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Sábado, 23 / 05 / 20

9 Signs You Have Mean World Syndrome and How to Fight It

9 Signs You Have Mean World Syndrome and How to Fight It

Janey Davies, B.A. (Hons)

https://www.learning-mind.com

May 23rd, 2020.

 
 
 
 
 
There’s an unwritten rule we all tend to assume. The rule is ‘the more violence a person views on TV, the more violent their tendencies are in real life’. But one person believed the reverse to be true. That in fact, the more violent the media, the more frightened we become. This is Mean World Syndrome.

What Is Mean World Syndrome?

Mean World Syndrome describes a psychological bias where a person believes the world is a more violent place because they watch a large amount of violence on TV.
Mean World Syndrome is based on the research of Hungarian Jewish journalist George Gerbner. Fascinated by the influence of violence on TV on our perceptions of society, Gerbner wondered why, if we are all now consuming larger amounts of violence on TV are the real-life crime figures dropping.

How to Spot the Signs of Mean World Syndrome?

You might think to yourself that there’s no way you would succumb to this way of thinking, but here are just some of the signs of Mean World Syndrome:
  • Do you believe that most people are just looking out for themselves?
  • Would you be afraid of walking through your neighbourhood at night?
  • Are you cautious when interacting with strangers?
  • Would you cross the road if you saw a man of ethnic minority approaching you?
  • Do you think people should go home to their native countries?
  • Are most people out to take advantage of you?
  • Would you be unhappy if a Latino or Hispanic family moved in next-door?
  • Do you avoid people of different ethnic backgrounds?
  • Do you always tend to watch the same types of programme i.e. horror, gore?

Violence and TV: What Leads Us to Develop Mean World Syndrome?

We tend to think of the TV as an innate and harmless form of entertainment. It sits in our living rooms, we turn it on to appease bored children, or it remains on in the background unnoticed. But TV has changed throughout the decades.
For instance, I’m 55 years old now, and I remember the very first time I watched The Exorcist. It frightened me for nights on end. I happened to show the film to a few friends who were twenty or so years younger than me, expecting them to have the same visceral reaction. But they just laughed.
It’s easy to see why. Films like Hostel show a woman’s eyes blowtorched in graphic detail. In contrast, Linda Blair’s turning head just looks comical.
I think we can agree that TV and films, in particular, portray violence in a much more graphic way these days. But the majority of us watch violence like this on TV and do not turn into serial killers. And this is what interested Gerbner.

See Violence, Commit Violence?

Historically, psychologists focused on whether those who had been exposed to media violence would be more likely to commit violence in real life. Gerbner believed exposure to media violence was far more complex. He suggested that consuming media violence is more likely to make us scared and fearful. But why?
Gerbner found that people with moderate to heavy TV and media viewing habits were more likely to believe they would be a victim of violence. They were also more worried about their personal security. They were less likely to go out in their own neighbourhood at night.
These responses differed greatly from people with light viewing habits. In this case, light viewers had a more rounded and generous view of society.
“Our studies have shown that growing up from infancy with this unprecedented diet of violence has three consequences, which, in combination, I call the “mean world syndrome.” What this means is that if you are growing up in a home where there is more than say three hours of television per day, for all practical purposes you live in a meaner world – and act accordingly – than your next-door neighbour who lives in the same world but watches less television.” Gerbner

So What Exactly Is Going On?

There’s a historical view of media and TV violence that we viewers are passive in our entertainment. We are like sponges, soaking up all the gratuitous violence. This old view suggests that TV and media fire information like a bullet into our minds. That TV and media can control us like automatons, feeding our minds with subliminal messages.
Gerbner saw things differently. He did believe that TV and media played a crucial role in the way we view society. But not one where we are encouraged to commit violent acts. One where we ourselves are scared and frightened by what we see.

How Mean World Syndrome Is Cultivated in Our Society

According to Gerbner, the problem lies in how this violence is portrayed on TV and in the media. It intersperses with banal content. For example, one minute, we are watching an advert for bleach or nappies, and the next, we see a news item that someone’s daughter has been abducted, raped, and dismembered.
We switch from one shocking news story to comedies, from a graphic horror film to a cute animal cartoon. And it is this constant switching between the two that normalises the violence we see. And when mass media normalises something as awful as a child abduction we don’t feel safe anymore.
We assume that this is the world we live in now. It’s that old news saying: “If it bleeds, it leads.” News channels focus on the most violent crimes, movies find new ways to shock us, even local news prefer gore and horror to cute stories about rescue puppies.

Violence Is Normal

Gerbner realised that it was the normalisation of violence, he called it ‘happy violence’ that cultivates a fearful society. In fact, there is a direct correlation between the amount of TV a person watches and their level of fear.
Mass media saturates us with graphic images, horrific stories, and frightening storylines. News channels remind us about the ‘War on Terror’, or the consequences of the coronavirus, all while glaring mugshots of offenders pierce through our collective consciousness.
It’s not surprising we are afraid to go outside our own homes. This cultivated fear shapes us into victimhood.

TV and Media Are the New Storytellers

Yet, you could say that we come across violence in fairy tales as children, or in Shakespeare’s play as teenagers. That we need to acknowledge violence as part of what’s good and bad about society. However, we are told fairy tales by a parent who provides context or comfort should we become upset. Shakespeare plays often have a moral story or ending which is discussed in class.
There is no parent or teacher advising us when we view violence portrayed in mass media. Moreover, this violence is often sensationalised, it’s delivered in a spectacular way. It’s often portrayed as humorous or sexy. As a result, we become indoctrinated with this constant flow saturation.

We Are Born into Viewing Violence

psychotic female killer
Gerbner stated that we are born into this saturation. There is no before or after viewing violence, we grow up with it, and from a very early age. In fact, children view around 8,000 murders by the age of 8 years old, and around 200,000 violent acts by the time they are 18.
All this violence adds up to a pervasive narrative we believe to be true. Each TV programme, every news story, all those films add up to a seamless and continuous dialogue. One that tells us the world is a scary, frightening, and violent place to live in.
The reality, however, is much different. According to the Justice Dept., murder rates are down 5% and violent crime is at an all-time low, having dropped 43%. Despite this, coverage of murders increased by 300%.
“Fearful people are more dependent, more easily manipulated and controlled, more susceptible to deceptively simple, strong, tough measures and hard-line measures…” Gerbner

How to Fight Mean World Syndrome?

There are lots of ways you can control how you feel about the society you inhabit.
  • Limit the amount of TV and media you view.
  • Alternate between different types of programmes, e.g. comedy and sport.
  • Remember, the majority version of violence presented by the media is a small minority of real life.
  • Use different kinds of media to access information, i.e. books, journals.
  • Get the facts from reliable sources so you don’t over-estimate the amount of violence in the world.
  • Ask yourself, who benefits from perpetuating the myth of mass fear?

Final Thoughts

It’s easy to see how we can become enveloped in Mean World Syndrome. Every day we are bombarded with the most gruesome facts and images. These present a distorted view of the world.
The problem is if we only see the world through fear-tinted glasses, solutions to our problems will be based solely around this fear. And we could end up imprisoning ourselves for no good reason.
References:
  1. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  2. www.theatlantic.com
  3. www.apa.org

 

 
Janey Davies
 

 
 
About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2020 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 




Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

 
All articles are of the respective authors or publishers responsibility. 
 


 
No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


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Discernment is recommended.
 
 

 

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publicado por achama às 18:09
Quarta-feira, 20 / 05 / 20

False Awakening in Regular and Lucid Dreams: Causes and Symptoms

False Awakening in Regular and Lucid Dreams: Causes and Symptoms

Janey Davies, B.A. (Hons)

https://www.learning-mind.com

May 20th, 2020.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Have you ever been convinced that you’d woken up from sleep, but in fact, you were still dreaming? If so you might have experienced a false awakening.
A false awakening happens when the dreamer wakes up during their dream only to realise they are still dreaming and wake up later on. While the dreamer believes they are awake, they might go through the motions of turning off an alarm, getting out of bed and eating breakfast. However, they will then suddenly find themselves waking up for real, still in bed.

How Does False Awakening Happen in Regular and Lucid Dreams?

False awakenings are a mix of sleeping and waking states of consciousness. Our brains are in a kind of semi-conscious state; not quite awake but not fully asleep either. Actually, many sleep disturbances happen during this mixed brain state, including lucid dreams and sleep paralysis.
During lucid dreams, the dreamer is aware that they are dreaming. They can even influence the outcome of the dream. In sleep paralysis, the dreamer wakes, but their body is frozen as if paralysed. However, false awakenings are not the same as sleep paralysis or lucid dreaming. The dreamer might experience paralysis but only within the dream. Once they have actually woken up they can move as normal.
False awakenings occur during regular dreams and lucid dreaming. Sometimes, during a false awakening in a dream, the dreamer can become aware that something feels a little ‘off’ in the dream. They get a sense that all is not quite as it should be.
They can also occur several times within one dream. The dreamer can believe they have woken up many times while they are dreaming. They then wake up properly, only to discover that all the previous times they were still asleep. False awakenings that occur again and again within the same dream are ‘nested’ dreams.

2 Types of False Awakening

There are two types of false awakening:

Type I

Type 1 is the more common kind of false awakening. Type 1 false awakenings happen once or twice a year. Here the dreamer goes about their normal business of waking up. For instance, they might get out of bed, turn on the shower, prepare breakfast, wake their children up, etc.
During this type of awakening, the dreamer may or may not notice that their surroundings are a little strange. The environment might not be realistic to them. For instance, they might wake up somewhere other than their bedroom.
A typical type 1 false awakening occurs where the dreamer believes he or she has overslept and is late for work. They ‘wake up’ in their dream but in reality, are still asleep in bed. Only when they wake up properly do they understand what has happened. It is a surprise to the dreamer but not overly worrying.

Type 2

Type 2 is a rarer kind of false awakening. Type 2 false awakenings can occur several times in one night. Here the dreamer is aware of a sense of foreboding. They know something is wrong but can’t put their finger on it.
In these types of false awakenings, the dreamer wakes to an atmosphere of tension or stress. They are immediately apprehensive upon waking. They feel suspicious and uncomfortable. The environment feels weird although the dreamer can’t quite account for what’s wrong. They just know something isn’t right.

Causes of False Awakening in Dreams

False awakenings in dreams are associated with broken or disturbed sleep patterns.
For example:
  • Insomnia
  • Snoring
  • Frequent getting up to use the toilet
  • Teeth grinding
  • Daytime tiredness
  • Environmental noises
  • Restless leg syndrome
False awakening dreams are linked to mixed brain states and/or underlying anxiety. Mixed brain states are associated more with Type 1 awakenings, whereas anxiety is linked to Type 2 awakenings.

Mixed brain states

There is still much we don’t know about the brain and various levels of consciousness. In particular, the possibility that our brains can experience several states of consciousness at once.
So, in effect, we can be asleep and dreaming but also awake at the same time. It is during this mixed brain state that we become confused. Are we awake or still asleep? If our brain is in that grey area between two states of consciousness, it’s not surprising that we’re not sure whether we’re dreaming or have woken up.
Most people will experience false awakening dreams once or twice a year. In these cases, a specific event will trigger the awakening. For example, you might have an important job interview the next day and you dream that you’ve overslept and missed it.

Anxiety or worry

On the other hand, some people experience recurring and frequent false awakenings in their dreams. This is linked to underlying anxiety or worry in real-life that is not being addressed.
These awakenings are associated with the Type 2 dreams where you feel uneasy upon waking. You awake to an over-riding sense of foreboding. Experts believe that your subconscious is trying to tell you that you need to face up to the problem or worry in your life. In a sense, this is your subconscious giving you a wake-up call. Your brain is literally waking you up twice.

False Awakening in Lucid Dreams

 
lucid dreams
 
False awakenings occur in lucid dreaming. The lucid dreamer is aware of being in a dream. As such, to some extent, they can control what happens and what they do.
There are two separate elements of control within lucid dreaming;
  1. Manipulation of the environment or the characters within it
  2. Control over one’s own actions within the dream
False awakenings appear to be linked to the lucid dreamer exerting self-control, rather than manipulating their dream environment. In fact, lucid dreamers are more likely to experience false awakenings.

Symptoms of False Awakening in Dreams

In Type 1 and Type 2 false awakening dreams, there are clues that can signal you are not awake. These are usually a single thing that appears out of place. For example, a person you wouldn’t expect to see, or an object in your house that shouldn’t be there.
You will usually have a sense that something is not quite right. But there are ways you can test yourself. Look at your environment carefully; are the windows and doors straight and the right size? Does the clock face have the right numbers on it?
It is important to recognise what is out of place. This is for two reasons:
  • It is a clue that makes you aware that you are still dreaming.
  • It can lead to the underlying problem that’s worrying you.
Dream analyst Kari Hohn reminds us:
“We dream about what we’re not facing during the day. If we block something out of consciousness, it can appear in our dreams.”
Dreaming allows us to process the thoughts and experiences of the day. Even subconscious ones.

Is There a Treatment for False Awakenings?

Generally speaking, there is no treatment for this kind of sleep disorder. However, if you are suffering from frequent and upsetting false awakenings that are affecting you, it could be a sign of an underlying worry or general anxiety.
In this case, talking therapy might be sufficient to get to the root of your anxiety. Once the worry or stress has been dealt with, your sleep should return to normal. Only if the awakenings are causing you serious distress will you be offered some kind of sleep or dream therapy. Medication may be used to control the symptoms of disturbed sleep.

How to Wake Up from a False Awakening?

symbols in dreams
Those that are experienced in lucid dreaming will already know how to manipulate the environment in their dreams. However, for anyone who does not experience lucid dreaming, it can be more difficult.
For all the regular dreamers who are not expert lucid dreamers, there are ways to wake up properly from a dream.
  • Test your surroundings by focusing on one thing in your dream.
  • Ask yourself – does this seem real to me?
  • Try controlling what you’re doing, e.g. running or walking.
  • Pinch yourself in the dream; does it hurt?
  • Tell yourself to wake up right now.
  • Move your fingers or toes and continue from there.

How to Turn False Awakenings into Lucid Dreams

Establishing control allows us to feel better about ourselves and the situation we’re in. Turning false awakenings into lucid dreaming is a good way of getting back control. Try the following if you believe you are experiencing a false awakening:
  • Do the same thing every day upon waking up. This is your baseline of knowing whether you are still dreaming or not. For instance, always put your slippers on the left foot then right. Then, if this doesn’t happen, you’ll know you are still asleep.
  • Find a mirror and look at your reflection. In one study, a woman experienced multiple false awakenings only realised she was still asleep because she happened to glance at her reflection and there was nothing there.
  • Look at the clock face and see if you can tell the time. When we dream, our brains shut down the area in our brain responsible for language and numbers. As a result, we find it hard to read clocks and watches when we are dreaming.

Is False Awakening Dangerous?

It is important to remember that false awakenings, in themselves, are not harmful. However, recurrent and Type 2 awakenings do suggest that all is not well with the dreamer. It’s possible that some stress or worry is not being addressed. In this case, therapy to discover the underlying anxiety is the best way forward.
References:
  1. www.verywellhealth.com
  2. www.psychologytoday.com
  3. www.refinery29.com
*Names changed.
 
Janey Davies
 

 
 
About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2020 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 




Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

 
All articles are of the respective authors or publishers responsibility. 
 


 
No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 
 

 

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publicado por achama às 14:09
Segunda-feira, 18 / 05 / 20

‘Is My Child a Psychopath?’

‘Is My Child a Psychopath?’ 

5 Signs to Watch Out For

Janey Davies, B.A. (Hons)

https://www.learning-mind.com

May 18th, 2020.

is my child a psychopath
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Are you worried about your child? Have you noticed a disturbing mean streak in them? Are they not fazed by punishment? Have you ever been so frightened of your child’s behaviour that you start to ask yourself, ‘Is my child a psychopath?’

‘Is My Child a Psychopath?’ – How to Recognize the Signs

Adult psychopaths fascinate us, but they must have come from somewhere. So, would you be able to recognise psychopathic traits in your child?
Historically, studies into child psychopathy have been carried out retrospectively. In other words, we take the adult psychopath and look into his or her childhood. Adult psychopaths can share several traits common in childhood. The MacDonald Triad suggested three such significant traits:
  1. Bed-wetting
  2. Cruelty to animals
  3. Fire-setting
However, subsequent research has criticised the MacDonald Triad. Instead, studies have shown that traits such as ‘callous disregard’ are more common in children who go onto exhibit psychopathy as adults.
“I remember when I bit my mom really hard, and she was bleeding and crying. I remember feeling so happy, so overjoyed—completely fulfilled and satisfied.” Carl*

Adult Psychopathic Traits vs Child Psychopathy

Speaking of adults, adult psychopathic traits are well-documented. We know that psychopaths tend to exhibit certain behaviours.

Adult Psychopathic Traits

The Mayo Clinic defines psychopathy as:
“A mental condition in which a person consistently shows no regard for right and wrong and ignores the rights and feelings of others.”
Psychopaths make up about 1% of the population. Around 75% are male and 25% female.
Psychopaths share many characteristics. In fact, the Hare Checklist is a specific list of psychopathic traits. The most common adult psychopathic traits are:
  • Lying and manipulation
  • Lack of morals
  • No empathy
  • Superficial charm
  • Narcissism
  • Superiority complex
  • Gaslighting
  • Lack of conscience
So do children share these same traits as their adult counterparts?
“I wanted the whole world to myself. So I made a whole entire book about how to hurt people. I want to kill all of you.” Samantha*

Child Psychopathy

Well, society does not label children as psychopaths. Instead, children with ‘dark traits’ are described as ‘callous and unemotional’. Experts use this callous-unemotional behaviour (CU behaviour) to form a diagnosis.

Examples of Callous Unemotional Behaviour in Children:

Studies into antisocial behaviour in children have captured several common traits in children as young as 2 years old:
  1. A lack of guilt after misbehaving
  2. No difference in behaviour after punishment
  3. Constant lying
  4. Sneaky behaviour designed to mislead you
  5. Selfish and aggressive behaviour when they don’t get what they want
Further research has led to the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI), which is similar to the Hare Checklist. Adolescents answer a series of questions which are then scored to measure the following personality traits:
  • Sense of grandiosity
  • Lying
  • Manipulation
  • Callous nature
  • No remorse
  • Insincere charm
  • Unemotionality
  • Thrill-seeking
  • Impulsiveness
  • Irresponsible nature
Children and adolescents that exhibit many of the above CU traits are more likely to commit anti-social behaviour as young adults and end up in prison.
“Don’t let me hurt you, Mom.” Kevin*

Is a Child Psychopath a Product of Nature or Nurture?

There are some experts that believe child psychopaths are born this way. However, others think it is more likely to be a mixture of genes and environment.
Philosopher John Locke first suggested that children are ‘blank slates‘, filled with experiences from their parents and interactions with their environment. But children are more than that. They come with their own readymade personality. This core personality then interacts with family, friends, and society. The environment shapes this core personality into the adults we become.
So what can cause a child to become a psychopath?

What Are the Causes of Child Psychopathy?

Early childhood abuse

One of the strongest indications of child psychopathy is early abuse in childhood. In fact, neglected, abused, or children that grew up in dysfunctional environments are more likely to show psychopathic tendencies later on.

Attachment issues

Separation from a parent or primary caregiver can have devastating effects on a child. We know that it is essential to form an attachment with our parents. However, the parent in question could suffer from addiction or mental health problems.
In fact, studies show that young female psychopaths are likely to have come from dysfunctional home lives.

Victimisation

On the other hand, young male psychopaths are more likely to have been victimised at an early age. The perpetrator carrying out the victimisation can be a parent or the child’s peers. This reasoning confirms what we already know, in that victims of bullying will often become bullies themselves.

Different brain structure

Other studies propose that children who show CU behaviours have differences in their brain structure. This supports the theory that suggests adult psychopaths have different brains to the rest of us.
Children with CU traits have less grey matter in the limbic system. This system is responsible for processing emotions. They also have an underactive amygdala. Someone with an undersized amygdala has problems recognising emotions in others. Therefore, they lack empathy.
“Kill John and Mommy with them (knives). And Daddy.” Beth*

5 Signs Your Child Is a Psychopath

So we can understand some of the causes behind child psychopathy. But if you ask yourself, ‘Is my child a psychopath?’, what signs should you be looking out for?

1. Superficial charm

These children can appear charming but they are mimicking what they’ve seen other people do. The only reason they appear to be charming is to get what they want.
One way you can identify superficial charm in children is to watch their reactions when someone else is upset or distressed. In normal circumstances, seeing someone upset will be in itself upsetting to a child. They will try and comfort whoever is upset. If your child is a psychopath, they won’t care and it certainly won’t upset them.

2. Lack of guilt or remorse

Children with CU behaviour use their charm to manipulate others. If they want something, they will do anything in their power to get it. If this happens to hurt another person in the process, so be it. They don’t understand that their actions have consequences. All they know is that the world is there for them. Therefore, they can do whatever they want.
So look out for selfishness in your child, one that is not prepared to share with others and one that acts aggressively if their needs are not met.

3. Prone to aggressive outbursts

Most parents are used to toddler tantrums, but the aggressive outbursts from child psychopaths are much more than tantrums. If you feel frightened of your own child’s capabilities, it’s a sign of psychopathy.
One other thing to point out is that these outbursts will come from nowhere. For instance, one minute, everything is fine, the next, your child is threatening you with a knife if you don’t get them a new puppy. The outburst is a massive overreaction to the situation.

4. Immune to punishment

Brain scans have shown that reward systems in callous children are overactive, but they are unable to recognise the usual signs of punishment. This leads them to focus doggedly on their own pleasure without being able to stop, even if it means hurting someone. Moreover, they know that if they get caught, they’ll be reprimanded.
We usually temper our behaviour to match the consequences of our actions. If your child is a psychopath, they know the consequences – they just don’t care.

5. No empathy for others

Does your child seem flat behind the eyes? Do you look at them and wonder if they are capable of loving you? It’s not that they don’t know what love is, they just don’t experience it.
Child experts believe that inactivity in the amygdala is to blame. More interestingly, we know that babies, when given the choice, would rather look at human faces than something like a red ball. Studies reveal that children who exhibit CU behaviour prefer the red ball to a face.
“I choked my little brother.” Samantha*

Can a Child Psychopath Be Cured?

So can child psychopaths ever be cured? Probably not. But their behaviour can be modified.
Research has shown that children with CU behaviour do not respond to punishment. However, because their reward centre in the brain is overactive, they do respond to incentives. This is cognitive morality. So while the child may never recognise emotions or understand empathy, they do have a system that rewards them for good behaviour.

Final Thoughts

Nature or nurture, brain abnormalities, or neglect in childhood. Whatever the reason, seeing callous disregard in children is particularly horrifying. But it doesn’t have to mean a life sentence. So if you suspect that your child is a psychopath, you should know that with proper therapy, even the coldest of children can live a relatively normal life.
References:
  1. www.psychologytoday.com
  2. www.theatlantic.com
  3. www.telegraph.co.uk
  4. nypost.com
*Names changed.
 
Janey Davies
 

 
 
About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2020 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 




Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

 
All articles are of the respective authors or publishers responsibility. 
 


 
No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 
 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
Free counters!

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publicado por achama às 12:01
Domingo, 26 / 04 / 20

3 Signs of Gaslighting at Work: Is Someone Doing It to You?

 

3 Signs of Gaslighting at Work: 

Is Someone Doing It to You?

Janey Davies, B.A.

https://www.learning-mind.com

April 26th, 2020.

 
 
 

 
Anyone who is interested in psychology might have heard of the term ‘gaslighting’ in regards to a romantic relationship. But gaslighting at work is a relatively new phenomenon. So what are the signs and how can you tell if you’re being gaslighted at work?

What Is Gaslighting and What Are the Origins of This Term?

The term ‘gaslighting’ comes from the 1944 film Gaslight, in which a husband gradually convinces his wife that she’s going mad. We call this form of manipulation gaslighting because in the film the murderous husband attempts to drive his wife insane by convincing her she’s imagined the dimming gaslights in their apartment.
In fact, the lights dimmed because the husband was searching for her aunt’s jewellery. Whenever the wife tries to talk to her husband and discuss the dimming gaslights, her husband denies it ever happened.
He manipulates her into thinking she’s imagined it. He also manipulates the environment they both live in. For example, he denies there are noises coming from the attic (a result of his frantic searching). He consistently misdirects, confuses, flatly denies, and forcibly insists on certain details. In the end, the wife cannot resolve her version of reality to that of her husband.
So gaslighting is a term that describes abusive behaviour that manipulates the environment to make a person doubt his or her sanity.

Why Do People Use Gaslighting?

People gaslight for several different reasons:
  • A need for power
  • Wanting to control the other person
  • Having to conceal something
  • Feeling insecure
  • Jealous of your success
  • Want to get ahead of you

Examples of Gaslighting at Work:

  • Questioning your version of events
  • Rearranging schedules without informing you
  • Taking credit for the work you’ve done
  • Spreading malicious gossip and then denying it
  • Blaming you when things go wrong
  • Pretending they cannot understand you
  • Bullying you in front of colleagues
  • Going into a rage with you but being all smiles to others
Anyone can use gaslighting at work, from your immediate boss to a co-worker or even a client.

Here Are Some More Specific Examples of Gaslighting at Work:

We all tend to judge people by our own standards. On the whole, we believe that people are honest. As a result, it’s really confusing to be confronted with someone who consistently gaslights you. At work, it’s not just confusing but can affect your career, not to mention your mental wellbeing.
Examples of gaslighting at work:
Your boss told you that you had until the end of the month to complete a report, but today, she swears she told you it was due by this lunchtime.
You are always left off important email threads by a colleague who insists they sent it to you. When you question their actions they accuse you of over-reacting and being a drama queen.
Your manager takes credit for your idea and then manages to convince you that he had to do a lot of work to get it presentable.
Your co-worker is talking about you behind your back, but when you confront them, they deny it, saying it’s all in your mind.
So, how can you tell if someone is gaslighting you at work? Look out for the following signs.

3 Signs of Gaslighting at Work

  1. You feel as if something is off with a particular person whenever you interact with them

Do you come away from meetings with this person feeling undermined, confused, or disorientated? Normally, you are a confident member of society, with no issues, you’re no shrinking violet in the workplace. But there’s just something about this new boss or co-worker that tilts you off-balance.
You come away from interactions with them thinking something’s off, but you can’t put your finger on it. Trust your gut. Step back from the situation. Ask a colleague or a family member about your concerns. Try and put the situation into perspective.
  1. You’ve started to second guess and doubt yourself

Have you gone from a confident worker to someone that now constantly double-checks their work? Do you feel as if your memory is worsening? For example, you don’t trust yourself to remember important dates, deadlines, or meetings.
Do you feel as if you’re losing the plot sometimes? Like you’re going mad and can’t rely on your own judgement anymore? Are you doubting your capability to do the job? Do you feel depressed about the thought of encountering this person on a daily basis? Remember, it’s not you, it’s them.
  1. You are constantly accused of being too sensitive

Have you always prided yourself on your ability to take it on the chin? That you have broad shoulders and can take a joke? Have you always been self-deprecating, but now, you’re always being told you are too sensitive or that you’re a drama queen?
Do bosses tell you to man-up and get with the programme? Are you always feeling overwhelmed? Are you afraid of being accused of over-reacting, so you keep quiet? Do you feel isolated and helpless?

My Experience of Gaslighting at Work

I have an example of a gaslighting co-worker from an old job I had on the railways. A co-worker (let’s call her BS Sue) told me that she suffered from narcoleptic epilepsy and that her mother had died from brain cancer. Of course, I was immediately sympathetic. But BS Sue would start contradicting herself. One minute, her mother was 6 stone on her deathbed, the next week, she was 4 stone. One week, she’d died of brain cancer, the next month, it was breast cancer.
Things started to not add up. Then a fellow co-worker asked me out and we started dating. By this time, I’d moved in with BS Sue. The three of us kind of became an item in that we all went out together and would go out for meals together.
Then, something strange began to happen. My then-boyfriend from work started going off me. I would come home and find him and BS Sue sat together on the sofa, all cosy. When I arrived home, they’d stop talking.
Eventually, I moved out and ended the relationship with both of them. I found out later that she was spreading rumours that I slept around, I was cheating and that I was horrible to my boyfriend. I confronted her and she had a breakdown, screaming at me, ‘Everybody leaves me in the end!’

4 Ways to Deal with Gaslighting at Work

  1. Make notes of every incident so you have a record of the abuse when you go to HR and report it.
  2. Avoid one-on-ones with the perpetrator. Try and get any meetings or discussions in public where others are present.
  3. Write everything down, for instance, dates of meetings or deadlines for reports. Get the gaslighter to sign off on it.
  4. Set clear boundaries as to what you are expected to do as part of your job and what’s not expected.

Final Thoughts

We spend an awful lot of time at work, so gaslighting is particularly damaging. Call it out when you see it and remember, you’re not going mad.
References:
  1. www.britannica.com
  2. www.tandfonline.com
  3. Image courtesy Wikimedia Scene from the 1944 movie Gaslight with Charles Boyer and Ingrid Bergman

Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2020 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
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publicado por achama às 21:18
Segunda-feira, 06 / 04 / 20

What Does an Earthquake Dream Mean?

What Does an Earthquake Dream Mean? 

9 Possible Interpretations

Janey Davies, B.A.

https://www.learning-mind.com

April 6th, 2020.


 
Have you been dreaming of earthquakes recently? Normally this is a very rare dream, but several people I’ve spoken to recently reported having this dream. So what does an earthquake dream mean? Let’s find out.

How to Interpret Your Earthquake Dream

9 General Meanings of Earthquake Dreams

If you live in an area that is prone to earthquakes this dream indicates minor difficulties to come. However, generally speaking, earthquake dreams are a lot more significant.

1. Dramatic changes ahead

Dreams about an earthquake signify drastic changes and a complete change of circumstance. This might be from an environment such as work, or even a relationship.
Now, this dramatic change will be beneficial but only through hard work. As a result, you will reap the rewards but you’ll have to dig deep.

2. Current events

With the global pandemic showing no signs of slowing down or halting, we are all feeling increased levels of anxiety. At present, normal life is suspended, we are on lockdown and our behaviour is massively restricted.
The problem with the coronavirus is that it is invisible and we are wary of an enemy we can’t see. On the other hand, earthquakes are loud and visible. They shatter the environment. In fact, you could say they are a visual representation of the worry and anxiety we feel about the pandemic.

3. Overwhelmed feeling

Earthquakes in themselves are extremely chaotic. They start underground and rip chasms through the earth’s crust. Earthquakes are the very definition of pent up energy bursting outwards.
Perhaps you are dealing with a particularly hectic period in your life? Are you feeling that life’s frantic pace is too intense for you? Now is the time to take a step back or ask for support.

4. Extreme anxiety

Earthquakes cause tremors, vibrations and lead to a feeling of instability. Do you feel as if the rug has been pulled from beneath your feet? That you cannot cope with normal everyday life?
This dream of an earthquake is literally your subconscious shaking you a warning to get help. You can’t manage on your own; seek assistance now.

5. Personal transformation

Earthquakes devastate, but they also drastically transform the landscape. Are you embarking on a new challenge in your life? Maybe you are switching careers from one end of the spectrum to another? This earthquake dream might be indicative of your apprehension about the change.
Or maybe the transformation is a more personal one? Either way, your subconscious mind has picked up on your thoughts and wants to help you clarify them.

6. Hidden aggression

Sigmund Freud believed that dreams are the gateway to our subconscious. His dream theory focused on hidden and repressed desires. As such, a destructive force like an earthquake would indicate a hidden destructive desire.
You might not even be aware of this destructive nature within yourself. But perhaps there is something in your life that you feel intense anger towards? Figure out what it is before it consumes you.

7. Cathartic process

Earthquakes leave behind them devastation and destruction. But they are also powerful forces that build up and up and then erupt. This initial devastation clears the way for rebuilding and reinvention.
Instead of fearing the tremors and the shaky ground, use this natural energy as an invigorating and cleansing process.
Remember, you are the architect of this earthquake dream. Therefore, you are protected. This is your dream. The earthquake is of your own making and is there for you to harness its power and energy.
8. Shake up your life
An earthquake dream is your subconscious mind literally taking you by the shoulders and shaking you awake. You are stuck in a rut. Your relationship is going nowhere. You hate your job. You do things out of habit. This earthquake dream is you shouting at yourself to change things.

9. Grief

When we lose someone close to us, it feels as if the earth beneath our feet is no longer stable. Our world is shattered around us. It has been turned upside down and inside out. This type of earthquake dream is a release of your grief for the person you have lost.

Specific Earthquake Dreams

dream about earthquake
  1. You stood in the epicentre of the earthquake unharmed – You have found your focus in life and will be successful.
  2. You watched the earthquake for a long time – Your career or business is on the right path. Be patient, your hard work will pay off.
  3. Trapped in an earthquake – You can’t see a way out of your current situation. Consider your options before you make a final decision.
  4. You were in your house at the time of the earthquake, but it didn’t collapse – Expect significant job changes in your family. These may include a move out of town.
  5. Your home did collapse but you and your loved ones were safe – A recent disaster will have little impact on you or your way of life.
  6. You were injured in the earthquake – You are afraid that if you suffer losses in your business or if you lose your job you won’t be able to manage in the long-term.
  7. A person you love is killed or injured in the earthquake – Your feelings are changing towards this person.
  8. You saved someone from an earthquake – A close friend will experience a serious misfortune and come to you for help.
  9. You were saved from an earthquake – A problem you feared would be insurmountable is not as bad as you imagine. But get some support.
  10. You ran away and hid from an earthquake – This dream is telling you to slow down and consider your decisions before you act on them.
  11. You felt the earth shaking under your feet – You don’t feel confident about a recent life choice. This could relate to your career or personal life. Your dream is warning you to be prepared for any eventuality.
  12. You walked around the ruins of an earthquake – This is a repression dream. You are hiding your feelings regarding a failed business, career choice or partner. You have to face up to reality.

Final Thoughts

Dreams about earthquakes can be scary and worrying. But they don’t all signify bad news. Look at the particulars of your dream and you’ll find what your subconscious mind is trying to tell you.
References:
  1. medium.com
  2. web.stanford.edu

Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2020 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 17:50
Sábado, 04 / 04 / 20

How Will Coronavirus End? Here Are 4 Possible Scenarios.

How Will Coronavirus End? 

Here Are 4 Possible Scenarios.

Janey Davies, B.A.

https://www.learning-mind.com

April 3rd, 2020.

 
 

 
It seems as if we’ve been dealing with coronavirus for years. However, three short months ago, no one had even heard of COVID-19. Now, terms such as self-isolate, flatten the curve and social distancing are all common parlance. But do we know how coronavirus will end?

The Beginning, the Middle and the End of Coronavirus?

The beginning of coronavirus

To date, worldwide, there have been over 1 million cases of coronavirus and over 54,000 deaths. The United Nations says this is the biggest global emergency since WWII.
It is claimed that coronavirus started in a ‘wet market’ (a market that sells dead and live animals together) in Wuhan, China. A disease spreads rapidly in these types of conditions as the dead and live animals are densely packed. This makes hygiene extremely difficult to maintain and pandemics more likely.
All coronaviruses are viruses that cause disease in animals. Experts believe a bat carrying the COVID-19 virus infected some of the animals being sold in this wet market. This particular strain then made the jump to humans. It spreads via droplets when someone coughs or sneezes. These droplets then land on surfaces and remain, in some cases like metal, for up to 9 days.
We all know the rest of this grim story. The coronavirus has travelled around the world, infecting nearly every country. It has caused complete lockdowns, roads are silent, pollution is reducing and people are stockpiling and panic-buying.
We are now in the middle stages of the virus and still nowhere to knowing how it will end.

The Middle of Coronavirus

There were different reactions from the general public when the coronavirus first broke out. Some didn’t take it seriously and kept to their normal schedules. Others battened down their hatches and went on shopping sprees to stock up.
Now, everyone is aware of the risk to human health and governments across the world are taking drastic action to stop the spread. Shops that were a few weeks ago displaying empty shelves are gradually getting back to normal. People are, in the most part, self-isolating and adjusting to a new way of life.
So while the majority of us are simply riding out the storm and sticking to health guidelines, what are the experts saying with regards to a possible end to coronavirus?

How will coronavirus end?

Experts believe there are a number of scenarios that could herald the end of the coronavirus.
  1. Herd Immunity

We have heard a lot about herd immunity in the past couple of weeks. Herd immunity is where a number of people contract the virus, recover and then become immune. This creates a mass of people with immunity to the virus. The virus then struggles to find hosts it can infect and it naturally dies out.
The problem is the sheer cost of human lives. COVID-19 is deadlier than flu and infects more people. Allowing the coronavirus to freely infect with no restrictions would leave millions dead and many with life-changing conditions.
In fact, the UK initially considered herd immunity but rejected the idea as the consequences became clear.
  1. Seasonality

We could hold out for summer. Most coronaviruses tend to surface in the winter months and die out in the summer. This is because droplets react differently under hot and cold conditions.
A protective shell ‘houses‘ the virus. It is this shell that reacts with the environment. With COVID-19, the virus is protected by a fatty exterior. This is why washing with soap is so important because soap naturally dissolves this fatty exterior and the virus dies.
There are other factors that affect this fatty outer – heat and humidity.
“Much of the world is waiting anxiously to see what — if anything — the summer does to transmission in the Northern Hemisphere,” says Maia Majumder of Harvard Medical School and Boston Children’s Hospital.
  1. Vaccine

There are many that think the coronavirus will not end until we find a vaccine. Up until then, we will just have to manage the virus as best we can. Keeping schools and businesses closed for the time being. Restricting movement amongst the general public, and enforcing social distancing and self-isolation for the vulnerable.
However, it takes a long time to produce a vaccine. We are used to making flu vaccines, adjusting them to fit the latest outbreak, but we’ve never had a coronavirus outbreak before. So we are starting from the drawing board.
Moreover, even if we create a vaccine that works, we’d still have to manufacture millions of them. And that takes time.
  1. Intermittent shutdowns

What is more likely to happen is that we see an ebb and flow of the coronavirus. There’s been a lot of talk about ‘flattening the curve’ to stop the spread.
But it’s possible that once this curve is sufficiently flattened, life will go back to some semblance of normality. Restrictions will be lifted and then suddenly there’s another outbreak. Then, it is likely that social distancing will be enforced again, but just for the local area that is affected.
What many experts are saying is that this will be the new normal. Restrictions will be lifted once the spread is under control. But if the virus reappears, we go back to isolating.

How is coronavirus affecting the economy?

Shutdowns affect many types of businesses. Obviously, this has a major effect on the economy. So who will survive and will our economy change? Well, it all depends on how that particular country has dealt with the coronavirus. For instance:
If a country fails to halt the broad spread of the virus, then the healthcare system will collapse. The pandemic will continue to rise, leading to a prolonged downturn in the economy.
Prepared countries that show a rapid and strong response to the virus are going to control it within a few months. This means there will be some damage to the economy, but the trend will be for long-term growth.
Obviously, there are some industries that may never fully recover.

Worst hit industries

The coronavirus has hit the travel industry very hard.  In some cases, airlines may have to file for bankruptcy. Car manufacturers are also struggling. There has been a 10% drop in sales since the outbreak. Closed for the foreseeable future are hotels, restaurants and many small businesses.

Who will be most affected by the coronavirus?

Experts predict it is the poor and people on low incomes that will suffer the most. They are more likely to have chronic health conditions anyway and have to manage on smaller incomes. Then there’s the effect on a nation’s mental health. Vulnerable people are told to have no contact at a time they most need a visit or a cuddle to reassure them.
Elderly people will face more loneliness as social distancing becomes the new normal. Racial attacks increase thanks to the virus being known as the ‘Chinese Virus’.
Already incidences of domestic violence and child abuse are rising as people struggle to maintain civil relationships stuck in the house with one another.
And who knows whether those who have contracted the virus will be welcomed back into their communities when this is all over?

Can any good come out of the coronavirus?

For the first time in many people’s lives, we are seeing remarkable acts of kindness. But also a recognition of the vulnerable and the elderly.
No longer is it deemed a badge of honour to go to work if you are sick. Neither is it a stigma to have to go on benefits. Parents are spending quality time with their kids. Communities are pulling together. Businesses are repurposing their equipment to make safety gear for hospitals.
Day in and day out we applaud the NHS for its sterling work for tackling the virus. So yes, this virus has led to a reawakening of what’s important in life and what is not.

Final Thoughts

No one can really know how the coronavirus will end, but perhaps we can take this time to help people wherever we are able to.
References:
  1. medium.com
  2. www.livescience.com
  3. www.theguardian.com


Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 03:54
Terça-feira, 31 / 03 / 20

Why Did Bubonic Plague Doctors Wear Creepy Beak-Nosed Masks?

Why Did Bubonic Plague Doctors Wear Creepy Beak-Nosed Masks?

Janey Davies, B.A.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 31st, 2020.

 

 
With the current pandemic firmly entrenched and the death toll rising, it’s not surprising that people are looking to history for answers. However, if the strange bird-like masks worn by bubonic plague doctors are anything to go on, we’re in trouble.
The coronavirus pandemic is not the first time we humans have faced an outbreak that kills on a massive scale.
3 of the Worst Pandemics in Human History

Spanish Flu (1918-1920)

  • Death toll: 20 – 50 million
  • Cause: H1N1 Flu Virus
Spanish Flu is a HIN1 flu virus of avian origin. It was first identified in American military personal at the start of 1918. The virus was particularly deadly in children under 5, 20-30-year-olds and the over 65s. At the time, there were no vaccines, no cure and pretty much no treatment.
This strain of flu infected around 500 million globally and was first discovered in Spain, hence – Spanish Flu.

The Black Death (1346-1353)

  • Death Toll: 75 – 200 million
  • Cause: Bubonic Plague
Thought to have originated in Asia, the Black Death spread from infected fleas biting rats. These rats would board merchant ships and travel across the oceans to trading ports in far-away continents. Once the ships landed at the ports, the rats would jump off and enter the busy market areas. It is here they came into contact with humans.
Symptoms of the bubonic plague included painful and swollen lumps around the lymph nodes known as buboes. After a period of time, these buboes turned black – hence the Black Death.

The Great Plague of London (1665-1666)

  • Death Toll: 75,000 – 100,000
  • Cause: Bubonic Plague
The bubonic plague first appeared in the 14-century but surfaced again in London in 1665. It spread rapidly throughout the capital, killing 20% of London’s population.
It began in small, over-crowded slums and quickly infected thousands of people. So vast was the death toll that mass graves were needed. But eventually, in 1666, the Great Fire of London burned and cleansed this infested city.

The Rise of the Bubonic Plague Doctors

Italian Plague 1650

An epidemic of the bubonic plague broke out in Naples, Italy in 1656. Thought to have spread from a ship that carried the disease, it ravaged the city of Naples. The death toll was half of the city’s residents.
The poor could not avoid contracting the plague. However, their lean, hard muscular bodies were more able to cope with the symptoms. On the other hand, the rich, well-fed, lazy and overweight might be able to reduce their risk of contracting the disease. But they were not in the best of health.
Italian officials took desperate measures. This led to the emergence of a new kind of doctor – the Bubonic Plague Doctors.

bubonic plague doctors

Why Did Bubonic Plague Doctors Wear Creepy Beak Costumes and Masks?
These doctors were either recently qualified or second-rate doctors or had no medical training at all. But that didn’t matter to the Italian government. What was important was the fact that these plague doctors were willing to enter the city and treat the infected. But first, they had to have suitable protective clothing.
As a result, the bubonic plague doctors dressed in the most outlandish gear. These doctors became a common sight, but there was nothing ordinary or comforting about their appearance.
They wore face masks shaped like bird’s beaks. The long beak of the mask held strong, cleansing herbs such as absinthe and wormwood. Herbs were stuffed into the beaks of the facemasks to filter out the toxic air.
Their weird crazy outfits included a pair of goggles, long waxed coats, gloves and a top hat. They would also carry a long baton stick to point to things of importance, presumably because talking was difficult.
Their appearance certainly raised eyebrows and got tongues wagging. One German visitor spoke out at the time:
“You believe it is a fable, what is written about Doctor Beak … Oh, believe and don’t look away, for the Plague rules Rome.” Paul Fürst
Funnily enough, it was not their duty to attempt to cure the sick and ailing. Their tasks were more administrative. They kept detailed notes of the death toll, the sick and infected.
They were authorised to attend autopsies and to witness the final signing of a person’s will. With this much power and influence, it is understood that some of the plague doctors did try and scam their ‘patients’.

Why the Creepy Beak-Nosed Masks Did Not Work

bubonic plague doctors mask
It may be obvious to us that the reason for the creepy costumes was for protection. The experts at the time believed the plague was spread through bad air or miasma.
Therefore, the long beaks were essential to the bubonic plague doctors as they filtered out this diseased air. Sometimes they even burned the herbs as an additional precaution. The long waxed coats and gloves were also protection against the air.
However, the problem was not the air. The plague spreads through slum conditions, crowded living areas, bad sanitation and contaminated water supplies.
Another problem was the lack of qualifications or indeed medical knowledge from the bubonic plague doctors. In fact, many of them took to inventing their own ‘cures’ and selling them to the rich and wealthy in society.
Such cures included covering the buboes with excrement, blood-letting and lancing the painful sores. They even poured mercury over the contaminated and heated it up in ovens.

Final Thoughts

Thankfully, we now know much more about contamination and how viruses spread. We also have the proper equipment and the necessary techniques to help stop modern-day pandemics.
I mean, can you imagine contracting a serious virus and then having to let one of those bubonic plague doctors into your house? No, me neither!
References:
  1. www.history.com
  2. www.nationalgeographic.com


Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 18:02
Segunda-feira, 30 / 03 / 20

What Is Cognitive Ease and How It Blocks Your Critical Thinking.

What Is Cognitive Ease and How It Blocks Your Critical Thinking.

Janey Davies, B.A.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 29th, 2020.

 
 

 
Now before you start reading this article, I just want to promise you it is not a political piece. I am only using an event in recent British politics to highlight a way of thinking called cognitive ease.
Last December, the Conservative Party won the General Election with a huge majority not seen since WWII. This is despite the fact that many voters disagreed with their policies and preferred the Labour manifesto. So what went wrong? Cognitive ease, dear readers. Cognitive ease.
I say again, don’t worry, this isn’t a political article. It’s the easiest way I can tell you about this particular way of thinking. Let me explain. Going into the election the Conservatives had a very brief and succinct message. It was: ‘Get Brexit Done’
On the other hand, the Labour party was wishy-washy about where they stood on Brexit. Their leader told the UK he would be an ‘honest broker of the people’ (whatever that meant, no one really knew). He wouldn’t take sides and the Labour party message was one of ‘we’ll go with want the people want’, or something like that. I don’t recall. And that’s the problem.
The Conservatives won a massive majority. After the dust had settled, many people cited the clear message from the Tories about Brexit. It was easy to understand they said. They knew what it meant. It was catchy, concise, and simple to remember. It chimed well with the public. Audiences took to it.
On the other hand, no one understood what Labour was trying to say.
The Conservatives won because they took advantage of cognitive ease. So what exactly is it?

What Is Cognitive Ease and How It Works

Put simply, cognitive ease is the ease in which our brains process information and this then has a direct impact on how we then view that information. In other words, if something is easy to understand, like ‘Get Brexit Done’, we immediately understand it and we view it in a positive way.
Not only that, but the easier a thing is to process and understand, the more time and effort we’ll invest in it. Conversely, when something becomes harder to understand, and we need to take more of a mental effort, this leads to a negative view. In fact, we can become suspicious, distrustful and lose confidence.
The problem is that not everything in life is easy to understand. If it was, Einstein would never have come up with the theory of relativity. So why are we drawn to cognitive ease?
It’s because we are most likely to believe what is familiar and what is easy. Going back to the ‘Get Brexit Done’ slogan again, even when members of the opposition told the British public that Brexit absolutely would not ‘be done’ in a matter of months (which was what Boris Johnson had been saying) because it would take years to negotiate the trade deals, we all ignored them and voted him in.

Familiarity Breeds Cognitive Ease

So the phrase became so familiar that in the end, it was the truth. Studies show that if something is repeated enough times, we believe it. There’s an old saying: ‘a lie travels around the world several times before the truth is putting its shoes on‘.
This repeating something until we are familiar with it is the mere-exposure effect. Many people use this to their advantage, including politicians. The purpose of repeating a certain phrase is that it gives us a sense of cognitive ease. Our brains don’t have to work that hard because we’ve heard it before, therefore, it must be true.

Simplicity Is Key

Again I’m using the Brexit phrase because it is so simple it was so effective. When something is simple, it requires less processing and that gives us cognitive ease.
For example, if I give you two options, Option A is very simple to understand and Option B is extremely difficult, then I ask you to choose which option you prefer, statistically, you are more likely to say Option A.
This is because you find option A easier to understand and we like things we understand. We find them easier to process. They take less mental strain.

Cognitive Ease Validates Our Existing Beliefs

But there’s another reason why cognitive ease is such a pervasive thought behaviour and that is the information we think is true and right and that we already understand makes us feel better.
Information that is consistent with what we already believe validates our opinions. We are more likely to accept information that already fits in with our belief systems, with our values. It’s like big green ticks along all our confidence boxes.
Conversely, information that is inconsistent with what we believe is held up to much greater scrutiny. We don’t easily accept it as we do information we already believe in. In fact, the opposite is true.
We instantly distrust it, we look at the source of the information, and we dislike the characters that are talking about the information. We find reasons to dismiss the information.
This is because it is taking us much greater cognitive processes to dissect the information than the simple or familiar stuff.
The problem is that cognitive ease is a cognitive bias and a shortcut to processing the world around us. As with all cognitive biases, they can distort our thinking. So how do we stop falling into the trap of cognitive ease thinking?

How to Avoid Cognitive Ease Thinking

  • Accept different views
  • Don’t believe because something is simple, it is true
  • Don’t believe because you’ve heard it before, it is true
  • Listen to as many different people as you can
  • Don’t get trapped in an echo chamber
  • Be wary of the feel-good response that cognitive ease thinking gives you
  • Start accepting that feeling uncomfortable is a sign you are thinking properly

Final Thoughts


It’s hard to escape the trap of cognitive ease. When we feel validated, we get a rush of confidence and our mood is lifted and we are happy. But it’s important to realise that some factions of society use cognitive ease as a way of fooling the public. So be on your guard. Is something too simple? Do you keep hearing or seeing it? It could be cognitive ease.


Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 17:59
Sábado, 28 / 03 / 20

How Mass Hysteria Is Making the Pandemic Worse and How to Cope.

How Mass Hysteria Is Making the Pandemic Worse and How to Cope.

Janey Davies, B.A.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 28th, 2020.

 
mass hysteria.

 
 
 
I like to think of myself as a fairly rational and calm person, but in the last few weeks, I have felt close to tears. Since the coronavirus has taken hold, I have seen mass hysteria on an unprecedented scale.
 
Never before in my lifetime have I witnessed empty supermarket shelves, people walking around wearing masks and daily updates from the government. It seems as if we are living in some kind of nightmare. Common-sense no longer applies. Rules are turned upside down.
 
In times of hardship and struggle, we pull together, we hug each other and visit our family and friends more often. However, we can’t do that with this new threat. Instead, we must self-isolate and socially distance ourselves.
 
Our normal routines and daily lives have to follow a strict safety code. No more unnecessary travel. Only shop for essential products. If you do go out, stay 2 metres apart from other people. It’s enough to bring on mass hysteria.
 
What Is Mass Hysteria?
 
It is a psychological condition shared by groups of people who feel threatened by a certain event or person. There are many examples of mass hysteria throughout history.
 
 
Examples of mass hysteria
 
Salem Witch Trials
 
In late February 1692 in a small village called Salem, Massachusetts, two young girls began having fits. They would twitch and shriek uncontrollably. The parish and community blamed the fits on witchcraft and singled out women who had supposedly afflicted these young girls.
 
Soon the numbers started to rise and eventually many more were showing signs of witchcraft. In 1693, more than 200 women had been accused of witchcraft. In fact, 30 were convicted and 19 were executed.
 
Remember, only two girls were ill, but it ended up with countless of women being held captive and subject to ridiculous ‘witch tests’.
 
The Louisiana Twitching
 
Talking of twitching, in early 1939, one Louisianan schoolgirl developed a strange twitch in her leg. Suddenly the twitching spread to others. The number of cases rose sharply but no doctor could pinpoint the problem.
 
All tests came back negative. Meanwhile more and more girls were succumbing to this strange leg-twitching phenomena.
 
Parents removed their children from schools, refusing to allow them back until the cause was known. After a few weeks, the incidences of leg-twitching seemed to calm down, but what had caused the outbreak in the first place?
 
Those who investigated narrowed it down to one girl – Helen – who had the first symptoms. Helen couldn’t dance. In fact, she hated dance classes but was worried that her boyfriend would be tempted by another girl who was a better dancer than her.
 
She pretended to have an uncontrollable twitch in her leg so that she could get out of dance class and have a readymade excuse to her boyfriend.
 
The Bin Laden Itch
 
After the tragic 9/11 attacks of 2001, reports started to surface of children complaining of a strange skin rash. The rash could last from just a few hours to a couple of weeks. But doctors and parents were none the wiser.
 
Some parents started to speculate that this could be a result of a bioterrorist attack. Remember, at the time we were all terrified about viewing the broadcast of the two aeroplanes.
 
People started calling it the Bin Laden Itch after an extraordinary number of elementary students appeared to come down with this rash. As more and more children fell victim to the rash, so did the panic and hysteria begin to rise. So what was the cause?
 
The Center for Disease Control investigated. They found that because of the initial fear of a biological attack, children and parents had been paying closer attention to their skin. More cases were reported and numbers rose. In fact, it was these rising numbers that started the mass hysteria.
 
The problem with mass hysteria
 
So what about today and the virus that everyone is talking about? Has mass hysteria led to panic buying in supermarkets? Does the constant updating of cases and deaths help to fuel our anxiety? Are the orders from governments beginning to scare us?
 
It’s really not surprising that people are becoming hysterical. We feel overwhelmed by the sheer scale of events when we are bombarded with information from many different sources.
 
However, despite the fact that we are all living in very crazy times, there is a real problem when it comes to mass hysteria.
Mass hysteria can lead us to believe things that are simply not true.
  • It can also fool us into thinking the problem is much worse than it really is.
  • It can change our behaviour and make us act foolishly or selfishly.
  • It leads to the spread of misinformation which only fuels our anxiety even further.
  • How to cope with mass hysteria
 
It is true that this pandemic is more deadly than the recent outbreak of swine flu in 2009, but that doesn’t mean we need to panic.
 
Take, for example, the SARS epidemic in 2003 which killed around 10% of those who caught it. Not to mention the MERS outbreak, which killed 34% of those infected.
 
So far, this virus is not as deadly as SARS and MERS. Today there are around 600,000 confirmed cases and a mortality rate of 4.4%.
 
And what does this tell us? Well, with SARS and MERS we weren’t seeing massive shutdowns and forced changes to our behaviour. But the facts and figures speak for themselves. Coronavirus is no more deadly than the last few recent epidemics the world has had to face.
 
Final thoughts
 
In these strange and unprecedented times, it can be easy to sit at home and worry. If you feel anxious and hysterical, remember, it’s easy to pass this onto others.
 
Instead, why not go to reputable sites like the World Health Organisation and get the facts from the horse’s mouth. You’ll feel much better, I promise.
 
Meanwhile, stay safe.
 
References:

  1. www.verywellmind.com
  2. www.businessinsider.com


Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 19:09
Segunda-feira, 23 / 03 / 20

Dreams about the Ocean: Interpretations and Meanings

Dreams about the Ocean:

Interpretations and Meanings

Janey Davies, B.A.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 22nd, 2020.

 
dreams about the ocean.
 
 
Dreaming about the ocean can be relaxing, exhilarating or downright terrifying. To understand dreams about the ocean, you have to look at the condition and the context of the ocean.
 
However, as a rule of thumb, oceans represent our emotions, often hidden deep within our subconscious. So whenever you are analysing oceans in dreams, take this into account.
 
Interpretations of Dreams about the Ocean
 
What was the ocean like in your dream?
 
Calm Ocean
 
This indicates stability and emotional balance in your life. You feel happy with your health and mental wellbeing and have control over the important aspects of your life. You feel at peace with the world and are relaxed and optimistic about the future.
 
Clear Ocean
 
If you can see wildlife and plants waving and ebbing and flowing in a crystal clear ocean, it is a sign of spiritual happiness. It also means you have the wherewithal to ride out any potential problems that are coming your way.
 
Dark Ocean
 
If you could not see into the depths of the ocean, you are experiencing a fear of the unknown. You are worried about the future and are having trouble managing negative emotions.
 
Turbulent Ocean
 
Waves or rough seas are a sign of problems to come, or risks to overcome. The greater the wave, the higher the problem or risk.
 
Raging Ocean
 
This indicates an attack on you that is particularly violent and upsetting. Be on your guard; you won’t know when or where this attack will come from.
Deep Ocean
 
Deep ocean dreams indicate the depth of your emotions. It is how you felt in this deep water that matters. Were you relaxed or frightened?
 
Pink Ocean
 
Pink is the colour of romance, but in this instance, it represents sexual desire. The desire you feel is not appropriate and your subconscious is warning you against taking action.
 
Shark-infested ocean
 
Being in an ocean full of sharks is a warning against false friends. Beware of treacherous behaviour from people you trust.
 
They are not your friends.
 
Those are types of oceans and what they represent, but it is important to understand the context of your dream as well.
 
What were you doing in your ocean dream?
 
Sailing across the ocean
 
This dream is about navigating your way through life’s problems with optimism and confidence. You feel like you can overcome any challenge that comes your way.
 
Swimming in the ocean
 
Again, this is a dream of confidence. Dreaming of swimming in deep waters suggests you feel capable and in charge of your life. However, if you can’t swim, this dream represents your fears and worries about real-life problems.
 
Fell in the ocean
 
Were you in deep over your head? This is a metaphor for how you feel in real life. Your subconscious is telling you that you need support and help with a problem you are struggling to deal with.
 
Diving in the ocean
 
Diving headfirst into a deep ocean implies you are ready for a challenge. You want to dive straight in and sort the problem out. It also indicates a trip or a period of travelling.
 
Floating in the ocean
 
Floating all depends on the state of the ocean and how you felt. If it was calm and you were relaxed, this indicates you are at peace with the world. However, turbulent waters that frightened you suggest turmoil in your private life.
 
Fell off a boat
 
You are drowning in a sea of emotions. People usually have this dream after a sudden loss or bereavement.
 
Swimming in the ocean
 
Swimming indicates success in your recent endeavours. This is a sign you will overcome your challenges by hard work and pressing forward. If you swam to the horizon, you can expect a relationship to change.
 
Riding the waves of the ocean
 
This confidence you feel whilst riding the waves is reflected in real life. You feel all-powerful and ready to take on the world. In fact, you are excited and exhilarated to take on new challenges. However, if you felt wobbly whilst riding, this means you want to become more proficient.
 
On a ship in the ocean
 
This ocean dream is a powerful message to you that you can navigate your way through any of life’s trials and tribulations.
 
Lost at sea
 
Lost in the expanse of the ocean means you feel at a loss with your emotions. You need to get back to terra firma, onto solid ground.
 
Of course, these are all dreams about being on or in the ocean. What if you are on the shore or beach and can see the ocean?
 
Dreams about the Ocean Shore
 
Walking along a calm and beautiful shoreline indicates the possibility of a new romantic partner or a new passion in life. The calm nature means you can take your time to this new passion.
 
Ending up on the shore after a shipwreck or swimming in the ocean indicates you are now on safe ground in real life. Have you come out of trauma recently? This dream shows that everything worked out well and that you made the right decision.
 
Where you on the shore and wanted to get into the ocean? This represents your desire or longing for something just out of reach. Was there something in the ocean? This could be an indication of what you are wishing for.
 
Stepping in or over seaweed is a cautionary warning. It grows naturally at the water’s edge so it is a sign of personal growth in your own life. But you can also get tangled up in it so watch out.
 
Picking up seashells from the shore suggests someone is going to tell you a secret or reveal one about you. It could be someone close to you that trusted.
 
Anyone who dreams of lying on the beach with waves rolling over them needs to control their emotions. The ebb and flow of the tide indicate changing emotions; one moment you are happy the next sad.
 
Tsunamis are terrifying in real life and in dreams about oceans. This dream revolves around intense stress and worry. It is an anxiety dream that represents your panic in real life.
 
Final thoughts
 
Dreams about oceans can reveal the state of our emotions. They are a useful insight into our subconscious, but only if we interpret them properly.
 
References:
  1. https://www.psychologytoday.com
  2. https://psychcentral.com


Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 00:59
Quinta-feira, 19 / 03 / 20

Persecution Complex: What Causes It and What Are the Symptoms?

Persecution Complex: 

What Causes It and What Are the Symptoms?

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 19th, 2020.

 
persecution complex.
 
 
 
Do you sometimes feel that everyone is against you? That the world has it in for you? Or that people are out to get you? You could be suffering from a persecution complex.
 
Those statements might sound pretty outrageous, and to most of us, they are. However, did you know that according to research, at least 10 – 15% of us regularly experience these kinds of delusions?
 
Of course, we all get paranoid thoughts and feelings of persecution occasionally. It’s easy to blame outside forces when things don’t go our way. But for some people, it is a pervasive way of thinking that severely disrupts their life.
 
So what exactly is this complex?
 
What is a persecution complex?
 
This complex arises when a person falsely believes that someone is out to cause them harm. The intensity and longevity of these feelings can differ, as can the object of the paranoia.
 
For example, an employee can believe the whole office staff is against her and deliberately undermining her chances of promotion. Or an individual can think they are being persecuted by government agents who are trying to frame them for crimes they did not commit.
 
Examples of persecution complexes:
My husband is trying to poison me because he has a new lover and wants me out of the way.
  • I know the police are tapping my phones.
  • I have to go to the self-service tills because the shop assistants have been told not to serve me.
  • My neighbours are stealing my washing from the line while I’m at work.
 
In all examples, sufferers believe that either a person, group of people or an organisation is going to cause them harm.
 
Sufferers from a persecution complex will typically talk in vague terms. They will say ‘They’re out to get me’ or ‘Someone’s listening to my calls’. However, when pressed further they are unable to identify the perpetrator.
 
So where does this delusion come from and who is likely to suffer from it?
 
Where does a persecution complex come from?
 
Sufferers share three common aspects in the way they think, feel and then act. To understand this complex further we need to examine three main human behavioural processes:
  1. Emotional processing
  2. Abnormal internal events
 
1. Emotional processing
 
Studies show that those who suffer from this complex tend to think with more emotion when it comes to their social experiences. They view their interactions with others through an emotional lens, rather than a logical one.
 
As a result, sufferers get upset at everyday occurrences and react with more impulsivity. The main problem, however, with viewing everyday incidents through an emotional lens is that a sufferer will attribute greater meaning to non-events.
 
2. Abnormal internal events
 
Emotional processing is just one aspect of a persecution complex. The second is that sufferers misconstrue what is happening to them externally in the environment.
 
In order for them to rationalise what’s going on in their heads, they’ll fixate on something outside of them. For example, a person with anxiety might attribute their anxious state because they believe they are being watched.
 
Or someone who has been ill recently might believe they are being slowly poisoned. In all cases, they attribute their internal thoughts to outside events.
 
3. Reasoning biases
 
Studies have found that persecution complexes are perpetuated by cognitive biases. In other words, sufferers are likely to use biases when they think. For instance, jumping to conclusions, black and white thinking and blaming other people instead of themselves.
 
For example, someone who jumps to conclusions might view the black car that is driving up and down their road as a government spy. Those with normal reasoning might just assume the driver was lost.
 
Who is more likely to suffer?
 
As well as the above three common traits, there are other commonalities that sufferers may share.
 
Childhood trauma – Psychosis and paranoia can be linked to neglect, abuse and trauma in childhood.
 
Genetics – Delusional thinking is more common in those who already have a family member suffering from a psychosis such as schizophrenia.
 
Low self-worth – People with a low sense of self-worth, who are vulnerable to criticism and have little self-esteem are more likely to succumb to paranoid delusions.
 
Overly-critical of themselves – Research has shown that those who are overly critical of themselves can suffer from a persecution complex.
 
Worriers – Those with a persecution complex have a tendency to worry and ruminate more than the average person. They’ll also catastrophize and fantasise about implausible outcomes.
 
Over-sensitive – People with paranoid delusions can appear oversensitive to criticism from others. They are more likely to perceive a light-hearted comment as a personal attack on them.
 
Treatment of a persecution complex
 
Treating this delusion will vary according to the overriding symptoms and underlying causes.
 
For instance:
  • Learning to control the original anxiety can reduce the feelings of persecution.
  • Recognising one’s thought patterns, such as catastrophizing and black and white thinking can increase feelings of paranoia.
  • Learning to reduce time spent worrying will decrease the likelihood of a paranoid episode.
  • Addressing past trauma from childhood can lead to significant reductions in symptoms.
  • Cognitive-behavioural therapy can help sufferers reduce their negative thought patterns.
 
Final thoughts
 
Living with a persecution complex is not only surprisingly common but can be extremely debilitating. However, treatments are available and you can, with professional help, learn to manage the symptoms.
 
 
References:
  1. www.wired.com
  2. www.verywellmind.com


Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 23:56
Terça-feira, 17 / 03 / 20

Outcome Bias: How It Leads You to Disaster and How to Avoid It

Outcome Bias: 

How It Leads You to Disaster and How to Avoid It

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 17th, 2020.

 
outcome bias.
 
 
 
Cognitive biases shape our everyday experiences and influence our decision-making. But one bias, in particular, can be extremely dangerous – the outcome bias.
 
What Is an Outcome Bias?
 
The outcome bias can make you focus on the end result and ignore the risks along the way. When we already know the outcome of a specific task, we can become blind to the dangers that might present during the process.
 
  • “When people observe successful outcomes, they tend to focus on the results more than on the (often unseen) complex processes that led to them.” Tinsley, Dillon, Madsen
 
This usually happens when we have repeated a task and achieved a good result at the end. This gives us the impression that every time we undertake this task, the results will be good.
 
But lots of things can happen during the process.
 
For example, imagine you live in an area prone to flooding. So far, in the twenty years you have lived in your house, the floodwaters have never been close to reaching your property. Do you buy flood insurance?
 
Many people would say no. The floods have not affected you for twenty years. But then the following year you see exceptional levels of rain and the river banks burst, flooding your house.
 
Studies show that if a person experiences a near-miss where they’ve escaped a potential hazard, they are less likely to take protective action. They’ll have an “I was alright last time, it will be alright again,” attitude.
 
Instead of evaluating the situation as it unfolds, they are focusing on past outcomes to inform their future decisions. But this is a rapidly changing world. So why do we feel the need to concentrate on the results, rather than the process?
 
Why do we experience it?
 
Human beings are continually trying to make sense of the world and to do this, we have to take shortcuts in our cognitive processing. We can’t evaluate every single new experience and try and decode it.
 
As a result, we learn these cognitive shortcuts. In the outcome bias, we do this by evaluating a situation against a previous one. If the previous situation had a good outcome, then we’ll chalk that up to a good decision. It’s a little like we’re using the power of retroactive hindsight when we focus on the outcome. It worked before, it will work again.
 
But is the outcome bias such a bad thing? Surely learning from past experiences is a good thing for humans?
 
Yes, it is, but the problem with the outcome bias is that we are not learning from our previous experiences. We are simply replicating them. And that’s where it gets dangerous. Because we fool ourselves into thinking that our decisions don’t matter, and they do of course.
 
Famous examples of disastrous outcome bias
 
Deepwater Horizon Oil Rig
 
In April 2010, a gas blowout safety mechanism failed on BP Gulf’s oil ring. The blowout ignited which caused the rig to sink, triggering a massive oil spill that wrecked wildlife and killed 11 people. This accident is one of the worst environmental disasters in American history.
 
But why did it happen? There had been warning signs.
 
The crew on the rig called it ‘the well from hell’ because of numerous technical problems. For a start, the main pipe that led into the well didn’t have enough centralizers in place to keep it straight. In addition, the drillers had removed the drilling mud too soon which lead to an unstable pipe.
 
The night before the blowout crew had performed a negative pressure test on the pipe to see if it was leaking oil and gas. Basically, this meant removing the heavy mud and replacing it with lighter seawater. In order to see if pressure built up the well was shut down. Pressure-build up is a sure sign that oil and gas were seeping into the well.
 
The tests showed that pressure had indeed built up, but BP managers and rig crew disagreed on the results. The test had to be repeated as no one could agree. After repeating the test now everyone agreed they had a good result and many crew members went to bed.
 
But it wasn’t a good result.
 
Over the next few hours, hundreds of barrels of oil and gas were leaking out and travelling up the pipe with increasing momentum. This roiling mass of pressure burst through the safety blowout and just kept going. Eventually, it ignited, blowing up the oil rig.
 
An ensuring investigation took years to complete, but it found a catalogue of errors that lead to this disaster. BP executives had experienced dozens of near-misses in the industry but with no major consequences.
 
However, each near-miss was down to sheer luck or circumstances, not good decision-making. For example, wind direction, or using different safety equipment. But instead of raising alarms and being carefully investigated, each near-miss was viewed that the safety procedures were working.
 
The Challenger Space Shuttle
 
Most of us can remember the horrific sight of the Challenger Space Shuttle breaking up in mid-air.
 
In January 1986, 73 seconds after it was launched, NASA’s Challenger space shuttle exploded. Seven astronauts were killed instantly, including a teacher. Broadcast live, this launch happened with millions of spectators around the world watching. So what went so drastically wrong?
 
Investigators attributed the accident to a failure of an O ring seal. This was a sealing ring that should have protected two joints in the lower parts of the rocket. The seal was designed to stop extremely hot gases from leaking from these two joints.
 
However, it broke, the gas escaped causing foam to break off an external rocket tank. This created shards of debris that pierced a hole through the wing of the space shuttle and causing it to explode.
 
Many people questioned why the launch went ahead as the initial recommendation was to cancel, due to the extreme cold temperatures on that day. However, the decision to launch was made.
 
The following investigation showed that doubts had been initially raised by the failure of the O rings on previous flights. But they were effectively ignored because their failures had never caused damage before.
 
In fact, Richard Feynman, a professor of theoretical physics and part of the investigation, stated:
 
“There were many seals that didn’t have any problem, and so it is obviously a random effect. It depends upon whether or not you get a blowhole or you don’t get a blowhole. So if within a particular flight it happens that all six seals don’t get a blowhole, that’s no information.”
 
Mars probe
 
And I can show you another example of NASA’s failure to properly investigate an anomaly in space travel which led to disaster.
 
During its 1998 journey towards Mars, the Mars Climate Orbiter kept drifting off-course. Actually, it drifted four times and each time analysts on Earth had to make small adjustments to correct it.
 
Scientists did not try to find the cause of the drifting of a $200 million spacecraft. Instead, they carried on correcting the trajectory. As it approached Mars, instead of entering into orbit, it crashed and broke up in the atmosphere.
 
NASA investigators later discovered that the programmers had mistakenly used English measurements instead of metric ones when they set the code for the journey. A mistake easily rectified, but because it wasn’t causing much concern and they could fix it during its journey, they didn’t look into the drifting.
Four ways you can avoid outcome bias
 
Of course, we’re not all in charge of expensive oil rigs or space shuttles, but that doesn’t mean we shouldn’t be wary of outcome bias. Here are four ways to avoid it:
 
Don’t act under pressure
 
Feeling under pressure leads to hastily-made decisions where we could be tempted to rely on the outcome, rather than the procedure.
 
Don’t rely on previous experiences
 
Of course, it is natural to examine past scenarios and make judgements against those. But where near-misses are concerned we should take each case on an individual basis.
 
Look at the cause, not the result
 
Again, this is difficult but we need to see what is happening now, and not concentrate on the results of what happened before.
 
When in doubt, assume the worse
 
Just because some experience worked out before, doesn’t guarantee that it will have a favourable outcome again. Always assume the worse.
 
Final thoughts
 
Remember, just because you’ve had good results time and time again, doesn’t mean you can predict the same results this time around.
 
References:
  1. onlinelibrary.wiley.com
  2. sas.upenn.edu
  3. hbr.org


Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


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publicado por achama às 17:59
Domingo, 15 / 03 / 20

Known Unknowns vs Unknown Unknowns: Two Sides of Ignorance

Known Unknowns vs Unknown Unknowns:  

Two Sides of Ignorance.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 15th, 2020.

 
known unknowns unknown unknowns.
 
 
 
If I asked you how a CD worked, how confident would you feel in explaining it to me? Let’s say from 1-10? A 7, 8 perhaps? Okay, go on then, explain it, but in so much detail that I completely understand. Not so confident now? We’re talking about a phenomenon called known unknowns and unknown unknowns.
What are known unknowns and unknown unknowns?
 
Don’t worry, it sounds complicated and a bit confusing, but it really isn’t. It’s all about ignorance and how we perceive our knowledge to be of something.
 
I want to give you some more examples of known unknowns vs unknown unknowns before I explain this further.
  1. Can you explain how a zipper works?
  2. How about a tape recorder?
  3. How does a toilet flush?
  4. Can you draw a bicycle?
  5. Could you explain space travel to me?
  6. How does a neurosurgeon work on the brain?
 
You probably feel quite confident in your ability to answer the first four but pass on the last two. In fact, studies show that we are actually quite ignorant when it comes to everyday things.
 
We like to think we know more than we do, but we don’t. And this is where known unknowns and unknown unknowns come into play.
 
We are quite happy to admit we are not rocket scientists or that we couldn’t perform brain surgery, but the simple things in life? We like to think we know everything we need to know.
What is the difference between known unknowns and unknown unknowns?
 
Known unknowns

Known unknowns are the things we know we don’t know about, if that makes sense. Like space travel, brain surgery, how self-driving cars work. We know we need to research these topics to learn more about them. But the important thing is we also know that we’re not really expected to know about things as complicated as rocket science.

Unknown unknowns

Now, unknown unknowns are the things we think we should know about, but we actually don’t. Like, how a bicycle works or what makes a toilet flush.
These are the simple, everyday things in life we take for granted and assume we know how they function. But we don’t. But we don’t know we don’t. The important thing with unknown unknowns is that we think we are expected to know about them.

Why do we sometimes wildly overestimate our intelligence?

It’s called the illusion of explanatory depth.
“Most people feel they understand the world with far greater detail, coherence, and depth than they really do.” Leonid Rozenblit and Frank Keil (2002)
Rozenblit and Keil conducted multi-phase studies to test the illusion of explanatory depth (IOED).
In the first phase, they asked participants to rate how well they understood the workings of objects such as sewing machines, mobile phones or bicycles.
In the second phase, they were asked to explain in a detailed report of how each object worked. They then re-rated their understanding of how each one worked. The results showed again and again that their confidence in understanding the workings of an object fell drastically from phase one to two.
In another study, Rebecca Lawson asked participants to draw a bicycle in her Science of Cycology report. Some of the results are featured below:
known unknowns unknown unknowns
In fact, it doesn’t matter whether we are talking about the workings of objects or scientific theories or the stock market. IOED is this pervasive feeling we know more than we do.

Why do we accept that some things are beyond our knowledge whilst others are not?

We don’t need to know how things work

The main reason for the ignorance of our own ignorance is that we don’t need to know how everyday things work. They just do. Generations that came before us invented them and they have been in our lives for decades.We are used to seeing them wherever we go. They are part and parcel of the fabric of life. Thanks to others, we haven’t had to invent them; we just use them. So there’s no need for us to know the ins and outs of the workings of a toaster or a bicycle.
I liken it a little to spellcheck. Sure, we could learn every difficult word there is in the world by heart, but why bother? Our computers have spellcheck, so we don’t need to make the effort to learn. But we wouldn’t call ourselves stupid because of this.
It’s the same with gadgets, theories or mechanics.
Now, more than ever, thanks to search engines and sharing information, we can find out a lot more than our predecessors. We can look things up on Google, share content but more importantly, build on what our previous generations have already made.
And we don’t need to know how things work to be able to do this.

Sharing knowledge makes us think we are smart

The other thing about our generation compared to previous ones is that by sharing information, we give ourselves the illusion of knowledge.
If I asked you why the planets are round, or what causes gravity, you wouldn’t throw your hands up in the air with despair. You’d look it up and tell me the answer.It’s this instant access to knowledge that gives us all expert status when we are not experts. But the lines are blurred. And we certainly don’t consider ourselves to be stupid when we can research the answer.
But it’s not just this kind of instant access to information that gives us IOED, it’s the way we consume this knowledge.
We skim the top of news items, we click on salacious headlines for the juicy parts of a story, and we allow tweets to inform us of global political moves. We tap into viral videos, we listen to soundbites and agree with memes.
This is a superficial way of ingesting knowledge. We never really deep dive into a topic. As a result, we know a lot of stuff, but not in that much detail. In other words, we know a little bit about a lot.

Why the Illusion of Explanatory Depth Is Dangerous

When we believe we know more than we actually do, it can lead us to prejudice without us even knowing.
One study tackled how understanding people and IOED could help reduce political extremism. In 2013, Philip Fernbach et al asked participants to rate how well they understood a range of policies such as:
  • A national flat-rate tax
  • A single-payer healthcare system
  • A cap-and-trade system for carbon emissions
Participants were then asked to explain in detail how each one worked. Afterwards, they had to re-rate their knowledge on the subjects. As expected, their confidence fell after they were asked to fully describe the policies.
But here’s the interesting part, as their confidence fell, so did their extreme views on the policies. Those that either strongly opposed or supported the policies became more moderate in their views. And as their views became more moderate, so did their reluctance to fund these policies also reduce.
This study is an example of how IOED could be used to encourage a more moderate approach to political extremism.
I always use this example to show how people always think they are right, if for no other reason than it makes you think about the other side. Amaryllis Fox was a former undercover officer for the CIA and has met a lot of opposing factions in her time.
“If I’ve learned one lesson from my time with the CIA, it is this: Everybody believes they are the good guy,” CIA Officer Fox

Final thoughts

We can’t possibly know everything and we can’t always be right. Understanding that we are all susceptible to IOED could lead to a more empathetic world for all of us.
 
References:




Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

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publicado por achama às 20:03
Quinta-feira, 12 / 03 / 20

Personality in the Workplace: 9 Most Difficult Types.

Personality in the Workplace: 

9 Most Difficult Types.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 12th, 2020.

 
Personality in the Workplace.
 
 
 
Over the years, I’ve worked in a lot of different jobs. From factory floors to secretarial roles, it doesn’t seem to matter which. There’s always one personality in the workplace that gets on everyone’s nerves.
 
And that gave me an idea. There must be specific personality types in the workplace that everyone recognises and secretly despises. So let’s bring them out into the open where they belong.
 
9 Most Difficult Types of Personality in the Workplace
 
The Under-Miner
 
I remember starting work at an electrical contracting company as a secretary and the firm consisted of all men. One man, in particular, was a sneaky ‘whisper in the ear’ kind of guy that would say things to undermine my confidence.
 
It was my first time working as a secretary, so I was new to the role and didn’t know what was expected of me. This one guy would appear to offer help and advice but then add a kind of afterthought that made me doubt my decision or actions.
 
This kind of personality in the workplace is undermining you to get ahead themselves by making you look bad.
 
The Ass-Kisser
 
I’ve come across several of these in my time. The person that rushes up to the boss with a tea or coffee as soon as they walk through the door. The ones that always turn up early to work and leave late to show willing.
 
They make everyone else feel as if they aren’t doing as much as they should. This sort of personality feeds resentment in the workplace. I mean, no one likes an ass-kisser in any walk of life.
 
So why do they act this way? Because they have a need to feel special and favourite.
 
The Gossip
 
You often get cliques forming in certain workplace environments, and this is where you’ll find our third difficult workplace personality – the gossip.
 
This person loves to spread rumours and lies about people. They play colleagues off one another to cause friction. In fact, this is really a form of bullying. Gossips feel better about themselves by making others feel worse. Gossip isolates people and it’s particularly insidious in small companies.
 
The Over-Sharer
 
I once worked in a factory office and I was leaving the job and training up my replacement. She didn’t know anyone there and had only been learning the job for two days.
 
The office was open plan and had around 50 employees working there. One day, in a very loud voice, she informed me that this was her first real fulltime position after she had miscarried her baby.
 
This came out of nowhere. It was loud enough for everyone close by to hear. I didn’t really know her that well, but she proceeded to go into quite revealing details about the miscarriage and the treatment in hospital. The over-sharer wants everyone to know their most intimate private details.
 
The Perfectionist
 
Have you ever had to stay late because your team leader wants just ‘one more draft’ before you go? This is the work of the perfectionist, and she or he can keep us at work for hours. Nothing is ever finished, nothing is ever good enough. You can deliver the most perfect content and it will come back with suggestions or edits.
 
The problem with this personality is that they are probably not just like this in the workplace. They are more than likely to be perfectionists at home too. So it’s not something they do to get at colleagues, it’s in their nature.
 
The Depressive
 
Whatever you say to the depressive, it will never work and it won’t succeed. The depressive is the one with a negative attitude toward everything.
 
The thing is, they never have a suggestion for what might work. They just need to tell you that your idea won’t work. And it doesn’t matter how many different solutions you put to them, none will get through. Their only role in life is to put down everything everyone suggests and bring us all down to their depressive level.
 
The Critic
 
On the other hand, we have the critic. Now, you might think the depressive and the critic are the same, but they’re not.
 
The critic will take great delight in criticising your work or your ideas. They get their energy from contradicting what you say. They are even known to make up bogus facts and figures to make their argument seem valid.
 
To them, this is a fight, a battle, a duel to the end. There can only be one winner and they’ll do everything in their power to win. These are the kind of people that argue black is white.
 
The Slacker
 
We all know someone who doesn’t pull their fair share of work. Actually, when I was younger it was me! I worked in a reject kitchen shop and was responsible for the packing up of orders. In the warehouse, boxes were stored at the back. Because most of the stuff we sold was jumpers and knitted accessories, the boxes were very soft.
 
You could make a nice little nest from these boxes where you would be hidden from the main part of the warehouse. My friend and I would take it in turns to have little afternoon naps for half an hour while the other would keep an eye out for the boss. Hey, I was 17!
 
The Weirdo
 
I’ve also worked with some weirdos in my time. One stands out in particular. This is another office tale. We had a smoking room in the days where you were allowed to smoke indoors and there was one guy who used the smoking room that everyone else avoided talking to.
 
I was told some rumours and gossip about him but decided to make up my own mind. Anyone, we got talking and sort of became friends over time. Then one day he said, “I’ve told my friend I’ve met someone.” I said that I thought that was great, and he looked puzzled and said ‘It’s you’.
 
I was a bit worried then he started sending me emails, asking me out, turning up at my flat, coming into work drunk and finally threatening me. In the end, because the company didn’t do anything, I left.
 
Final thoughts
 
Can you identify with any of these difficult personality types in the workplace or do you know any I haven’t covered? Let me know!
 
 
References:

  1. inc.com
  2. imgur.com


Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 18:20
Terça-feira, 10 / 03 / 20

How Safety Bias Tricks Socially Anxious People into Toxic Avoidance.

How Safety Bias Tricks Socially Anxious People into Toxic Avoidance.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 9th, 2020.

 
safety bias social anxiety.
 

 
 
People with social anxiety are often told to face their fears. That gradual exposure to social situations will improve their anxiety. But research suggests those that do not improve are using safety bias tricks without realising. So what are these tricks and how do they lead to avoidance?
 
What Are Safety Bias Behaviours?
 
Socially anxious people fear social situations for a number of reasons. Some may feel trapped, others suffer from cripplingly low self-esteem, and some simply have anxiety attacks in social settings.
 
With all types of anxiety disorders, the treatment suggested is a gradual exposure to the fear-producing situation. The premise is to introduce the person very gradually to situations that cause slight anxiety. Once the person learns to stay in the situation and manage the fear, they can move onto a higher level of anxiety.
 
The idea is that by staying in the fear-producing setting, the person learns that nothing untoward happens and eventually the fear subsides. By the end, the person has overcome their social phobia.
 
This is all well and good. But as someone with a phobia will tell you, it’s never that simple. And researchers have found that socially anxious people are using safety bias tricks to avoid social situations. So let’s get down to it; what are these behaviors?
 
12 Safety Bias Tricks People with Social Anxiety Use
 
Safety bias makes a person undertake certain behaviours during a social setting which are designed to make them feel better, or safe, but in fact, don’t.
 
Some examples include:
  1. Always getting the end seat in a cinema so you can leave quickly if you feel anxious during the film showing.
  2. Standing at the back of the meeting room so you can escape if needed.
  3. Ordering only drinks at lunch so you can leave quickly if you feel panicky.
  4. Talking quickly, speeding up your speech without pausing.
  5. Avoiding eye contact so that you won’t have to talk to people.
  6. Wearing boring and bland clothing so that you don’t attract attraction to yourself.
  7. Drinking or taking drugs to steady your nerves before the event.
  8. Avoiding substances such as caffeine that you know increases your adrenalin and makes you blush or sweat.
  9. Pretending you didn’t see someone or that you are not interested in the conversation so you don’t have to participate.
  10. Asking a lot of questions to take the attention off yourself.
  11. Taking on roles within a group with the least interaction with others, e.g. setting up equipment or handing out paperwork.
  12. Walking with your head down or your hands in your pockets to avoid interaction with others.
 
Now we all have behaviours that we repeat to make ourselves feel calmer and more confident. For example, wearing makeup, putting on flattering clothes, even drinking and smoking help us to a certain extent.
 
And you might think that there isn’t really a problem with a person using these kinds of tricks if they make them feel safer. But research shows that safety bias behaviours actually hinder a socially anxious person’s ability to overcome their fear.
 
To put this into context, I want to show you some extreme forms of safety bias behaviours.
 
Extreme Forms of Safety Behaviours
 
  • An agoraphobic might remove themselves entirely from society and stay indoors to keep themselves safe.
  • A person with OCD might wash their hands over 100 times to keep themselves safe.
  • A man who fears to have a stroke might move around slowly so he keeps himself safe from injury.
  • A CEO with a fear of public speaking might feign illness on the day she is due to give a speech to keep herself safe.
  • A person with a fear of vomiting might stop eating to keep themselves safe.
 
These are all extreme versions of our socially-anxious sufferers, but you can see that by using safety behaviours, you are actually making the problem worse, not better.
 
Why Safety Bias Behaviours Don’t Work
 
The problem is that these safety behaviours have immediate relief in the short term. If you don’t have to face the most frightening thing in your life, it can be incredibly relieving and feel really good. Not only that, but this good feeling reinforces that what you are doing must be right. But it only works short-term.
 
In the long-term, it is very damaging. This is because when you engage in safety bias behaviours, you are focusing on your anxiety and your fears. These are at the forefront of your mind at all times. You are constantly examining what’s happening and then reacting to these perceived threats. And don’t forget, that’s all they are – perceived, they are not real.
 
The problem is that after a while, you become accustomed to feeling like this in social situations. It’s all you know. And then it becomes a vicious circle of negative fear and reaction. You use your safety behaviours and gradually withdraw from society. And although in the short-term, you might feel relieved, you don’t feel better in the long-term.
 
So what would benefit socially-anxious sufferers instead of safety bias tricks? That old treatment of confronting your fears is true. But you have to do it properly. You have to learn that social situations are not threatening and that there are other ways of coping, without using maladaptive ways.
 
Healthy Ways of Coping with Social Stress
 
So what are these adaptive ways of coping with social stress?
Breathing exercises and relaxing techniques.
 
Learning to breathe slowly and reduce your heart rate are key to decreasing your panic levels.
 
Talking to yourself in the third person.
 
Studies show that by talking to yourself in the third person instead of ‘I’m going to panic’ saying ‘She’s going to panic’ takes the edge off and allows you to be objective.
 
Understand that if you are ill, people are kind.
 
I always had a fear of fainting in public which affected me going out. Then I saw someone faint and everyone was so kind and caring.
Being prepared for your work.
 
You can’t go wrong if you have prepared the life out of your project. Know it inside and out and you won’t feel anxious talking about it on the day.
Live in the moment.
 
There’s a lot of talk these days about living in the moment and not letting life pass you by. You can use this mantra to reduce panic by remembering this moment will pass and tonight you’ll be safe in your bed
.
Final thoughts
 
It’s tempting to use safety bias tricks to help us get through tough times, but they don’t work, they just waste time, so why not learn some useful ways of coping instead. In fact, check out our CBT page for helpful tips.

References:
  1. www.cambridge.org
  2. www.researchgate.net
  3. unsworks.unsw.edu.au

Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 08:24
Segunda-feira, 09 / 03 / 20

...

Are Intelligent Women Less Likely to Fall for Psychopaths and Narcissists?

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 7th, 2020.

 
intelligent women.
 

 

 
Do you think you would ever fall for a psychopath or narcissist? Most intelligent women think they wouldn’t. But skilled manipulators target all kinds of people. So can your smarts outwit a predator? Let’s find out.
 
How Likely Is It for Intelligent Women to Fall for Psychopaths and Narcissists?
 
We all like to think that we are intelligent enough to see behind the mask of a psychopath, but are we? Before we talk about intelligence, let us examine the characteristics of psychopaths and narcissists.
 
Psychopath traits
 
Psychopaths are charming, intelligent, and tend to be well-liked in society. They may have powerful jobs and earn a higher wage. They are also glib and have the gift of the gab. I mean, what’s not to like?
 
Narcissist traits
 
On the other hand, narcissists have perfected the mask they hide behind. They present their best side to the world, they have an over-inflated view of themselves and will lie and cheat to maintain this façade.
 
So it’s clear that we are dealing with some pretty devious characters here. But shouldn’t self-respecting intelligent women be able to see through the lies and manipulation? Not necessarily.
 
Studies have shown the opposite to be true. In fact, women are attracted to psychopathic traits.
 
 
“Psychopathic men have a personality style that makes them appear attractive to women in dating encounters. This may be because they are extra confident or feel at ease or know exactly what to say to get the attention of women,” Kristopher Brazil, PhD candidate at Brock University.
 
In one study, an assistant engaged in a two-minute dating scenario conservation with males. She asked the men what they liked to do on a first date and recorded their responses. After the questions, the males completed assessments of psychopathy, socio-sexuality and social intelligence.
 
These videos were then played to 108 young women who were asked to rate the attractiveness of the men. The study found women rated men with psychopathic tendencies highly. In other words, they found psychopaths more attractive.
 
So it seems we are predisposed to find psychopathy attractive, but can our intelligence help us to sort out the manipulators?
Why intelligent women can’t help falling for psychopaths and narcissists
 
We judge people by our own standards
 
Psychopaths use their charm and intelligence to get what they want. They have no conscience so will use any means necessary at their disposal. Now, the problem with this is that most people are not psychopaths. However, we assume that everyone acts the way we do.
 
We believe we all share the same moral compass, the same values and are decent at heart. We cannot imagine how people can act in a despicable way. If it’s not in our nature, surely it can’t be in anyone else’s.
 
But of course, this is not the case. Just because we wouldn’t cheat or lie or gaslight someone, it doesn’t mean that others won’t.
 
We all believe we have empathy for other people, but some are born without empathy. They have no regard for other people’s feelings. They have no conscience.
 
The other problem is that not every psychopath is like Hannibal Lecter. Some psychopaths only tick a few points on the Hare’s Psychopath Checklist. In fact, studies show that psychopaths will use their charm and deceit in the short-term in order to snare their victims. But they can’t keep this pretence up long-term. Why? Because their selfish needs are their ultimate goals.
 
In other words, they’ll only schmooze you until they’ve got what they want.
 
Psychopaths are excellent manipulators
 
The other problem is that psychopaths and narcissists are born manipulators. They have this innate talent to charm, deceive and play the ordinary person. They’ve spent years, decades even, perfecting their craft. So they know exactly what to say to turn you on, to hold your interest, to keep the spotlight on them.
 
“Psychopathic men are really good at pretending to display what women are attracted to. They’re really good at putting on this mask, and making themselves look attractive . . . You exude a larger-than-life presence, and give off an impression of greatness.” Kristopher Brazil
 
Psychopaths will make you feel like the most special person in the room. They’ll flatter and charm you, and you’ll feel like the luckiest girl in the world. But of course, they only do it to get what they want.
 
These types of manipulators are always confident. They are at ease with themselves, and intelligent women find confident men extremely attractive.
 
Psychopaths also have a box of tricks up their sleeves when it comes to manipulating someone. They pull you into their circle by telling you false secrets about someone. They draw you in by revealing a confidence they shouldn’t have.
 
They will often do small favours and then ask for a larger one in return. This elicits trust and a desire to reciprocate the help.
We care about our loved ones
 
One way psychopaths and narcissists are able to fool intelligent women is because they are incapable of the most basic human emotions. In fact, studies have shown that they only mimic emotions to blend in or deceive people around them.
 
“Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research indicates that psychopaths are incapable of experiencing basic human emotions and feelings of guilt, remorse, or empathy.” Corporate Psychopath expert Paul Babiak and Forensic Behavioral Consultant Mary Ellen O’Toole
 
In relationships or the work environment, having no emotions can have a huge benefit, especially if you want to gain an advantage over someone. On the other hand, if you are an emotional person and care deeply about your partner or colleagues, you might agonise over decisions you have to make.
 
Overly emotional people can feel guilty about breaking up with a partner. So much so that they put it off. Bosses may put up with shoddy work because they feel responsible for their staff.
 
Caring for other people can clearly be a disadvantage in certain circumstances. It can interfere with the way you do your job, or how you cope in a relationship.
 
How can intelligent women recognise a psychopath or narcissist?
 
I’m saying intelligent women are not less likely to fall for psychopaths or narcissists. In fact, it’s difficult for anyone to resist their charms. So how can you resist?
 
Do other people question this individual’s actions?
 
Sometimes we can be so under a person’s spell we can’t see the wood for the trees. Are you ignoring advice from close friends? Do family members raise concerns about this individual? If multiple people are worried, you should be too.
 
Does this individual pick on your vulnerabilities?
 
Psychopaths have a pathological need to damage their victims once they are drawn in. In fact, they are driven by their victim’s vulnerabilities. They can’t help themselves. If your new boyfriend has turned particularly nasty and was once charming, he might be a psychopath.
 
Does he play mind games with you?
 
Gaslighting and mind games are favourite manipulation tools for this individual. It’s how he gets his kicks. If you start questioning yourself, thinking that you are going mad, you could be a victim of a psychopath.
 
Final thoughts
 
It doesn’t matter how intelligent woman you are. If a psychopath or narcissist has you in their sights, it’s only a matter of time before you become their victim.
 
 
References:
 

 

Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
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publicado por achama às 01:43
Domingo, 23 / 02 / 20

4 Time Travel Theories and the Physics Behind Them.

4 Time Travel Theories and the Physics Behind Them.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

February 22nd, 2020.

 
time travel theories.
 
 
 
Time travel has been the subject of many science-fiction books and films for the last few decades. But is it possible? Are there any time travel theories that could actually work?
Understanding Time Travel
 
We are all time travellers. That is to say, we all travel through time. We travel at the same time as each other; one hour per hour, and moving forward in a straight line, towards the future.
 
 
But what if we could speed up or slow down time? What if we could visit the past? Take a sneak peek into the future? What if we could really time travel? Some think the concept of time travel is promising.
 
Before we examine time travel theories, we should first visit Albert Einstein’sexplanation of time.
 
Einstein, Space and Time
 
The majority of people view time as a constant, linear construct. One that moves forward at a regular pace. After all, we organise our lives around a 24-hour clock, a 12-month calendar, and so on.
 
However, Einstein showed that time can change, depending on your position in space. Space is the three dimensions we inhabit; length, width and height. We use these dimensions to pinpoint our location.
 
Imagine you are walking to work. The space you inhabit includes the length of the road, the width of a path and the height of buildings around you. But there is another dimension and that’s time. Time is the fourth dimension which shows our direction, which is always moving forward.
 
Now, Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity proposes that time does not pass at the same rate for everyone. It varies depending on your particular position through space. For example, whether you are an observer or travelling yourself. Time can speed up or slow down depending on how fast you are moving in relation to another object.
 
Now we know that time does not remain the same for everyone, it is conceivable that there are plausible theories of time travel.
 
In fact, all astronauts are time travelling as we speak. This is because you move faster in space through time than you do on earth. Which leads us onto the first theory of time travel:
 
4 Time Travel Theories
 
Travelling at the Speed of Light
 
Experts have calculated the speed of light at 186,282 miles per second. This equates to 299,792 kilometres per second or an incredible 670,616,629 mph.
 
In theory, there is nothing that travels faster than light. But if we turn to Einstein’s special theory again, we know that time is not a single construct for everyone. Time passes at different speeds depending on the observer, their motion and the speed.
 
British Professor Brian Cox explains that the closer we get to the speed of light, the more time slows down. It’s all to do with how fast we go in relation to those who are standing still. Time slows down but only for the object that is moving.
 
 
“If you go fast, your clock runs slow relative to people who are still. As you approach the speed of light, your clock runs so slow you could come back 10,000 years in the future.” Prof Brian Cox
Build A Faster-Than-Light Machine
 
So how can we travel backwards or forwards in time? Using the ‘speed of light’ time travel theory, building a Faster-Than-Light (FTL) Machine is the way to go. It would have to be the fastest ever man-made spaceship as it would need to travel at over 670 million mph.
 
As a reference, the fastest NASA has ever managed to produce is the Helios 2 space probe. This blasted off in 1976 and got up to 160,000 mph when in space.
 
However, if we did manage to build a spacecraft capable of faster-than-light speeds, the consequences to time and our ages would be incredibly interesting. For instance, even if we didn’t manage to travel at the top speed of light, at 99%, every year spent on the FTL spacecraft would result in seven years back on earth. At 99.999%, this increases to one year on the spacecraft to 223 back on earth.
 
In fact, some experts believe that we could reverse time if we actually manage to travel at the speed of light. Unfortunately, Einstein states that anything with a mass cannot physically reach the speed of light, let alone pass it.
 
Still, if we can’t travel faster than the speed of light, are there other theories that don’t involve speed but suggest time travel is plausible?
 
Warp Drives
 
How often have we heard Captain Kirk or Picard instructing their engineers to set engines to warp drive on Star Trek? But as so many sci-fi programmes start off, so do scientists take over.
 
Experts are now saying that warp drive could be possible, and it’s all to do with stretching the fabric of space-time. Imagine space is a large piece of material. On the material are the planets, stars, constellations, galaxies etc. One way to time travel would be to move space around the object travelling.
 
This is the Alcubierre Drive. Our spaceship pushes up the fabric of space in front of the ship. This causes the fabric to contract at the front and expand at the back. The ship rides this bubble of space-time which is constantly contracting and expanding. But it’s not violating the laws of physics as it is not travelling faster than light.
 
As with all of our time travel theories, there are some problems, and these are pretty big ones at that. Early estimates of the energy required to power a spaceship just 200m wide came out at billions x the mass of the observable universe. Now scientists have refined this estimate to the equivalent mass of Jupiter, but it’s still woefully unachievable.
 
We also don’t know how to stop the bubble once we arrive at our destination.
 
Cosmic strings
 
Speaking about the fabric of the universe, perhaps the way the universe formedcan assist our quest for time travel? Astrophysicist at Princeton University J. Richard Gott certainly thinks so. In 1991, he proposed the idea of Cosmic Strings.
 
These strings are present throughout the universe. They resemble string-like phenomenon and are described as ‘cracks in the universe’.
 
Gott explains them as:
 
“Cosmic strings are either infinite or they’re in loops, with no ends. So they are either like spaghetti or Spaghetti Os.” J. Richard Gott
 
Cosmic strings are everywhere in the universe. They are similar to black holes in that they’re under tremendous pressure. This means they have a significant gravitational pull, and warp the space around them, just like black holes.
 
But whereas black holes crush everything they pull inside, cosmic strings could enable an object to attach onto it and fly through space at amazing speeds.
 
“The approach of two such strings parallel to each other, will bend space-time so vigorously and in such a particular configuration that might make time travel possible – in theory,” Gott interviewed for Live Science.
 
Even so, this is just one of many theories of time travel. Because as yet, no cosmic strings have ever been discovered.
Final Thoughts
 
All of these theories show that time travel is either outlandishly impossible, not proven or will require unheard amounts of energy. So should we still be pursuing time travel? Or, with the recent climate change problems on earth, perhaps our resources would be better spent here on this planet?
 
I’ll leave the last word to Joseph Agnew – an undergraduate engineer and research assistant from the University of Alabama (PRC). He’s currently working on the theory of time travel via warp drive:
 
“In terms of justifications for allocation of resources, it is not hard to see that the ability to explore beyond our Solar System, even beyond our Galaxy, would be an enormous leap for mankind. And the growth in technology resulting from pushing the bounds of research would certainly be beneficial.” Joseph Agnew
 
References:
 
 
 
Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 04:13
Sexta-feira, 21 / 02 / 20

4 Psychological Skills Truly Smart People Have.

4 Psychological Skills Truly Smart People Have.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

February 19th, 2020.

 
psychological skills smart people.
 
 
 
Some people just seem to sail through life, don’t they? They face problems with determination, successes with humility, and are just all-around likeable, smart and decent folk. Perhaps they are using psychological skills that we don’t know about?
 
There are certainly lots of life hacks that people use in order to get ahead. For instance, studies show that if you want someone to do you a favour, do something nice for them a few days before. Humans have a need to balance the scales; they like to reciprocate, it’s a tit-for-tat kind of mentality.So are there any other psychological abilities and skills that truly smart people use? Here are four of them:
 
4 Psychological Skills Smart People Have (and You Can Master Them Too)
 
They control their own thoughts
 
‘Our life is what our thoughts make us.’ Marcus Aurelius
It’s very easy to get into the trap of thinking that our thoughts are just ideas and phrases that pop in and out of our heads, and not something we can control. I remember going to see Paul McKenna in London for a phobia workshop weekend. If you don’t know who he is, he is an expert in NLP, getting rid of phobias, hypnotism, that kind of thing.
 
Onstage he asked the audience to imagine a typical Monday morning, getting up for work, going through the motions. Then describe our feelings and our moods. The majority of us said things like ‘Monday blues’, depressed, tired, drained, heavy, lacklustre, no energy.
 
He then asked us to imagine that instead of going to work on a Monday, we were jetting off to a luxury holiday resort on an exclusive island with 5-star facilities. Now he asked how we felt. The audience responded with ‘excited, raring to go, relaxed, can’t wait, happy, positive, lifted.’
 
‘You see the power of the mind?’ he said. Neither of those things happened but just by changing your thoughts you also changed your mood.
 
Now, why is this important?
 
Of course, we can’t spend our lives on holiday. But we can take those feelings of excitement, happiness, relaxation, and positivity and use them on tough days like Monday mornings.
 
Why will it make a difference? Because positivity attracts positivity. But more importantly, negativity does the same. Sure, you’re not on holiday, but you are bringing those feelings and emotions of excitement and happiness to work. This has a knock-on effect on your day.
 
Yes, you’ve still got to go to work, but perhaps it will be more pleasant because of your attitude? Likewise, our whole life is made up of our thoughts. If we are grateful for what we have, we’ll live a contented life.You could call this particular way of thinking a ‘psychological skill’ that smart people use. I guess it’s a little like cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). A way of actively changing the way we think on purpose to improve our lives.
 
They are socially intelligent, which means they don’t always show their intelligence
 
The second of our psychological skills is all about intelligence, but it involves a certain kind of intellect.
 
Imagine you’ve just passed your degree and you’re excited and you’re telling friends. How would you feel if someone piped up: “Oh, I got an honour degree in that subject.” Really?
 
Or there’s always someone who knows more than you and doesn’t hesitate to tell you. We all want others to know how clever we are. But when it costs other people, or steals their thunder, or ruins their moment, it’s not clever. In fact, it’s downright stupid.
 
If you need to boost your own ego by climbing over or trashing other people’s achievements, you are not socially intelligent.
 
Social intelligence is the understanding that we all need our moments as the centre of attention. We all deserve the spotlight on our achievements. Recognition for our knowledge, our smarts. But allowing others to revel in the limelight is a more intelligent way to show your intelligence. Why? Because people associate their feelings of importance and pride with you when you let them share their best moments.
 
In future, don’t be the know-all that everyone dreads being around.They know that most things will pass
 
There is an ability that truly smart people have which is the knowledge that most things will pass. I remember when my boyfriend died in 2013. At the time I thought I’d never get over the loss and pain. Now it’s 2020 and I can reflect on those tragic times and know that whatever dreadful thing happens in the future, it will pass. I will get through it.
 
Of course, at the time, if someone had tried to give me this advice on grief I would have probably lamped them. People who are going through horrific trauma and grief don’t need advice. They need support.
 
This knowledge comes from your own experience. All we have to do is simply exist. And that’s what I did, for a long time. I took minutes, then hours, then days at a time. Until one day I was coming out of a migraine and was lying on the bed when a cooling breeze flowed over my hot, throbbing head.
 
I remember thinking ‘This feels nice.’ Up until that point, nothing had felt nice since my boyfriend’s passing. But I knew that if something as simple as the wind could be pleasant, I would get through the pain of his death.
 
This is one of those psychological skills that comes with time and experience. Because you have to pass through trauma and come out the other side to know it.
 
Of course, these days staying in the present through mindfulness is considered to be extremely therapeutic. However, there’s nothing wrong with revisiting the past in order to arm yourself to face the future.
 
They accept the blame for their own predicament
 
Now, more than ever, there’s a trend to want to blame anyone but ourselves for our own predicament. How often do we see those TV adverts ‘Where’s there’s a blame, there’s a claim.’ It’s written into our DNA that we should blame someone else for what’s gone wrong in our lives.However, there’s something very powerful about accepting that we are at fault when we’ve made a mistake. Psychologists call this ‘locus of control’.
 
Locus of Control
 
Locus of control is the degree in which an individual feels they have control over their own life. This can refer to our successes as well as our failures. We attribute this control to internal factors (ourselves) or external factors (others, environment, etc.).
For example, say that a person has failed an exam. If they have an internal locus of control, they’ll attribute their failure to a lack of revision, partying the night before the exam, not paying attention in class. In other words, they’ll blame themselves for the outcome.
 
However, someone with an external locus will say the reasons for failure were their parents not waking them up in time to get to the exam on time. Or that their tutors didn’t teach them from the right books, or that the classroom was too hot/cold. They will blame other reasons for the failure.
 
Now, why is this important? Surely in life, some things are out of our control. Sometimes things happen that do ruin our chances. And yes, this is true. But studies show those who consistently take responsibility for their own successes or downfalls, in other words, have an internal locus, are happier, healthier and more successful in general.
 
Final Thoughts
 
These are just four psychological skills that anyone can master. Do you know of any others? I’d love to hear them!
 
 
 
References:
 
 

 

 
Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 21:11
Domingo, 16 / 02 / 20

Mirror-Touch Synesthesia: the Extreme Version of Empathy

Mirror-Touch Synesthesia: 

The Extreme Version of Empathy.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

February 14th, 2020.

 
mirror-touch synesthesia.
 


 
 
When a person says ‘I feel your pain,’ you take it to mean emotionally, not physically. But people that suffer from mirror-touch synesthesia feel exactly that; other people’s physical pain.
What Is Mirror-Touch Synesthesia?
 
The Condition of Synesthesia
 
Before we discuss this strange condition, let’s get some background on the basics of synesthesia.
 
The word ‘synesthesia’ comes from Greek and means ‘joined perception’. It’s a condition whereby one sense, such as seeing or hearing, triggers another overlapping sense. People with synesthesia are able to perceive the world through multiple senses.
 
For instance, those with synesthesia experience seeing music as colourful swirls. Or they might associate letters or numbers with different colours. Smells are linked to colours or sounds.
 
Mirror-Touch Synesthesia
 
It is a condition whereby the sufferer feels the sensations another person is experiencing. It’s called mirror-touch because the feelings occur on the opposite side of the body; as if you’re looking in a mirror.
 
For example, if I were to stroke the palm of my left hand, a sensation would occur on the sufferer’s right palm. Sights and sounds trigger feelings that can be painful or pleasurable.
 
Mirror-touch synesthesia is incredibly rare. It occurs in just 2% of the world’s population. Experts have described it as ‘an extreme form of empathy’. This is because the sufferer feels exactly what the other person is experiencing on and in their own body.
 
Meet Dr. Joel Salinas – the doctor who can feel your pain
 
One person that knows all about mirror-touch synesthesia is Dr. Joel Salinas. This doctor is a Harvard neurologist and a clinical researcher at Massachusetts University. He comes into contact with sick and ailing patients on a daily basis. But it’s not just their pain and discomfort he feels.
 
Dr. Salinas describes the pressure on the bridge of his nose as he watches someone walk past wearing glasses. The sensation of vinyl against the backs of his legs as he glances at a woman seated on a plastic chair in the waiting room. How her hat fits snugly around his head. The way his hip automatically contracts to mimic a volunteer shifting from one leg to another while taking a break from pushing a wheelchair.
 
“Through mirror-touch synesthesia, my body physically feels the experiences I see others have.” Dr. Joel Salinas
 
What Causes Mirror-Touch Synesthesia?
 
Experts believe it’s all to do with neurons and the part of our brain which is responsible for forward-thinking and planning. For instance, I look at my coffee and want to drink some of it. The neurons in my premotor cortex spring into action. This prompts me to reach out and take the cup.
 
Scientists in Italy discovered something interesting whilst researching macaque monkeys and neurons in the premotor cortex. They noticed high activity in this part of the brain when the monkeys reached to take an object, but also when they observed another monkey reaching out for an object. They called these particular neurons ‘mirror-touch’ neurons.
 
I find this all pretty incredible; it’s almost like a superpower built into our brains. But more importantly, it suggests a deeper connection between us.
 
What’s It Like to Experience This Type of Synesthesia?
 
People with mirror-touch synesthesia can have very different experiences. For some, it can be incredibly intense and disturbing. In fact, it’s not uncommon to hear this condition described as: “shocking electricity – like bolts of fire.”
 
One woman referred to a particularly distressing incident as: “It was a moment of trauma for me.” Another talks about his partner and how exhausted she felt on a daily basis: “Sometimes after being out in the world with everyone else’s feelings pulsing through her body, she’d come home and just pass out.”
 
Of course, we cannot forget there are also good feelings as well as bad. Moreover, some people with this condition seem able to focus on positive experiences.
 
One woman talks about the sense of freedom she goes through: “When I watch a bird in the sky, I feel like I’m flying. That’s a joy.” Another recalls the pleasure he senses: “When I see people hug, I feel like my body is getting hugged.”
 
Is Mirror-Touch Synesthesia a More Extreme Form of Empathy?
 
For some people, having this condition could be seen as a benefit. Certainly in Dr. Salinas’ view, it is.
 
“It is up to me to reason through that experience so that I can then respond to my patients from a truer, more enduring place of compassion and kindness. Or, I can respond with whatever else is needed: Sometimes that means prescribing a medication.” Dr. Salinas
 
However, anyone with empathic traits will know just how exhausting it can be. Putting yourself in another’s person’s situation and feeling their emotions is physically draining in its self. Regardless of actually physically experiencing pain or discomfort, empaths have a hard enough time as it is.
 
Final Thoughts
 
Dr. Salinas believes there are good reasons for some of us to be able to feel what others feel. And it’s all about curiosity and understanding another person.
 
“Being curious about where another human being is coming from, and wondering why they might think, feel, or do what they do.”
 
Because it’s the fear of the unknown that can lead to prejudice, radicalisation, stereotyping minority groups and hate crimes. Surely, the more we know about a person, the better for all of society.
 
 
References:
  1. www.bbc.co.uk
  2. www.vice.com
  3. www.sciencedirect.com
  4. www.theguardian.com
 

 

 
Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 02:49
Sábado, 08 / 02 / 20

Dunbar’s Number or Why Most of Your Social Connections Are Not Your Friends

Dunbar’s Number or Why Most of Your Social Connections Are Not Your Friends.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

February 7th, 2020.

 
Dunbar’s Number.
 
 
 
Have you heard of Dunbar’s number? My sister certainly has. Years ago, when her new neighbour asked her if she wanted to pop round for a coffee, she said: “No thanks, I’ve got enough friends.”
 
Now, before you start judging my sis for being unnecessarily blunt, she does have a point. And that’s where Dunbar’s number comes in. You see, it suggests that a person can only maintain a maximum of 150 social connections at once. So why is this and where does the idea come from?
 
The Origin of Dunbar’s Number
 
Robin Dunbar is a British anthropologist and an evolutionary psychologist. Back in the 1990s, he was interested in the number of social connections a person could have.
 
For instance, how many people do we know; how many do we actually care about and is there a common link to this number? Do some people have more connections, others less? Now, remember, this was the 90s so well before social media and ‘likes’ and ‘friends’ and all of that.
 
Dunbar began his research by examining the patterns of sending Christmas cards.
Dunbar and the Christmas Card List
 
Sending cards at Christmas seems fairly innocuous, but there is a certain amount of investment involved. You make the list of people, you choose and buy the cards, the stamps, and you look up the addresses. Then you write them all out and post them. It all takes time and effort. Dunbar reckoned that most of us would not go to all this trouble and effort for just anyone.
 
After collecting data from thousands of households, Dunbar found a remarkable coincidence. Of every household he collected data from, the average number of cards sent was always around 150. There was also a fairly unanimous split in who the cards went to. For example, around a quarter were sent to close relatives, two-thirds to friends and the remaining small percentage to colleagues.
 
But why did the number 150 keep cropping up? It was a mystery. Dunbar carried on researching. But this time he turned his attention to primates and social groups.
Why Is Dunbar’s Number 150?
 
Dunbar discovered a link between a primate’s brain and the size of their social groups. Specifically, their brain mass and the primate’s preferred group sizes. He looked at different primate species and catalogued social activity.
 
In particular, time spent grooming (the equivalent of socialising for humans), the size of the neocortex (the area of the brain related to language and cognition) and group size. He found that in primates, the smaller the size of the brain, the smaller the size of the groups were formed. As brain mass increased, so did group size.
 
 
Dunbar proposed that brain size was the overriding factor in deciding the number of social connections a primate could successfully manage. Dunbar then collected data across all primate species, including humans.
 
He proposed that humans can only comfortably maintain 150 social connections. Larger numbers require stricter social rules and larger neocortical processing capacity.
So what exactly does Dunbar mean by 150 and social connections?
 
Dunbar characterises the number 150 as:
 
 
“..the number of people you would not feel embarrassed about joining uninvited for a drink if you happened to bump into them in a bar.”
 
There is strong evidence, throughout history, that shows 150 is an average size for social groups. Indeed, it is the optimum number for a group. For when numbers start to exceed this size things tend to collapse or fail to function effectively.
Dunbar’s Number applies to many social groups
 
Even our earliest ancestors, the cave-dwellers, the hunter-gatherers, lived in groups consisting, on average, of 150 people. The earliest villages consisted of around 150 people. From African tribes to Roman legions, we are always drawn back to this magic number of 150.
 
Perhaps stranger still, Dunbar and his magic number of 150 can be seen in many other aspects of human social groups, not just our personal lives. For example, offices, campsites, hotels, military organisations, even book-clubs. Indeed, research proves time and time again that if numbers exceed 150 the group fails.
150 only applies to primates and humans
 
So why 150? It appears that 150 is the prime number for evolutionary survival. Primates, in particular, live in social groups, and this helps them to survive. In our ancestor’s time, humans were prey, not predators. We didn’t have sharp teeth, razor-like claws or strong muscles.
 
 
Whereas it suited other predators to hunt alone, for humans to stay alive, we needed to form groups. We used our shared knowledge and cunning. We planned and formulated ways of attack. For us, staying in strong, social groups was a matter, literally, of survival.
 
Now, look at other animals. For instance, the tiger, a predator at the top of the food chain, or a penguin, prey and near the bottom. Tigers are solitary animals. They survive without the need of a group and therefore hunt alone.
 
On the other hand, penguins are at risk from many predators, including extreme weather conditions. As a result, it is in their best interest to form huge groups. In fact, some of the largest penguin colonies have consisted of up to 180,000 to 200,000 birds.
 
Of course, tigers and penguins are very different from primates and humans. Penguins may form groups but they are not social in the way that human groups are. For the penguins, it is all about staying alive. For humans, it is more about emotional, psychological and spiritual connections.
 
And this is where it gets interesting. Because it takes a lot of effort to maintain all this emotion, and our brain can only manage so much. However, have we changed in the 21st century?
Has Social Media Changed Dunbar’s Number?
 
Now, in today’s society, there is nothing unusual for a person to have hundreds, if not thousands of friends on Facebook. So is it possible that Dunbar’s number no longer applies in our modern world?
 
Dunbar first proposed the number 150 in the 1990s. The 2020s is a very different place. We communicate online. We meet for the first time online. We date online. Surely, Dunbar’s number must have increased a little to keep up with our modern society?
 
 
I mean, this doesn’t make sense for a modern age. People communicate in seconds across the globe. Our social reach has expanded as our grasp of technology has stretched our imaginations. Also, I would have thought that our brain capacity would have increased substantially since our ancestors first set up villages over 250,000 years ago.
 
Well, not really. And that’s because it is all to do with our emotional capacity.
 
 
“It is as though we each have a limited amount of social capital and we can choose to invest it thinly in more people, or thickly in fewer people. But you can’t exceed these limits.” Dunbar
 
So what do these social connections look like? Dunbar arranges them in ever-decreasing circles. Our closest friends are in our inner circle and our acquaintances are in the furthest circle.
Most people, on average, have:
5 loved ones
15 best friends
50 good friends
150 meaningful contacts
500 acquaintances
1500 people you recognise
 
So we may know thousands of people, but Dunbar states that the 150 number is the important cut-off.
 
 
“The 150 layer is the important one: this defines the people you have real reciprocated relationships with, those where you feel obligations and would willingly do favours.” Dunbar
 
Because humans are complex creatures, maintaining these relationships take effort and time. And that’s why we only have the capacity for 150 social connections.
 
Of course, people move in and out of our lives at any given point. There are also huge differences between the social connections of an extrovert and an introvert. An extrovert may have a larger social network. However, they tend to spread themselves out thinly across a wide network of people. Introverts have a smaller social pool of contacts. But they like to spend more quality time with a few special friends.
 
 
There are also interesting differences between the genders. For example, men have a wider spread of contacts throughout their social circles. Whereas women have more contacts within their inner circles.
Final Thoughts
 
So is there really any advantage to knowing that humans have a limited capacity for maintaining social connections? Well, I think so yes. I realise it is all about time and effort. If we only have space for 150 connections then we should make sure those connected to us are worth the effort, and that we make the effort to preserve them.
 
Oh, and my sister? She did pop round for that coffee after all. They’ve been good friends ever since.
References:
  1. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  2. www.forbes.com
  3. www.bbc.com
 

 

 
Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
Free counters!

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publicado por achama às 02:45
A Luz está a revelar a Verdade, e esta libertar-nos-á! -Só é real o AMOR Incondicional. -Quando o Amor superar o amor pelo poder, o mundo conhecerá a Paz; Jimi Hendrix. -Somos almas a ter uma experiência humana!

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