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Sábado, 09 / 11 / 19

4 Most Interesting Memory Theories That Explain How Our Brain Works

By Valerie Soleil.

learning-mind.com.

Posted November 9th, 2019. 

 

 



 
Memory has long been a concept too difficult to describe by even the smartest scholars. We have become more knowledgeable over time. However, we still do not know enough about the complexities of the human mind when it comes to theories about memory.
 
Theories That Explain Memory Encoding, Storing and Forgetting
 
“Without memory, there is no culture. Without memory, there would be no civilization, no society, no future” Elie Wiesal
 
In order for information to become a memory, it needs to have a form. At present, there are three main types: Visual (picture), Acoustic (sound), and Semantic (meaning). So, a song, a beautiful sunset, or a poem has to be manipulated into a code that the brain understands for it to become a memory.
 
The Multi-Store Memory Model
 
Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) devised one of the first memory structures and theories. In order to become a memory, information has to pass through three stores.
 
The first of which is the sensory memory store.
 
This lasts up to a quarter of a second. This holds any and all sensory experience around an individual (what they see, hear, taste). Encoding in this specific store is sensory specific. Most of the information which passes through this store decays very quickly unless the individual pays attention to it.
 
Once an individual pays attention to a specific sensory input, it then enters the short-term memory store.
 
The duration in this store can be up to 30 seconds and it can only hold 7 (+ or – 2) items (Miller, 1956) depending on the individual. Encoding in this store is mainly auditory. But, this information cannot enter the longterm memory store until it has been rehearsed.
 
The long-term memory store is mainly unlimited in terms of duration and capacity.
 
As this store cannot be tested there is no limit to how long a memory can stay in it. The majority of information in the long-term memory store has to be rehearsed from the short-term memory store. The encoding of the memories is semantic, but can also take other forms.
 
The multi-store memory model has received support due to evidence backing up the idea of a respective short-term and long-term memory store. However, some argue that the model may be oversimplified and favour other theories such as the working memory model.
 
The Working-Memory Model
 
Baddley and Hitch (1974) developed an alternative memory theory slightly more advanced and complex than its predecessor. They replaced the idea of a short-term memory store. Instead, they proposed the idea of multiple separate stores within short-term memory. The “working memory”.
 
The first aspect of the working memory model compared to other memory theories is the central executive. This has several roles. The first of which drives the whole system of working memory.
 
Furthermore, it also allocates information to the other stores within the working memory system whilst tackling cognitive tasks such as problem-solving
 
The visuospatial sketchpad essentially deals with visual or spatial information. We use this for navigation. it allows us to move around, depending on where objects are in our environment.
 
The last store within the working memory system would be the phonological loop. This refers to any auditory information and holds speech-based information for up to two seconds.
 
The articulatory process (our inner voice) is located within the phonological loop. We repeat and rehearse information using the loop. As a result, we store this information for longer.
 
The working memory model is supported by dual-task studies. Results prove that individuals can complete two tasks at the same time where each task requires different working memory systems.
 
Furthermore, the working memory model does not over-rely on placing importance on the idea of rehearsal for the retention of memories.
 
How We Forget (Based on Memory Theories)
 
These two memory theories concentrate on how memories are stored. However, there is little information on how or why we forget.
 
Ebbinghaus (1885) tested his own memory. He found that retention at the time of learning is 100%. However, this drops very quickly a couple of days after learning. After a few weeks, forgetting slows down but there remains a decline in retention.
 
He proposed that there are a few ways to increase the likelihood of retaining information for a longer period of time without forgetting. The first was the representation of the memory (e.g. people might find it easier to remember information using mnemonic techniques). Additionally, spaced out repetition also helps speed up retention dramatically.
 
However, there are various factors which are dependent on how one’s rate of forgetting is affected. This includes, but is not limited to:
  • The meaningfulness of information (we are more likely to remember personal information).
  • Second of all, the representation of information (simple, shorter chunks of information are easier to remember).
  • Thirdly, physiological factors such as stress and sleep.
 
Flashbulb Memories
 
Flashbulb memories (Brown and Kulik (1977), refer to memories which do not need rehearsal in order to be remembered. This is one of the memory theories which suggests that there is some information which is so emotionally and biologically arousing it causes immediate retention.
 
One example may be that millions of people are able to give detailed accounts of their day on 9/11. Some may include extremely mundane and repetitive tasks. These would be usually unremarkable. However, they are remembered with vivid clarity due to the significance of the date.
 
Final Thoughts on Memory Theories
 
Overall, our memories are extremely complex. Current memory theories are placing us on the right track. But the question on many people’s minds is, will we ever know about the true nature of human memory?
 
References:
 
 

Valerie Soleil

 



 
About the Author: Valerie Soleil


Valerie Soleil is a writer with over 5 years of experience and holds a bachelor degree in law and a B.A. in Psychology. She is a physical & mental health enthusiast who constantly expands her knowledge about the mysteries of the human body and mind. Some of the activities Valerie is particularly passionate about are traveling and reading because they help her broaden her horizons.
 
 
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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


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publicado por achama às 22:34
Domingo, 03 / 11 / 19

The Difference between Objective and Subjective Truth and the Illusion We All Believe

Francesca Forsythe.

https://www.learning-mind.com

October 30th, 2019.

 



 
How do we know whether our truths are the real truths, or is the truth simply an illusion?
 
What Is the Difference Between Objective and Subjective Truth?
 
Truth is a continuous concept in all places, all situations and at all times. However, what one person believes to be the truth may not be agreed on by someone else. On the other hand, there are other truths, which everyone believes to be true.
 
For example, I doubt you would disagree with me that the year has 365 days, or that the internet exists. How else would you be reading this article? This gives us two different species of truth: objective and subjective truth.
 
However, there is a famous saying that in any situation, there are three truths: your truth, my truth, and the real truth. This saying exemplifies what we are talking about when we ask the question of what the difference between objective and subjective truth is.
 
So, let us explore these different kinds of truth and the illusions they can lead us to believe.
 
What Is the Objective Truth?
 
Objective truth is something that is true for all people, no matter what their culture or religious beliefs. These truths are fundamental truths. I don’t need to tell you the exact temperature of fire to tell you that fire is hot. In the same way, I don’t need to tell you that you need food to survive.
 
Objective truths are, therefore, recognized by all people, whether or not they realize they are recognizing it.
What Is the Subjective Truth?
 
Subjective truth is similarly based on a person’s beliefs but not all people may agree with it. This kind of truth is present in things like religion. One person may believe that the existence of God is the truth, where another person may not.
 
People also form their own judgments of the truth of a situation based on the information they have. However, this judgment may change should this person receive some new information.
 
For example, I may believe that my friend has not invited me to their party and be mad at them. Yet, when I find out that they simply forgot to send the invitation, I am no longer mad at them as it was a simple mistake.
 
Subjective truth is, therefore, my truth.
 
How Do Objective and Subjective Truths Interact?
 
  • Situations such as this exemplify the saying that there are three versions of the truth. When having a conversation with a friend, they may take something I say the wrong way.
  • My version of the truth containing the meaning of what I said (subjective truth).
  • My friend’s version of the truth that I meant it differently (subjective truth).
  • The third version of the truth is inclusive of what I said, how it was meant, but also the way in which I said it which led to my friend’s misinterpretation. This third version of the truth is the objective truth.
 
The more information I have about a situation or the facts relevant to it bring me closer to the objective truth. Until I know everything there is to know about a situation, I cannot say I know the objective truth about it.
 
Therefore, the only objective truths we really have are those fundamental truths on which everyone can agree at all times, which do not require further inquiry.
 
The Illusion of Truth
 
The truth is important to us because we never want to be wrong about something. However, the downside of this is that we are constantly looking for truth. This can lead us to a truth fallacy, where we believe something to be true which really isn’t.
 
Repetition Is Truth
 
Our brains are susceptible to believing something to be true if we hear it several times. Many people believe that the Great Wall of China is visible from space because they’ve heard it so many times. However, this is not true.
 
Other examples of this are that bulls hate the color red, or that we only have five senses. Neither of these is true, but we have heard them so many times that we believe them to be.
 
 
Scientists have regularly found that subjects are much more likely to believe something to be true if they hear it repeatedly. This repetition gives us cognitive ease which plays an important role in daily life. It allows us to feel more secure in what we know and in our interactions with the world.
 
It is important to understand how the illusion of truth works. By understanding this phenomenon, it allows us to be more critical of the ‘facts’ we hear constantly. With this critical thinking comes the power to seek out actual truths and get closer to the objective truths of the world.
 
The world is a complex, sometimes confusing place to live. The constant changing manner of science and nature makes it almost impossible to know the objective truth of our circumstances. Subjective truth allows us to maintain a level of security, but it is not infallible.
 
Final Thoughts
 
The only truth which can be really trusted is objective truths, but these take a lot of work to find. We are constantly learning, and the pursuit of knowledge is vital to understand the line between what we believe to be true and what is fundamentally true.
 
References:
 
 
 



 

About the Author: Francesca Forsythe

Francesca is a freelance writer currently studying a degree in Law and Philosophy. She has written for several blogs in a range of subjects across Lifestyle, Relationships and Health and Fitness. Her main pursuits are learning new innovative ways of keeping fit and healthy, as well as broadening her knowledge in as many areas as possible in order to achieve success.
 
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 
Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

 
No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 


All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 
 
 
 

 
 
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publicado por achama às 01:47
Segunda-feira, 08 / 07 / 19

What Plato’s Philosophy of Education Can Teach Us Today ~ Alexander

What Plato’s Philosophy of Education Can Teach Us Today.

By Alexander

https://www.learning-mind.com/

July 7th, 2019.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Plato’s philosophy of education is a fascinating idea and one that Plato wanted to be implemented into Ancient Athenian society.
Scholars still study and discuss it today, but what’s interesting is how Plato’s theory of education has influenced many beliefs and principles that modern society holds. It is a model of education and culture that we have taken heed of in many ways, and that we can still learn much from today.
Yet, before we explore all this, it is useful to look at exactly what this theory is, and the structure of education in a society that Plato proposed.

What is Plato’s philosophy of education?

The philosophy of education according to Plato is a vast and detailed model of schooling for ancient Athens. It has many facets and aspects that could be discussed endlessly by scholars.
However, it has one simple goal, an idea that is congruent with Plato’s philosophy as a whole: for individuals and society to achieve the good, to reach a state of fulfilment or eudaimonia.
Plato believed we need education to learn how to live well. We should not just learn things like mathematics and science, but also how to be brave, rational and temperate. Individuals will then be able to live a fulfilled life and be better prepared for it. Furthermore, producing fulfilled and educated people would benefit society greatly.
He wanted to produce the best possible leaders so that society can flourish, and itself be geared towards the good. He proposed this through training individuals to become what he calls ‘guardians’ – individuals best suited to govern society (more commonly known as ‘philosopher kings’).
So, Plato wants individual fulfilment and improvement of society through his model of education. Both are a means of working toward a state of eudaimonia. But how does he propose to achieve this?
A good starting point is to recognise that Plato’s ideas are influenced in part by Sparta’s education system. It was state-controlled and Plato wanted Athens’ system to be state-controlled as well. Sparta was a society that focused its efforts to produce warriors to serve the state through rigorous physical education.
Plato admired this model but believed it was lacking literacy. He wanted to engage both the body and the mind through education.

The curriculum

A curriculum is suggested for this theory of education. This curriculum starts with very small children and can extend up until the age of 50 for some individuals. It is separated into two different sections: Elementary education and Higher education.

Elementary

Plato in his academy, drawing after a painting by Swedish painter Carl Johan Wahlbom
Plato in his academy, drawing after a painting by Swedish painter Carl Johan Wahlbom
Elementary education lasts up until the age of 20. Firstly, children should predominately have physical education. This should be the case up until the age of about 10 and is to ensure children are at peak bodily health for fitness and also to better fight illness and disease.
Then children should be introduced to art, literature and music, as Plato believed that these subjects would cultivate their character.
Art would act as a means to teach morality and virtue. More practical subjects were taught at the same time as this to give a balance of subject matter. These include mathematics, history and science for example.
Elementary education is an important time for a person’s development. This education should not be forced as this could restrict and mould a person a certain way that does not represent their character.
Children should be left so that their natural skills, qualities and interests can flourish without influence. This can give an indication of what occupation they would be best suited to in the future, and what sort of character they may become.

Higher Education

The next stage in the curriculum is higher education. An individual must take an examination at about the age of 20 to decide whether or not they should seek higher education.
One would then learn more advanced subjects like astronomy and geometry for the next 10 years until another test is taken. This will determine whether or not to progress into further learning, similar to the first test.
People still in education would constantly be learning new and more advanced subjects and are tested along the way. Those who fail to meet the standards at each test must drop out. This carries on until the age of about 50.
You are deemed successful, competent and measured enough take upon the most important task if you reach this stage. These people are allocated as the ‘guardians’ of the state. They are best suited to govern and uphold a just and moral society. They are the ‘philosopher kings’.
This curriculum shows Plato’s theory on how we should be educated in the right way in order to bring about the good in society.
Those who drop out at a certain stage will find other trades, jobs or crafts that best suit their skills. But they will still have attained an education that will help them to bring about a positive impact on society, and to help them reach a state of fulfilment.
Those who are guardians should strive to implement these ideas on a much larger scale for the good of the state.
Plato did put his philosophy of education into practice by setting up his own school: The Academy.

The Academy

The ancient Greek philosopher set up what is said to be the first ever institute of higher education. It was similar to what we would now recognise as a university. The Academy was an educational establishment set up by Plato to try and implement his vision of education in society.
Its purpose was to teach us how to live well, and to produce rulers for society. Nowadays it is seen depicted in art and often seen as a symbol for classical philosophy.
plato's philosophy lessons
Plato and Aristotle in “The School of Athens“, painting by Raphael
However, it was fundamentally a school organised to teach Plato’s philosophy. People would be taught all manner of subjects and be filtered out to find the most competent and worthy of managing a just and virtuous city-state.
We have now explored what Plato’s ideas were and how they were practically implemented in society. But what does it all mean? Why did Plato urge for education to be this way?

The theory explained

Plato’s philosophy of education strives to achieve all that Plato is concerned with: a functioning just state and eudaimonia. He believes education should be structured in a way so that it provides people and society the positive measures needed to flourish.
People will be better equipped to reach a state of fulfilment, and society will be better equipped to be the ideal, just state. Plato’s philosophy of education promotes and works towards the common and final good for everybody.
Some people will not make it through every stage of this structure of education, but this doesn’t matter. If someone does not make it past a certain stage, then it is an indication that they are best suited in a certain role in society. They can now direct their skills and efforts to fulfil this role and ultimately work towards a fulfilled life.
Those who become guardians of the state after progressing through each stage of education are effectively philosophers. They will be the wisest in society, the most rational and the most temperate.
Plato wanted to rid society of the current political leaders and replace them with those best suited to govern a just state, whilst being concerned for the common good for everyone. Only philosophers can do this in Plato’s eyes.

Why is Plato’s philosophy of education relevant to modern society?

modern education system
Plato’s ideas are relevant today because of his vision of an education that is inclusive of everyone, and its importance in creating a just and moral state. These are ideas that have recognisably influenced our society today, and there is much we can still learn from them as well.
The system of education is based on everyone having access to the same education. Its very basis is the equality of individuals.
It allows people to naturally flourish whilst also guiding them into a life that will produce a positive impact on society and hopefully guiding them to reach a state of fulfilment. It suggests everyone has liberty – this aspect arguably laid the groundwork for modern democracy.
Perhaps what we can learn more than anything from Plato’s philosophy of education is the overall intention of it; ensuring that society functions well in a just and moral way and that people live well and achieve the good life.
It is the duty of educators to implement this and to have profound care and concern for a learner’s wellbeing, and not just the knowledge they wish to instil.
It is also the guardians’ purpose to have profound care and concern for everyone in society. All of this is a guidance for people to reach a state of fulfilment, Plato’s ultimate goal.

Modern education and Plato’s philosophy

I don’t expect our political leaders to be replaced with trained philosophers and become the rulers of society any time soon, but the premise behind these ideas are important.
Modern education does a good job of preparing us for work and to be self-sustaining in the world. But we are ill prepared to face many inevitable difficulties in life. This causes us much struggle and suffering, often without much guidance as to how to deal with it. We all yearn for this guidance in dark times.
Education should be this guidance. We should learn how to live well and how to deal with suffering so we are prepared for much more than just work, so we can too become fulfilled individuals. Plato’s philosophy of education is a call for this, and we should listen to him.
References:
  1. https://plato.stanford.edu
  2. https://epublications.marquette.edu
  3. https://www.biography.com
  4. Featured image: Painting of a scene from Plato’s Symposium (Anselm Feuerbach, 1873)

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

About the Author: Alexander


I am an English and Philosophy graduate and freelance writer and blogger. I have always been fascinated by art, culture and philosophy, and believe they are an integral and important part of all of our lives. My particular interests and passions include Film and ancient Greek philosophy.
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


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publicado por achama às 06:22
Sexta-feira, 21 / 06 / 19

14 Origins of Phrases You Probably Use Every Day but Had No Idea about ~ Janey Davies.

14 Origins of Phrases You Probably Use Every Day but Had No Idea about.

By Janey Davies.

June 21st, 2019.

 
 

 



 

Have you ever walked into a tiny room and thought ‘I couldn’t swing a cat in here?’ Have you ever ‘rubbed someone up the wrong way?’ These are examples of phrases we use all the time, but do you know their origins?
I love words. I love metaphors, words that come from foreign languages, I love how words shape our minds, how we use them to influence people, they’re just so powerful.
Lately, I’ve been looking into the origins of phrases and have found some really interesting ones I thought I’d share with you. I hope you find them as fascinating as I did.

14 Little-Known Origins of Popular Phrases

Not enough room to swing a cat

 
1. A very small space
This is a nautical term and derives from a ‘cat-o-nine-tails’, a whip used to punish sailors onboard ships. Sailors would usually receive punishment below decks. However, quarters were cramped, hence the saying, ‘no room to swing the cat‘.

Rubbing someone up the wrong way

 
2. To irritate or annoy
In America in the 16-century, slaves had many tasks to carry out. One was to rub the wooden floors of their master’s houses, first with a wet cloth, then with a dry one. If they went against the natural grain, it looked unsightly and annoyed the master.

Lost your bottle

 
3. Cowardly behaviour
You’ll never guess where this phrase originates from. It comes from bare-knuckle fighters in the 20-century and their bottle men.
Each fighter had their own bottle man to provide them with water between rounds.  Managers with poor fighters would instruct the bottle man to disappear. This would stop the fight. ‘Lost your bottle man’ was eventually shortened to ‘lost your bottle’.

Let your hair down

 
4. To relax
In Parisian society, it was the done thing to have an elaborate hair-do. These hairdos took hours to achieve so at the end of the evening it was a huge relief to let them down.

Take the upper hand

 
5. To gain an advantage
This phrase originates from the 15-century and comes from a game involving two or more people and a long stick. The first person places their hand on the stick at the bottom, the next person places their hand just above and so on until the last person to reach the top of the stick wins. They have the upper hand.

Rule of thumb

 
6. A broad principle
In the 17-century, an English judge ruled that British men could legally beat their wives with a stick, so long as the stick was less than the width of the husband’s thumb.

Blackmail

 
7. To demand money by threats
This is one of those phrases you’d never guess the origins unless perhaps you are Scottish. It originated in the Scottish Highlands in the 16-century.
In those days, ‘mail’ was an old word which meant rent. Farmers paid rent in silver coins. The rent was known as ‘white mail’. Certain clans started racketeering in the farming areas. They threatened farmers with violence then offered them protection but only if they paid. Farmers called this extra payment ‘black-mail’.

Saved by the bell

 
8. Rescue from an unwanted situation
Before advances in modern medicine and technology, it was quite common for doctors to pronounce people dead. The problem was, these people were not dead and some were being buried alive.
Fear spread amongst towns and cities. Stories passed around of gravediggers hearing screams from below the ground at night. To combat the problem, a special coffin was made with a bell that could be rung from inside that would alert people above ground. Hence, ‘saved by the bell‘.

You’re fired!

 
9. Given the sack
No, this phrase does not have its origins in the Whitehouse or anywhere near Donald Trump. It’s much older than that. It’s a mining term.
A miner caught stealing would have his tools burned or ‘fired’. It meant he couldn’t work anywhere. It was so effective a punishment that other trades adopted the phrase.

Get the sack

 
10. Lose your job
Speaking of getting the sack, that’s another one of our phrases that has unusual origins. Today, getting the sack has unpleasant connotations, but in actual fact, in the past, it was a positive sign.
Centuries ago, craftsmen and labourers would expect to work on a job for a few days or a week at most. They would carry their tools in a sack, which the owner would stash for them for safekeeping. The sacks were returned when the labourer finished the job. They got their sack back.

Spill the beans

11. To reveal a secret
This is another one of those phrases that you’ll never guess its origins in a million years. In ancient Greece, people voted in elections using beans. If they liked a candidate, they used a white bean. If they disapproved, they would place a black bean in the container.
If these containers were knocked over, everyone could see how the voting was going. Therefore, if someone ‘spilled the beans‘, the secret was out.

Kicking the bucket

 
12. Dying
You might not use this phrase after you learn of its origins. In slaughterhouses, when cows are killed, a bucket is placed underneath it to catch the blood when it dies. Sometimes, the cow’s legs would kick the bucket when it died.

Let the cat out of the bag

13. Reveal a secret
Back in medieval times, the marketplace was rife with tricksters and fraudsters. One such deception was the sale of suckling pigs. Once the pig was purchased, the hapless buyer would be distracted by the seller.
The pig would then be swapped for a cat and which was placed in the bag, ready for the customer. The customer would only realise when he ‘let the cat out of the bag’.

Cold Feet

 
14. Lose your nerve
German writer Fritz Reuter was the first person to use this phrase. Interestingly, Reuter uses the term in each of his books.
In the first, ‘An Old Story of My Farming Days’, he uses it to describe a poker player to wants to leave the game with his winnings intact. The poker player complains he has ‘cold feet’ and manages to leave without causing upset to the other players.  In the other, ‘Seed-time and Harvest’, it involves a joke made by a shoemaker.
Do you have any interesting phrases or words you’d like to share? Even better, do you know their origins? Let us know!
 
References:
  1. https://www.buzzfeed.com
  2. https://list25.com

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

About the Author: Janey Davies.

Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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Discernment is recommended.

 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 

 

No religious or political belief is defended here. (Investigate yourself)

 

Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 

If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 


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publicado por achama às 19:31
Sexta-feira, 14 / 06 / 19

What Is Primacy Effect and How It Messes with Your Memory and Perception ~ Sherrie.

What Is Primacy Effect and How It Messes with Your Memory and Perception.

By Sherrie.

June 13th, 2019

 

Ever wondered why you remember some things and other things are quickly forgotten? Well, this could be due to the primacy effect.
The science behind the primacy effect is simple yet complicated to navigate. I’ve recognized the characteristics of this effect many times in my life. This curious state of mind works in a valuable way, helping us remember certain important facts.
Unfortunately, other seemingly important information is dulled or completely lost from memory, unless placed last. In the model of first, last, and middle, primacy is the information that’s remembered first and is more likely to be stored in the long-term memory. Here’s a bit more information.

The meaning of the primacy effect

The primary effect was established in 1940 by Solomon Asch. This was when the primary principle came into being. Basically, the primacy (remembering the beginning facts) and recency effect (remembering the last facts) are two strong characteristics of how our brain works.
For instance, if we make a grocery list, the first few items will be remembered much better and even stored within our long-term memory. The items in the middle of the list may be harder to recall, even harder than the last items (which are considered the recency effect examples.)
But to focus on primacy, the effects are seen easily in studying for exams as well. Again, the information first read will be stored faster and thus remembered quite well for the test. Questions involving these facts will be easy to answer correctly.
So, the primacy effect is a positive thing, right? Well, for the most part, but there are ways it can distort our own and the perception of others.
Let’s take a look at the flaws of the primacy effect.

1. First impressions

Everyone knows what first impressions are, but do they really understand the implications of this? Well, when you look at the primacy effect, you can see how there could be a negative take with the first time you meet someone, especially if things go all wrong.
If your first impression isn’t that great, it can frame how the other person views you. Remember, this first encounter with you is what they remember the most.., just as the last encounter will be.
In this situation, the primacy effect can greatly change how a person views another, even to the point of severing future contact altogether.

2. Reputations

In a way, being late for your first day at a new job can be seen as a first impression, and really, it is. But, it also helps us look at how reputations are formed. The fact is, you may not ever be late again, but your reputation could already be spoiled, causing you to lose out on advancements in the workplace or even fall victim to termination.
Although the primacy effect helps us remember the first facts and commit them to long-term memory, we miss so many good things in the middle sometimes, especially where the true value of a person is concerned. It’s detrimental to us and others.

3. Emotional distortion

The primacy effect can influence our emotions as well. We often feel the first emotion much stronger, whether it’s happiness, paranoia, or anger, and we give little time for the emotion to deepen or change. Many rash decisions have been made due to focus on the primary emotions.
Also, as you know, primary emotions are the ones we remember for a while. They can change the way we see many things. It’s like an imprint.
Even though the thought process, as it deepens, is considered the “middle” and not the first thought, it often has some of the best rational thinking and analyzation. Our perception of many things has been changed due to this effect.

4. The formation of lists

Another way that the primacy effect can influence our perception is by their role in lists. As I stated before, the item at the top of the grocery list will not be easily forgotten, while the other various ingredients may be.
This is just one of the shortcomings of the primacy effect. It’s also the one that propelled this type of thinking, to begin with.
Another way that lists are affected is when there are various descriptions of a person’s personality or characteristics. For instance, if you say someone is moody, beautiful, and dependable, you will always remember that they are moody above all else.
Likewise, if the order was changed to “beautiful, dependable and moody”, you will think of that person as a beautiful person…and I would bet you would see the moody description more along the lines of having “depth of emotion”.
It’s strange how that works, isn’t it? And guess what? This example was the first known experiment in the primacy effect back in 1940.

So, is the primacy inherently good?

While the primacy effect can indeed distort your perception, it can also prove useful as well. It takes a great deal of maturity to understand how the primacy effect and the recency effect can prove useful.
In fact, the middle is where you find some of the best information and form some of the best connections with people and situations. You just have to be open-minded enough to see it.
So, even though we can appreciate the first things we remember, we should also learn how to change the order and read again. Revisit the list, consider the applicant, and wait to see how we feel a few hours after we’ve grown angry. The primacy effect isn’t bad, and how we see this is how we respond.
References:
  1. https://journals.sagepub.com
  2. https://study.com
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
About the Author: Sherrie

Sherrie is a freelance writer and artist with over 10 years of experience. She spends most of her time giving life to the renegade thoughts. As the words erupt and form new life, she knows that she is yet again free from the nagging persistence of her muse. She is a mother of three and a lifetime fan of the thought-provoking and questionable aspects of the universe.

COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 



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publicado por achama às 02:37
Quarta-feira, 22 / 05 / 19

13 Commonly Misused Words That May Belie Your Intelligence ~ Janey Davies

13 Commonly Misused Words That May Belie Your Intelligence.

By Janey Davies.

May 20th, 2019.

 

 



 

Our language is a wonderful tool. We use it to communicate our innermost thoughts and feelings. Writers in particular love to seek out words that add nuance and layers to their work. But in doing so, they can sometimes pick commonly misused words.
It can be tempting to pop that unusual word into your blog or article and in the context, it might look right. But get it wrong and to someone who knows what means it will jump off the page and slap them in the face.
More to the point, it won’t make you look like the talented wordsmith you were hoping it would. In fact, it will do the exact opposite. That one misused word will ruin everything else you’ve written.
It will also stain your reputation. That reader is unlikely to visit any other articles or blogs you write in the future. And all because of some commonly misused words.
The problem is, and I include myself in this group, writers are not good with others critiquing their work. That’s why I always use spellcheck and a grammar check before I upload anything to the internet. I also have an editor with eyes like a hawk who can spot a comma out of place from a mile off.
But let’s get back to those words that commonly get misused. What kinds are we talking about? Here are 13 examples:

13 Commonly Misused Words

Accept or Except

These words sound almost the same but are different. You can accept something: “She accepted his proposal of marriage.” Except is to exclude: “I like every cake except lemon drizzle.”

Affect or Effect

Affect is to influence: “His speech really affected me.” Effect means to put into effect: “The village effected changes after a vote.”

Compliment or Complement

compliment as an expression of admiration: “I got a big compliment about my new hairstyle today.” Complement completes or makes up a whole: “The cologne he wore was an ideal complement to his outfit.”

Comprise or Compose

Comprise is to include, compose means to make up, but both are to do with parts and the whole. When you use comprise, you put the whole first: “The United States of America comprisesof fifty states.”  When you use the parts first, you use compose: “Fifty states compose the United States of America.”

Disinterested or Uninterested

Disinterested does not mean uninterested. It means unbiased or impartial: “The disinterestedmediator chaired our discussions.” Uninterested is indifferent or not interested: “They were uninterested in talking to us.”

Enormity or Enormous

Enormity does not mean enormous. Enormity means extreme evil: “The enormity of the psychopath’s crimes would never be forgotten.” Enormous means extremely large: “She had an enormous amount of homework to do.”

Farther or Further

Farther means a physical distance travelled: “I have much farther to go.” Further refers to the extent of an action or situation: “We must speak further on this topic.”

Fewer or Less

This is a nice easy one to remember; use fewer when you are writing about individual items that you can count and less when referring to a whole: “She had fewer clothes which meant there was less in her wardrobe.”

Flaunt or Flout

Flaunt means to show off: “She flaunted her figure.” Flout means to disobey: “She flouted the rules.”

i.e. / e.g.

I often have to think which abbreviation is appropriate to use when I’m writing. Here are the rules:
Use e.g. when you want to show examples: “She had worked for several notable charity organisations (e.g., The Red Cross, Oxfam, Greenpeace).”
Use i.e. when you want to say in other words: “I had a lovely day out with my grandchildren (i.e.,spending all day at the park and getting thoroughly tired out!)”
An easy way to remember which is the correct one to use is that e.g. starts with ‘e for example’ and i.e. starts with ‘i for in other words’.

Imply or Infer

To imply is to suggest without actually saying it outright. “He implied he knew where the treasure was buried.”
To infer is to draw a conclusion from what was implied. “She inferred from what he implied that he knew where the treasure was buried.” Generally, the speaker implies and the listener infers.

Staunch or Stanch

Staunch does not mean to stop a flow. Staunch means loyal, faithful, or constant: “Her staunchsupporters where by her side when she won the election.”
Stanch means to stop the flow of something: “The increased police presence on the streets stopped the stanch of the recent crime wave.”

Who’s or Whose

I always struggle with this one. Remember, who’s is contracted from who is: Who’s going to help me with this difficult job?” Whose is the possessive form of who. So, as the following are:
  • I – Me/Mine
  • You – Your/Yours
  • She – Her/Hers
  • He – His
  • They – Their/Theirs
  • Us – Our/Ours
  • Who – Whose
An example of whose: Whose job is it to help me with this difficult task?” 
There are many more examples of commonly misused words that can belie our intelligence. Which ones do you struggle with? Let us know in the comments section below!
 
References:
  1. https://www.independent.co.uk
  2. https://www.linkedin.com

 

 

 

About the Author: Janey Davies.

Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 


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publicado por achama às 23:49
Terça-feira, 07 / 05 / 19

5 Types of Thoughts about Death and How to Handle Them ~ Sherrie.

5 Types of Thoughts about Death and How to Handle Them.

By Sherrie.

May 6th, 2019


Have you ever pondered on thoughts about death? No, I don’t mean suicidal thoughts, I mean thoughts of this inevitable conclusion.
If you’re having thoughts about death, congratulations. You’re a normal human being. We all think about death from time to time, wondering what it will be like and wondering how painful the process will be. Yes, we think about this life’s conclusion in many ways.

A deeper look at death

But, let us look deeper at the causes of our tendency to think about death and ways to handle those uncomfortable thoughts.
There are thoughts which transcend the pain and finality of death, wouldn’t you think? Death is more than just the sad end and more than just the worst situation. There are a few ways we can look at these death meditations.

1. Death as afterlife

First off, many people see death as a doorway to the afterlife, whatever that may be. Here, there will be no focus on any denominations or spiritualities, only the mention that some believe that death is not the end.
These thoughts about death can be both healthy and unhealthy, depending on how you see this transition. For example: even if you believe there is an afterlife, you should still spend time enjoying every moment to its fullest. You cannot take money or possessions with you, either way, afterlife or not.

2. Death as finality

These thoughts concerning death can be dark, harsh and yes, they can be unforgiving. Some believe that death is the end, and afterward, there is nothing. If you believe this way, it’s also normal and fine.
The important aspect of this belief is to understand if death means the complete and utter end, then it’s most important to enjoy, travel, love, and fulfill everything your heart desires. After all, this is the only chance you will get.

3. Appreciating mortality

We soon start to appreciate our mortality, when pondering on death, For some, immortality is the dream, but for others, the fragile mortality is so much more beautiful.
Take, for instance, the flower, it will not live forever, but isn’t it beautiful? Our lives are much like lovely flowers, we bloom and greet the world and then we leave as nature intended.
This mortality is natural and reminds us that we are part of everything which surrounds us. This is also a popular thought about death.

4. Wishing for immortality

Unfortunately, wishing for immortality is not healthy, unless you’re a scientist working on some ground-breaking technology to further the studies on telomeres (thought to be the answer to immortality, by the way).
Otherwise, death is coming, and dwelling on immortality, in my opinion, is just a waste of time. Remember, time is running out. For those obsessed with immortality, thoughts concerning death might liberate a few misconceptions about our role in this world. Just a thought…

5. Obsessive thoughts

Having obsessive thoughts about death borders suicidal intentions, but I’m not going in that direction. There is this place between suicidal thoughts and just obsessing over death which brings us down but keeps us living out of fear.
That’s just what it is, honestly, it’s the fear of death, which has turned into an absolute obsession. Being afraid of death, but not focused on immortality can leave us in a perpetually dismal place.

How can we deal with death thoughts like these?

In order to deal effectively with thoughts on death, we must understand how each of the categories above affects our lives.
Do we think about the afterlife? Do we dwell on immortality on earth? Dealing with death in a healthy manner will depend on how we think, basically. So, I will try my hardest to break it down for you.

1. A healthy perspective of the afterlife

If you think about death as the afterlife, then you’re probably a spiritual person of some sort. Whether you believe in God or many Gods, you will see death as an elevation, a promotion, or a different state of being.
While some may see this belief as egotistical or delusional, spiritualists and believers find peace with this idea of death. Overall, It’s healthy as long as it doesn’t become fanatical to the point of imposing on the beliefs of others.

2. No beliefs, no problem

There are many people who believe death is just the end. They believe in darkness, finality, and the great big….well, nothing. These non-believers seem pretty happy for the most part, because they have come to terms with how they believe, or don’t’ believe, however you look at it.
So, unless they are falling into depression, they may be completely content to do everything they can before the end arrives. It’s just that simple, and it’s okay too.

3. Is appreciating mortality healthy?

Whether we believe in the great beyond or not, we can still appreciate the here and now. Many people, coming from all walks of life, have learned to love their mortality.
Sometimes thoughts of death can get overwhelming, even in this appreciation and this is when help is needed. When these thoughts become intrusive, it’s best to get support from others who have learned to appreciate the finality of their being.
Many times, they can explain the importance of the cycle of life, and how we are all a part of a larger picture. This helps us understand that pleasure and suffering are part of the whole deal.

4. Immortality, good or bad

While there are studies being conducted on immortality, it can be quite unhealthy to put all your eggs in this basket. Why? Because as of now, we’re still dying, and we’re still dying at around the same age as we were a few decades ago.
So obsessing over immortality is not really a healthy move. It’s better to see immortality as something hoped for. Just remember, some of us would rather live and die, instead of hanging around forever. So, to each his own.

5. Keep a check on obsessive thoughts

Death thoughts that become obsessive can also become dangerous. Sitting around with friends and pondering on the death process – the pain, the decomposition of death – is just not healthy at all.
I’ve seen this through those obsessed with speaking to the dead and sleeping in the cemetery wondering about how it feels to be underneath the earth. You see, even what I am saying is probably taking you to an uncomfortable place. This is my point.
These thoughts grow and can potentially cause serious depression. All I am saying is just be careful not to fall too far into the pit of darkness.

What are your thoughts on death?

Yes, there are many unhealthy ways to look at death, but yet, there are also healthy outlooksas well. Thoughts pertaining to death can be scary and overwhelming, but they don’t have to be taboo. Please share your opinion and let’s talk.
References:
  1. https://www.psychologytoday.com
  2. https://www.huffpost.com

 

 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
About the Author: Sherrie

Sherrie is a freelance writer and artist with over 10 years of experience. She spends most of her time giving life to the renegade thoughts. As the words erupt and form new life, she knows that she is yet again free from the nagging persistence of her muse. She is a mother of three and a lifetime fan of the thought-provoking and questionable aspects of the universe.

COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 



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No religious or political belief is defended here. (Investigate yourself)

 

Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 

If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 


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publicado por achama às 17:03
Domingo, 05 / 05 / 19

27 Foreign Words You Didn’t Know You Were Using Every Day ~ Janey Davies.

18 Famous People with INFJ Personality Traits.

By Janey Davies.

May 5th, 2019.

 
 
 
 
 

 


 

Some words are so intrinsically embedded into our unconscious that we don’t even realise they are foreign words.

Take the internationally-known distress call of ‘May Day!’ for example. It derives from the French verb for help – ‘aider’.
In the 1920s, people were getting used to new international radio communications. A senior air traffic control officer was asked to come up with a word that was easy to pronounce and remember to signify an emergency. He thought of ‘Mayday’ which comes from the French meaning ‘help me’ or ‘m’aidez’.
Mayday is just one of many foreign words we use without realising their origins.

Here are 27 other foreign words you didn’t know you were using every day:

FRENCH

Curfew
Curfew comes from the French word ‘couvrefeu’ which means to cover fire. It originates from a 13th-century European law. At a certain time, a bell would ring and all fires had to be extinguished or covered.
Denim
I’ve always associated denim with America but the origins of the word denim originate in France. A hard-wearing blue twill cloth was originally made in a small French town called Nîmes in the 17th-century. The word denim is a contraction of ‘serge de Nîmes’ (a sturdy cloth from Nîmes).
Mortgage
Have you ever signed a mortgage? Then I hate to tell you that you’ve signed a death pledge. ‘Mort’ means death in French and the whole word describes the promise (or pledge) you have agreed to pay back borrowed money in the future.
Prairie
You wouldn’t think this word could make it onto a list of foreign words as it sounds like it is from America’s Midwest. However, it is a French word for meadow.
Portrait
This foreign word comes from the French word ‘portraire’, or to portray, particularly the face.

SPANISH

Alligator
Surely an alligator is just an alligator? No one invented a word for it? In actual fact, they did. The word comes from the Spanish ‘el lagarto’, or lizard.
Canyon
This is another word we associate with the US but has its origins in Spain. It comes from the Spanish word ‘cañón’ which means tube. It was used by 19th-century Americans who were exploring Spanish territory in the west.
Cigar
The Spanish call the dried tobacco leaves rolled in a tobacco leaf a ‘cigarro’ which actually originates from a Mayan word ‘sicar’.
Mosquito
The name of this annoying biting parasite means ‘little fly’ in Spanish.
Guerrilla
The word guerrilla is full of connotations around the world. However, it is a Spanish word that means ‘little war’.

ITALIAN

Corridor
Corridor derives from the Italian word ‘corridoio’ which means hallway or passageway.
Confetti
This foreign word comes from Italy and the custom of throwing candy (confetto) on festive occasions.
Graffiti
This word comes from the plural of ‘graffito’ which means ‘scratched’.
Mascara
You’ll never wear mascara in the same way again after you realise its origins. The word mascara comes from the Italian verb ‘maschera’ which is ‘to disguise’.

SWEDISH

Moped
The moped is a contraction of ‘motor’ and ‘pedaler’ and comes from Sweden.

DUTCH

Cookie
Cookies are practically synonymous with the US but did you know their origins are firmly in Europe? The word cookie is derived from the Dutch word ‘koekie’ which means ‘little cake’ or ‘like a little cake’.
Sketch
Sketch is another Dutch word that comes from ‘schets’ or ‘to make a rough drawing’.

GREEK

Anonymous
Anonymous is from the Greek word ‘anōnumos’ and means someone or something without a name.

GERMAN

Noodle
Most of us think of noodles and Eastern countries such as China or Japan, but the word originated a lot closer to home. As a matter of fact, the word comes from the German ‘nudel’which translated means a long, thin strip of dough.
Rucksack
This is another one of those words you wouldn’t think has foreign origins, but it comes from Germany. In German, ‘rücken’ means ‘back’ and sack means bag. Hence a sack worn on the back.

JAPANESE

Tsunami
Unfortunately, we have all heard of tsunamis and we can even pronounce them properly now. We understand them to be those huge destructive waves you get in extreme weather conditions. But in Japanese, they simply mean ‘harbour wave’.

CHINESE

Ketchup
How can this be one of our foreign words? But it’s true, this common western condiment originated in China. It was first called ‘Ke-stiap’ and was a blend of pickled fish and spices. Then tomatoes were added and it became ketchup.
Kowtow
Have you ever had to kowtow to someone? We know it means to act in a subservient way, but the actual meaning comes from ‘Kòu tóu’ which is a respectful bow that involves touching your head to the floor.
Gung-ho
The English and Chinese have very different meanings attached to this word. English translate gung-ho as an ‘overzealous attitude’, but in China, it means ‘to work together’.

MEXICAN

Chocolate
Chocolate arrived in the English language after travelling through Spanish but it originated in Mexico as ‘xocolatl’.

ARABIC

Lemon
The humble lemon is a word derived from the Arabic for yellow citrus fruit which is ‘laimun’. It caught on and now lemon is synonymous with the colour as much as it is with the fruit.
Sofa
My final foreign word is sofa. Sofa is surely an English word? But no. Described as a ‘long seat full of cushions’, it comes from the Arabic word ‘uffa’.
What foreign words do you know that are now part of our English language? Let us know in the comments box!
References:
  1. http://mentalfloss.com
  2. http://www.ruf.rice.edu
  3. https://www.academia.edu

 

About the Author: Janey Davies.

Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 


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publicado por achama às 23:20
Sexta-feira, 03 / 05 / 19

25 Aesthetic Words Every Book Lover Will Appreciate ~ Kirstie Pursey

25 Aesthetic Words Every Book Lover Will Appreciate.

By Kirstie Pursey

May 2nd, 2019. 

 

 

 

The English language is full of beautiful sounding words that are a delight to hear. How many of these aesthetic words do you know?

Some of the most beautiful words in the English language conjure up a sense of something magical. Finding the perfect aesthetic words for a sensation or feeling is a joy.
Sometimes even when you are feeling sad, finding the exact words to describe your emotions can make it seem just a little better.
If you love books, and especially if you love to write, you may find these following words inspire you to use the English language to its fullest.
Rather than just saying you are sad, perhaps you would describe yourself as melancholy, nostalgic, mournful or heartbroken. Or perhaps your happiness is more like contentment, delight or ecstasy.
Some of my favourite words describe feelings that are hard to describe in any other way. And of course, some words just sound so beautiful they are a joy to say.
Amazingly, there are more than a million words in the English language. Many of them are beautiful in some way. Perhaps it is the way they sound, the way they look when written on a page, or because the meaning is so precise and perfect.
Words, of course, are not meant to be considered in isolation. Together they can make up sentences and utterances and become poems, stories, songs and essays. However, finding the perfect words will enhance your language for whatever you want to communicate, it is a chat with a friend or an epic poem.
If you are looking for some inspiration, take a look at these 25 of my favourite aesthetic words.

Aesthetic words for happy emotions

Sometimes we feel like words can’t describe how happy we feel. But if you look closely at the English language, you are bound to find a word that perfectly describes your feeling of joy.

1. Euphoria

A feeling or state of intense excitement and happiness.

2. Bliss

A state of supreme happiness, utter joy or contentment.

3. Halcyon

Happy, joyful and carefree.

4. Serendipity

The chance occurrence of events in a beneficial way.

Beautiful words for sad emotions

The English language also has the perfect word for our sad emotions. If you are feeling blue, but just can’t quite put your finger on how you are feeling, you may find the following words describe your emotions perfectly. Plus they have the bonus of being some of the most beautiful sounding words in the English language.

5. Crestfallen

Dejected, dispirited or discouraged.

6. Woebegone

Sorrowful and downcast.

7. Wistful

Full of yearning or desire tinged with melancholy.

Aesthetic words that describe the world

We live in such a wonderful world that sometimes it is hard to put into words how to describe it. I was surprised that there are so many words that describe specific things about the world, times of the day and specific weather. Here are just a few of my favourites:

8. Vespertine

Occurring in the evening.

9. Idyllic

Extremely peaceful or picturesque.

10. Petrichor

The pleasant, earthy smell after rain.

11. Resplendent

Splendid or dazzling to look at.

12. Erstwhile

In the past, at one time.

Beautiful words that describe human experience

There are some human experiences that seem difficult to put into words. However, the English language probably has a word that is just right for even the most specific of human experiences. I’m sure you have all felt the following emotions, but did you know there was a word for the way you felt?

13. Clinomania

Excessive desire to stay in bed.

14. Pluviophile

Pluviophile
lover of rain; someone who finds joy and peace of mind during rainy days.

15. Apricity

The warmth of the sun in winter.

Aesthetic words for when you just can’t find the word to describe something

Human beings have always struggled to find the words to explain some things. For this reason, the English language has a lot of words for things that are hard to describe. Here are just a few of the thousands of beautiful words in the English language.

16. Inexplicable

Impossible to explain.

17. Ineffable

Inexpressible.

18. Unfathomable

Impossible to explain or understand.

Aesthetic words that are just simply beautiful to say

Some words are just beautiful to say. They trip off the tongue in a delightful way and sound like music when we hear them. Here are just a few of the thousands of beautiful words in the English language:

19. Ethereal

Extremely delicate, light, not of this world.

20. Supine

Lying face upwards.

21. Syzygy

An alignment of celestial bodies.

22. Quintessential

The pure essence of something or the most perfect embodiment of something.

23. Sumptuous

Extremely, rich, luxurious, or magnificent.

24. Lissome

Slender, graceful and lithe.

25. Effervescent

Bubbly or sparkling, also vivacious; merry, lively.
The English language really is a wonderful language that has taken influences from all around the world. This is why we have so many words to choose from when trying to describe, explain or think about what we are experiencing or feeling. I hope you have found these words inspire you to explore the English language further so you can express yourself in new and different ways.
This article has only touched the surface of some of the most aesthetic words in the English language. We’d love to hear some of your favourites. So if you are a logophile, please share your most beloved words with us in the comments below!

 

 

 

COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.


About the Author: Kirstie Pursey



Kirstie works as a writer, blogger and storyteller and lives in London with her family of people, dogs and cats. She is a lover of reading, writing, being in nature, fairy lights, candles, firesides and afternoon tea. Kirstie has trouble sitting still which is why she created www.notmeditating.com to share techniques and practices for tuning out the busy mind. She is also the author of Not Meditating: Finding Peace, Love and Happiness Without Sitting Still.


 



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publicado por achama às 16:41
Domingo, 21 / 04 / 19

5 Remarkable Examples of Animal Intelligence That Will Leave You in Awe ~ Sherrie.

5 Remarkable Examples of Animal Intelligence That Will Leave You in Awe.

By Sherrie.

April 19, 2019


 

Animal intelligence could stretch to more than just an elephant’s excellent memory! As these examples will reveal.

The intelligence of animals surpasses what we realize. But the first question is, how is animal intelligence measured? There have been many experiments carried out that could prove animal intelligence really exists. We only have to look at Pavlov’s Dogs study to see how animals can quickly learn to associate a sound with behaviour or action.

But other, far more compelling research shows activity is more evident than we thought when it comes to the brains of animals.

Here are just a couple of impressive things that reveal animal intelligence at its peak!

Animals are spiritual beings

Of course, you heard that right. There is evidence to suggest animals can react emotionally to their surroundings. They can feel and respond to grief, e.g. in a death, and can express the wonderful feeling of existence itself.

Psychologists Marc Bekoff and his colleague Steven Kotler looked at whether animals really experienced spirituality. Bekoff and Kotler found ample evidence that animals can have a morally conscious and emotional intelligence.

Whilst Bekoff and Kotler’s work is anecdotal, Darwinian theory supports it well. The belief of Darwin was evolutionary continuity. This belief states that there were no different kinds of intelligence, only different degrees with the various species.

“The bottom line is that if we have something, they (other animals) do too. It would behoove us to study the questions at hand rather than dismiss them because animals can’t possibly do or experience something that we think is uniquely human.”

-Darwin

Only humans were self-conscious, linguistic, moral, and rational. This is what we believed for a long time. Now we know the truth. There’s more startling evidence as well. It seems that animals could possibly think about pains and pleasures from the past,

Darwin said. They actually possess “excellent memories and some power of imagination”.


Solving puzzles is just as easy for crows as 5-year old children.

Again, this could be the title of a well-thumbed kids’ comic book. But experiments recently conducted, and many of them, suggests truth in the crow’s intelligence. These are indeed creatures with remarkable talent, especially when it comes to solving problems.

The University of Auckland researchers discovered that crows noticed that liquid rises when objects are dropped into tubes of water, water which held a treat. They would then be able to reach the treat that was inside. If the water levels were higher, they could get the treat faster as well. Objects that sank instead of floated would also reduce the time it took for the treat to come to the top of the tube.

Crows can also bend a wire to fish treats from small tubes. This was also quickly realized by the research team. This is why researchers compare a crow’s intelligence is to 5-7-year-olds.

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Elephants can show empathy

An elephant never forgets, right? But, they can also seemingly show understanding and empathy. During controlled experiments, elephants showed their desire to work together with tasks. When learning to pull a rope to acquire a treat, they did this together instead of alone.

Contrary to what some may believe, elephants do not ponder long over the dead. They have been known to eat their dead or at least, sniff them and walk away. As for their reaction to remains, such as bones, an elephant may linger for a while or become aggravated for some unknown reason.

A recent study proves such behavior: When an African elephant sees a skull from its own kind, it stares longer than when rhino or buffalo skulls are introduced. It’s the same with sticks as opposed to ivory.

The elephant is smart enough to know the difference between something originating from their kind and something else entirely.

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Dogs can be taught words

We’ve all tried to teach Fido how to shake hands and Rover to cartwheel. But John Pilley, Psychology researcher, went a step further and trained his dog, Chaser to recognize over a thousand toys, by name. What’s more, over 90% of the time, Chaser could recognize certain toys when Pilley asked for them.

Chaser has learned even more, including recognizing verbs and nouns taught by Pilley Instructions are easy for her, she can put her paw and nose on objects, and even pick them up.

This is an achievement of intelligence for canines, and all it took was hours of intensive training. Chaser is special and not all dogs can learn at her pace.

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Picking locks are easy for Cockatoos

Finally, let’s learn about the cheeky Cockatoo. They too display animal intelligence enough to understand tricky puzzles and solve them, all for a delicious treat. A 2013 study by Alice Auersperg, revealed the difficulty of such puzzles, and that the bird actually has to first open the box. Here’s how the trick worked.

Inside the box was a cashew. So, the cockatoo had to pull out a bolt, remove a pin, take out a screw, turn a wheel, and removed a latch by using a sliding technique. All these things, the Cockatoo accomplished fairly easy.

Without opposable thumbs, as humans have, this did take a long time. It did take two hours for the Cockatoo, but eventually, the bird solved the intricate puzzle. A bird had a goal and completed the goal, a goal that wasn’t an easy and quick task. This says quite a bit about the bird’s perseverance, wouldn’t you say.

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I ACCEPT
Whilst this research can be contested, it could also lay the foundations for new ways of thinking about animal intelligence. Next time you spend time with your pet, maybe you can watch them more, and learn a few morals and lessons about determination.

References:

  1. https://www.psychologytoday.com
  2. https://news.nationalgeographic.com/
  3. https://www.dailymail.co.uk
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
About the Author: Sherrie

Sherrie is a freelance writer and artist with over 10 years of experience. She spends most of her time giving life to the renegade thoughts. As the words erupt and form new life, she knows that she is yet again free from the nagging persistence of her muse. She is a mother of three and a lifetime fan of the thought-provoking and questionable aspects of the universe.

COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 



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publicado por achama às 22:11
Sexta-feira, 11 / 01 / 19

6 Classical Fairy Tales and the Profound Life Lessons Behind Them ~ Sherrie

6 Classical Fairy Tales and the Profound Life Lessons Behind Them.

By Sherrie.

January 12th, 2019 

 

Groundhog Day.

 

 

The most interesting thing about classical fairy tales is not the magic of make-believe. Rather, it’s the life lessons learned from the stories.

I grew up enjoying classical fairy tales. I sat at my grandmother’s side conjuring images of the characters as the story played out, I was mesmerized by stories of love and adventure. And so, these tales stayed with me throughout my childhood. I even told some of the same classical fairy tales to my children as well.

Lessons learned from fairytales

Classical fairy tales, however, are more than just magical creations. Deep within the images and words lies a deeper meaning than the story itself. There are profound lessons woven between the princes and princesses, the forest animals and the dragons. There are many of these life lessons.

1. Cinderella

I will start with this one because it actually includes a few life lessons derived from different versions of the tale. For starters, the modern Cinderella that most of us remember is packed with lessons about strength and respect.
For instance, we see Cinderella living with three stepsisters who mistreat her. Cinderella is left to do work as the stepsisters enjoy going out and socializing. This modern tale teaches us that we should stand up for ourselves and demand the respect we deserve.
Older versions of Cinderella, like the “Donkeyskin” version and the story, told in ninth-century China, displays the strength of women and how Cinderella was able to take the tragedy of her life and transform it into something beautiful.
A life lesson for us all in these tales is to be strong, stay focused and fight for what you deserve, even if you are a minority like a woman.

2. Little Red Riding Hood

This classic fairy tale has a clear and precise life lesson attached to it. This lesson isn’t meant to be taken literally, but symbolically. In the story of Red Riding Hood, we see a wolf which tries to lure the protagonist with his diabolical plans because he is hungry. In the tale, the wolf is dressed in sheep’s clothing.
You may have heard the expression, “she’s a wolf in sheep’s clothing” before. You see, what it means is that the subject of conversation is not what they seem. This tale teaches us to be smart and look beneath the surface when getting to know someone. Not everyone is what they appear.

3. Rapunzel

How about this one for a life lesson. This classic fairy tale shows us how to use our ingenuity. In the story, as most of you know, Rapunzel is trapped in the tower. She uses her long tresses as a way to climb down to safety. Although this tale is rather fantastic in nature, it teaches us a valuable lesson for modern times.
When we think there is no way out of a situation because of the lack of tools or ideas, sometimes a magical thing happens in our brains. We often come up with an unconventional way to solve the problem. This teaches us to be creative and think outside the box in order to survive or simply solve a problem.
And then there’s the lesson about the whole “Happily Ever After” possibility, but this time we’re looking for deeper meaning, right? Lol

4. Three Little Pigs

Most children and adults know the story about the 3 little pigs. Well, even so, they may not know the hidden life lesson derived from this tale.
One lesson that can be taken from this story is about slothfulness. As the story goes, three little pigs build one house each. One of these houses is built from brick, one from wood and one from straw. Now doesn’t that sound productive?
Here comes the trauma. The big bad wolf came to eat the pigs, and so he decided to “huff and puff and….blow their houses down” He was successful with all but one of the houses and you can guess the fate of those two pigs. Well, the third pig who built his house from brick was saved because his house was much sturdier.
The lesson from this story is that if you are lazy and decide to take shortcuts, use cheaper materials and just not do a good job, then guess what? Disaster!

5. Rumpelstiltskin

This is one of the strangest classical fairy tales around. What this story teaches is that no one should make rash decisions about serious issues. Although the information and what you see may look good, it can be filled with lies and misconceptions. Also, one day you could realize that you bit off more than you could chew…figuratively, of course.
Here’s how the tale transpired: The miller, wanting to impress the king, promised him that his daughter could spin straw into gold. So, the king imprisoned the miller’s daughter and said, “If you can’t spin all this straw surrounding you into gold, then you will die”.
Rumpelstiltskin appeared and told the girl that he could spin the straw into gold for a price. Once he did it, and she gave him her necklace, twice he did it and she gave him her ring, but on the third time, he asked for something more…her first born child.
She signed an agreement quickly, but when she had her child, she couldn’t live up to the contract…and so the tale changes course. She is eventually freed from her binds by guessing Rumpelstiltskin’s name. Whew, that could have been much worse. Think twice before you act. Remember that!

6. The Little Mermaid

Now, you may have only seen the movie of this one, but it’s completely different from the original story. One of the first versions of this tale shows us that no matter what we do, how we look or our talents, we may not ever capture our heart’s desire.
Unlike the happy ending from the movie, with the mermaid marrying the prince, the story leaves us sad for the little mermaid. In the story, she leaves the water, her family, and even gives up her ability to sing, just to be with the man she loves.
Unfortunately, the little mermaid witnesses this same man marrying someone else. She throws herself back into the sea…I will leave it at that. So, you see, even if you love someone with all you have, you cannot make them love you back if they don’t share your feelings.

Classical fairy tales are powerful

The truth is classical fairy tales make us better people. They help us become resilient, kind and even more intelligent. Reading these stories may have been entertaining in childhood, but now they are so much more.
If you ever feel the need to be inspired and motivated, try reading a classic fairy tale. You might be surprised by how well they work.
References:
  1. https://money.usnews.com
  2. https://www.bustle.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



About the Author: Sherrie

Sherrie is a freelance writer and artist with over 10 years of experience. She spends most of her time giving life to the renegade thoughts. As the words erupt and form new life, she knows that she is yet again free from the nagging persistence of her muse. She is a mother of three and a lifetime fan of the thought-provoking and questionable aspects of the universe.

COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.

 
 




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Discernment is recommended.

 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 

 

No religious or political belief is defended here. (Investigate yourself)

 

Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 

If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 


More @ http://violetflame.biz.ly and 
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publicado por achama às 02:33
A Luz está a revelar a Verdade, e esta libertar-nos-á! -Só é real o AMOR Incondicional. -Quando o Amor superar o amor pelo poder, o mundo conhecerá a Paz; Jimi Hendrix. -Somos almas a ter uma experiência humana!

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