19

6 Types of Moral Dilemmas in Life and How to Resolve Them ~ Alexander

6 Types of Moral Dilemmas in Life and How to Resolve Them.

By Alexander

https://www.learning-mind.com/

April 13th, 2019.

 
 

 

What are moral dilemmas?

Moral dilemmas are situations where an individual has to make a choicebetween two or more clashing options.
These options are often not pleasing to the individual and are usually not truly morally acceptable either. We can identify moral dilemmas by recognising that our actions in these given situations have moral and ethical consequences.
We must choose between which actions to take. However, we may not be happy with any choice, and none of them can be considered fully morally acceptable.
Our first point of order might be to consult any personal moral beliefs or societal ethical and lawful norms in order to resolve such difficulties. Yet, this is often not enough. It may not point towards the best action to take, and it may not even be sufficient in tackling the moral dilemma.
We must find ways of resolving these challenging situations in order to produce the least suffering possible. To do this, it is useful to identify the different types of moral dilemmas that we may find ourselves in.

6 Types of Moral Dilemmas

There are several categories of moral dilemmas within philosophical thought. They can seem complex, but learning the basics of them can help identify them and mould a solution for them:

Epistemic moral dilemmas

Epistemic’ means to do with the knowledge of something. This is what this dilemma is about.
The situation involves two moral choices that conflict, but the individual has no idea which choice is the most morally acceptable. They don’t know which is the most ethically viable. They need more information and knowledge surrounding the two options before making an informed decision.

Ontological moral dilemmas

Ontological’ means the nature of something or the relation between things. The options in this dilemma are equal in their moral consequences.
This means that neither of them supersedes the other. They are fundamentally on the same ethical level. Therefore, the individual cannot choose between the two.

Self-imposed moral dilemmas

A self-imposed dilemma is a situation that has been caused by the individual’s mistakes or misconduct. The moral dilemma is self-inflicted. This can cause a number of complications when attempting to make a decision.

World-imposed moral dilemmas

A world-imposed dilemma is a situation where events that we can’t controlhave created an unavoidable moral conflict.
An individual must resolve a moral dilemma, even though the cause of it is beyond his/her control. For example, this could be in times of war or a financial crash.

Obligation moral dilemmas

Obligation dilemmas are situations where we feel we are obliged to opt for more than one choice. We feel we are obliged to carry out an action from a moral or legal standpoint.
If there were just one option that is obligatory, then the choice would be easy. However, if an individual feels obliged to opt for several of the choices in front of them but can only choose one, which one should they choose?

Prohibition moral dilemmas

Prohibition dilemmas are the opposite of obligation dilemmas. The choices that are offered to us are all, on some level, morally reprehensible.
They can all be considered as wrong, but we must choose one. They could be illegal, or just plain immoral. An individual must choose between what would normally be considered as prohibited.
These are examples of some of the types of moral dilemmas that may arise. Our actions will affect not just ourselves, but many other people as well.
So, we should thoroughly consider the action before we carry it out. However, they are complex and problematic, and resolving them may seem an impossible task.

How to resolve them?

The largest struggle in trying to resolve a moral dilemma is recognising that whatever action you take, it will not be completely ethical. It will just be the most ethical in comparison with the other choices.
Philosophers have attempted to find solutions to moral dilemmas for centuries. They have discussed and attempted to find the best ways to resolve them, in order to help us live better and reduce the suffering that we may face.
Here are a few pieces of advice to help resolve moral dilemmas:

Be reasonable, not emotional

We have a greater chance of overcoming these struggles if we logically work through them. Analyse the aspects of the dilemma in order to better conclude what action is the greatest good. Emotion can cloud our judgment of what may be the best ethical outcome.

Choose the greater good or the lesser evil

Perhaps the soundest piece of advice is to conclude which choice allows for the greatest good, or the less evil. This isn’t simple and will take much consideration.
However, if there is an action that is on balance morally superior, despite other personal or social implications, then it is the best action to take.

Is there an alternative?

Analysing the situation in greater detail may reveal alternative options that were not immediately obvious. Is there an alternative choice or action that will resolve the dilemma better than the ones you have in front of you? Take time to recognise if there is.

What are the consequences?

Weighing up the positive and negative consequences of each action will give a clearer picture of the best choice to make. Each option may have a number of negative consequences, but if one has more positive consequences and less negative, then it is on the balance the right action to take.

What would a good person do?

Sometimes a useful thing to do would be to just simply askWhat would a good person do?
Imagine yourself as a truly virtuous and moral character and determine what they would do, regardless of your own character and the personal or social factors that may influence your decision.

Resolving moral dilemmas will not be easy

The dilemmas that we face will be complex and arduous. The advice given by philosophers will aid us when trying to resolve them.
However, it is not as straightforward as using one piece of advice to solve a single dilemma. Often, it will be a combination of many of them that will give us the best chance of taking the correct action. Most of the time, all of them will be relevant in every dilemma that we face.
But there is one thing that all of these methods of resolutions promote: the importance of reason. Moral dilemmas can seem so over-facing that our emotions can prevent us from making an informed decision. Or, they can misguide us into making the wrong decision.
Taking a step back to dissect and analyse the dilemma will allow for a better perspective on the situation. This allows you to see more clearly the consequences of each action, the goods and evils of each action and any alternatives that may present themselves.
However, perhaps the best piece of advice is just recognising that resolving moral dilemmas will not be easy. It will be difficult and may cause us deep anguish as we wrestle between conflicting moral options.
We are better equipped to face these dilemmas if we are aware of this. Thinking reasonably, and not being overwhelmed by the dilemma, will be a good start as well.
References:
  1. https://examples.yourdictionary.com/
  2. https://www.psychologytoday.com/
 

 

 

 

 


 
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

About the Author: Alexander



I am an English and Philosophy graduate and freelance writer and blogger. I have always been fascinated by art, culture and philosophy, and believe they are an integral and important part of all of our lives. My particular interests and passions include Film and ancient Greek philosophy.
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:


 

 



Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.

 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 

 

No religious or political belief is defended here. (Investigate yourself)

 

Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 

If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 


More @ http://violetflame.biz.ly and 
https://rayviolet.blogspot.com/




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
Free counters!
 
 
 
 


  geoglobe1
 
 
 
publicado por achama às 17:15
A Luz está a revelar a Verdade, e esta libertar-nos-á! -Só é real o AMOR Incondicional. -Quando o Amor superar o amor pelo poder, o mundo conhecerá a Paz; Jimi Hendrix. -Somos almas a ter uma experiência humana!

mais sobre mim

Junho 2020

D
S
T
Q
Q
S
S
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

últ. recentes

  • Thank you Mateo, It is fixed.
  • Thank you for reposting my article. However the or...
  • "Hoje é um homem de missão cumprida, engenheirão v...
  • Bacana esse post, vou compartilhar no facebook, cr...
  • O Sathya Sai Baba ainda está entre nós e vive na Í...
  • Olá, obrigado pelo comentário.Sempre que dermos ou...
  • Sempre que dermos ouvidos à voz que vem do coração...
  • Ola Manuel, muita luz para você ,é a primeira vez ...
  • fale alguma coisa,de mim sou poliana miguel
  • Você fala com anjos ,pede um deles mandar uma mens...
  • A "vida real" é uma ilusão Toda a matéria é formad...
  • Bom dia,reparámos que o seu blog faz uso de textos...
  • O Amor é tudo o que existe e na sua mais pura exên...
  • usando uma metafora descrevendo a vida real, e nao...
  • o odio deve-se à permissao do mal andar entre nós,...
  • Obrigado pelas suas palavras. Fiquei a conhecer po...
  • Adoro este artigo. Já tinha conhecimento do assunt...

subscrever feeds

blogs SAPO


Universidade de Aveiro