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Quarta-feira, 20 / 05 / 20

False Awakening in Regular and Lucid Dreams: Causes and Symptoms

False Awakening in Regular and Lucid Dreams: Causes and Symptoms

Janey Davies, B.A. (Hons)

https://www.learning-mind.com

May 20th, 2020.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Have you ever been convinced that you’d woken up from sleep, but in fact, you were still dreaming? If so you might have experienced a false awakening.
A false awakening happens when the dreamer wakes up during their dream only to realise they are still dreaming and wake up later on. While the dreamer believes they are awake, they might go through the motions of turning off an alarm, getting out of bed and eating breakfast. However, they will then suddenly find themselves waking up for real, still in bed.

How Does False Awakening Happen in Regular and Lucid Dreams?

False awakenings are a mix of sleeping and waking states of consciousness. Our brains are in a kind of semi-conscious state; not quite awake but not fully asleep either. Actually, many sleep disturbances happen during this mixed brain state, including lucid dreams and sleep paralysis.
During lucid dreams, the dreamer is aware that they are dreaming. They can even influence the outcome of the dream. In sleep paralysis, the dreamer wakes, but their body is frozen as if paralysed. However, false awakenings are not the same as sleep paralysis or lucid dreaming. The dreamer might experience paralysis but only within the dream. Once they have actually woken up they can move as normal.
False awakenings occur during regular dreams and lucid dreaming. Sometimes, during a false awakening in a dream, the dreamer can become aware that something feels a little ‘off’ in the dream. They get a sense that all is not quite as it should be.
They can also occur several times within one dream. The dreamer can believe they have woken up many times while they are dreaming. They then wake up properly, only to discover that all the previous times they were still asleep. False awakenings that occur again and again within the same dream are ‘nested’ dreams.

2 Types of False Awakening

There are two types of false awakening:

Type I

Type 1 is the more common kind of false awakening. Type 1 false awakenings happen once or twice a year. Here the dreamer goes about their normal business of waking up. For instance, they might get out of bed, turn on the shower, prepare breakfast, wake their children up, etc.
During this type of awakening, the dreamer may or may not notice that their surroundings are a little strange. The environment might not be realistic to them. For instance, they might wake up somewhere other than their bedroom.
A typical type 1 false awakening occurs where the dreamer believes he or she has overslept and is late for work. They ‘wake up’ in their dream but in reality, are still asleep in bed. Only when they wake up properly do they understand what has happened. It is a surprise to the dreamer but not overly worrying.

Type 2

Type 2 is a rarer kind of false awakening. Type 2 false awakenings can occur several times in one night. Here the dreamer is aware of a sense of foreboding. They know something is wrong but can’t put their finger on it.
In these types of false awakenings, the dreamer wakes to an atmosphere of tension or stress. They are immediately apprehensive upon waking. They feel suspicious and uncomfortable. The environment feels weird although the dreamer can’t quite account for what’s wrong. They just know something isn’t right.

Causes of False Awakening in Dreams

False awakenings in dreams are associated with broken or disturbed sleep patterns.
For example:
  • Insomnia
  • Snoring
  • Frequent getting up to use the toilet
  • Teeth grinding
  • Daytime tiredness
  • Environmental noises
  • Restless leg syndrome
False awakening dreams are linked to mixed brain states and/or underlying anxiety. Mixed brain states are associated more with Type 1 awakenings, whereas anxiety is linked to Type 2 awakenings.

Mixed brain states

There is still much we don’t know about the brain and various levels of consciousness. In particular, the possibility that our brains can experience several states of consciousness at once.
So, in effect, we can be asleep and dreaming but also awake at the same time. It is during this mixed brain state that we become confused. Are we awake or still asleep? If our brain is in that grey area between two states of consciousness, it’s not surprising that we’re not sure whether we’re dreaming or have woken up.
Most people will experience false awakening dreams once or twice a year. In these cases, a specific event will trigger the awakening. For example, you might have an important job interview the next day and you dream that you’ve overslept and missed it.

Anxiety or worry

On the other hand, some people experience recurring and frequent false awakenings in their dreams. This is linked to underlying anxiety or worry in real-life that is not being addressed.
These awakenings are associated with the Type 2 dreams where you feel uneasy upon waking. You awake to an over-riding sense of foreboding. Experts believe that your subconscious is trying to tell you that you need to face up to the problem or worry in your life. In a sense, this is your subconscious giving you a wake-up call. Your brain is literally waking you up twice.

False Awakening in Lucid Dreams

 
lucid dreams
 
False awakenings occur in lucid dreaming. The lucid dreamer is aware of being in a dream. As such, to some extent, they can control what happens and what they do.
There are two separate elements of control within lucid dreaming;
  1. Manipulation of the environment or the characters within it
  2. Control over one’s own actions within the dream
False awakenings appear to be linked to the lucid dreamer exerting self-control, rather than manipulating their dream environment. In fact, lucid dreamers are more likely to experience false awakenings.

Symptoms of False Awakening in Dreams

In Type 1 and Type 2 false awakening dreams, there are clues that can signal you are not awake. These are usually a single thing that appears out of place. For example, a person you wouldn’t expect to see, or an object in your house that shouldn’t be there.
You will usually have a sense that something is not quite right. But there are ways you can test yourself. Look at your environment carefully; are the windows and doors straight and the right size? Does the clock face have the right numbers on it?
It is important to recognise what is out of place. This is for two reasons:
  • It is a clue that makes you aware that you are still dreaming.
  • It can lead to the underlying problem that’s worrying you.
Dream analyst Kari Hohn reminds us:
“We dream about what we’re not facing during the day. If we block something out of consciousness, it can appear in our dreams.”
Dreaming allows us to process the thoughts and experiences of the day. Even subconscious ones.

Is There a Treatment for False Awakenings?

Generally speaking, there is no treatment for this kind of sleep disorder. However, if you are suffering from frequent and upsetting false awakenings that are affecting you, it could be a sign of an underlying worry or general anxiety.
In this case, talking therapy might be sufficient to get to the root of your anxiety. Once the worry or stress has been dealt with, your sleep should return to normal. Only if the awakenings are causing you serious distress will you be offered some kind of sleep or dream therapy. Medication may be used to control the symptoms of disturbed sleep.

How to Wake Up from a False Awakening?

symbols in dreams
Those that are experienced in lucid dreaming will already know how to manipulate the environment in their dreams. However, for anyone who does not experience lucid dreaming, it can be more difficult.
For all the regular dreamers who are not expert lucid dreamers, there are ways to wake up properly from a dream.
  • Test your surroundings by focusing on one thing in your dream.
  • Ask yourself – does this seem real to me?
  • Try controlling what you’re doing, e.g. running or walking.
  • Pinch yourself in the dream; does it hurt?
  • Tell yourself to wake up right now.
  • Move your fingers or toes and continue from there.

How to Turn False Awakenings into Lucid Dreams

Establishing control allows us to feel better about ourselves and the situation we’re in. Turning false awakenings into lucid dreaming is a good way of getting back control. Try the following if you believe you are experiencing a false awakening:
  • Do the same thing every day upon waking up. This is your baseline of knowing whether you are still dreaming or not. For instance, always put your slippers on the left foot then right. Then, if this doesn’t happen, you’ll know you are still asleep.
  • Find a mirror and look at your reflection. In one study, a woman experienced multiple false awakenings only realised she was still asleep because she happened to glance at her reflection and there was nothing there.
  • Look at the clock face and see if you can tell the time. When we dream, our brains shut down the area in our brain responsible for language and numbers. As a result, we find it hard to read clocks and watches when we are dreaming.

Is False Awakening Dangerous?

It is important to remember that false awakenings, in themselves, are not harmful. However, recurrent and Type 2 awakenings do suggest that all is not well with the dreamer. It’s possible that some stress or worry is not being addressed. In this case, therapy to discover the underlying anxiety is the best way forward.
References:
  1. www.verywellhealth.com
  2. www.psychologytoday.com
  3. www.refinery29.com
*Names changed.
 
Janey Davies
 

 
 
About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2020 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 




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All articles are of the respective authors or publishers responsibility. 
 


 
No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


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publicado por achama às 14:09
Sexta-feira, 20 / 03 / 20

What Is Willful Ignorance and 5 Examples of How It Works

What Is Willful Ignorance 

and 5 Examples of How It Works

Lottie Miles, M.A.

learning-mind.com

Posted March 19, 2020.

 
Willful Ignorance Examples.

 
 
 
Willful ignorance is built on the deliberate avoidance of evidence that doesn’t match one’s existing beliefs. This can be a defense mechanism as it allows us to create a world we feel safe in, akin to confirmation bias.
 
However, it is also often apparent in behavior that is socially harmful. In this post, we will explore what willful ignorance is and explore this in examples of how it works in everyday life.
 
What Is Willful Ignorance?
 
As already outlined, it necessarily involves the deliberate omission of information in a decision-making process. If we are unaware of information, then we would simply be ignorant of something.
 
It can appear in all sorts of ways in our everyday lives, from ignoring issues that make us feel bad to rejecting irrefutable evidence that doesn’t match our world view. Willful ignorance is also sometimes termed willful blindness, as in Margaret Heffernan’s interesting exploration of the topic. She notes that:
 
“what we choose to let through and to leave out is crucial. We mostly admit the information that makes us feel great about ourselves, while conveniently filtering whatever unsettles our fragile egos and most vital beliefs”
 
Being willfully ignorant can sometimes protect the brain and work as a defense mechanism. It helps people overcome situations they would otherwise find too much. However, in extreme cases, it can actually lead us to take certain courses of action that can be harmful to ourselves or others. It can also prevent us from taking necessary actions that we should do but do not.
 
5 Examples of How Willful Ignorance Works in Everyday Life
 
Being deliberately ignorant about certain matters can help to protect us from scenarios we cannot face. However, being too willfully ignorant can also lead us to cause social harm. It can prevent us from making changes in our lives and be potentially dangerous for our entire existence.
 
Here, we outline 5 different ways willful ignorance plays out in our daily lives from the mundane through to the serious.
 
Sport
 
Sport offers a useful way to explore common benign ways people enact willful ignorance in their lives. For example, be it basketball or soccer, if you are the player on a team, more often than not every decision that goes against you appears to be wrong.
 
Even though sports stars know their actions are on video, they can still appeal against decisions seemingly convinced that what they just did, didn’t happen. Equally, fans watching the game may employ willful blindness to the bad actions of players on the team they support.
 
Creationism & Intelligent Design
 
Creationists necessarily have to create new narratives to explain away evidence for evolution. Rather than looking at evidence as building blocks, creationist science seeks to manipulate the building blocks until they match the existing ideology.
 
Indeed, both creationists and intelligent design ‘scientists’ have to ignore hundreds of studies. These studies verify certain facts of evolution confirmed at both a micro and macroevolutionary scale so they cannot be confronted, only circumvented. This protects them on an emotional level by defending their world view.
 
Education
 
Self-deception through willful ignorance can have beneficial and detrimental effects when it comes to education. For example, if we receive a low score in a test and blame it on the course content not matching the exam, we may feel better about ourselves. However, to do this, we may need to ignore the fact other people we know scored highly on the test.
 
If we feel okay with a low score, we may not take the time to reflect on what we could have done differently to achieve a better result. As such, it is important to recognize if we are willfully ignoring things that may help us take positive actions in our lives.
 
Health
 
A common area where most people will have a personal understanding of willful ignorance is being healthy. In this case, being willfully ignorant can have negative consequences for the individual and society at large.
 
We all know smoking is bad, alcohol is bad, ice cream is bad. However, this fact alone is insufficient to prevent many of us from consuming these things. This is akin to cognitive dissonance. But there are ways we can recognize and overcome this way of thinking and being.
 
Health also provides an example of where willful ignorance can harm others as well as ourselves. For example, according to the WHO ‘vaccine hesitancy is one of the top 10 global health threats’.
 
Movements like the anti-vaxxers have grown in popularity, especially in Europe. This has seen a rise in people unsure about the safety of vaccines. In fact, 21 percent of the global population is now feeling this way.
 
Climate change
 
Climate change perhaps best represents how being willfully ignorant can be both useful as a defense mechanism and socially harmful to ourselves and others. More and more people are experiencing climate change distress. Thus, a certain amount of willful blindness is necessary for many people in order to protect their mental well-being.
 
However, if everyone practices willful blindness about the issue of climate change, then climate catastrophe for most on the planet will lie ahead.
 
Final Words
 
From this exploration of common examples of willful ignorance in everyday life, it is clear that it is somewhat of a double-edged sword. It can be an effective defense mechanism protecting us from events that challenge our comfortable world view. But it can also have negative consequences if we leave it unchecked.


 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 01:01
Domingo, 15 / 03 / 20

Known Unknowns vs Unknown Unknowns: Two Sides of Ignorance

Known Unknowns vs Unknown Unknowns:  

Two Sides of Ignorance.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 15th, 2020.

 
known unknowns unknown unknowns.
 
 
 
If I asked you how a CD worked, how confident would you feel in explaining it to me? Let’s say from 1-10? A 7, 8 perhaps? Okay, go on then, explain it, but in so much detail that I completely understand. Not so confident now? We’re talking about a phenomenon called known unknowns and unknown unknowns.
What are known unknowns and unknown unknowns?
 
Don’t worry, it sounds complicated and a bit confusing, but it really isn’t. It’s all about ignorance and how we perceive our knowledge to be of something.
 
I want to give you some more examples of known unknowns vs unknown unknowns before I explain this further.
  1. Can you explain how a zipper works?
  2. How about a tape recorder?
  3. How does a toilet flush?
  4. Can you draw a bicycle?
  5. Could you explain space travel to me?
  6. How does a neurosurgeon work on the brain?
 
You probably feel quite confident in your ability to answer the first four but pass on the last two. In fact, studies show that we are actually quite ignorant when it comes to everyday things.
 
We like to think we know more than we do, but we don’t. And this is where known unknowns and unknown unknowns come into play.
 
We are quite happy to admit we are not rocket scientists or that we couldn’t perform brain surgery, but the simple things in life? We like to think we know everything we need to know.
What is the difference between known unknowns and unknown unknowns?
 
Known unknowns

Known unknowns are the things we know we don’t know about, if that makes sense. Like space travel, brain surgery, how self-driving cars work. We know we need to research these topics to learn more about them. But the important thing is we also know that we’re not really expected to know about things as complicated as rocket science.

Unknown unknowns

Now, unknown unknowns are the things we think we should know about, but we actually don’t. Like, how a bicycle works or what makes a toilet flush.
These are the simple, everyday things in life we take for granted and assume we know how they function. But we don’t. But we don’t know we don’t. The important thing with unknown unknowns is that we think we are expected to know about them.

Why do we sometimes wildly overestimate our intelligence?

It’s called the illusion of explanatory depth.
“Most people feel they understand the world with far greater detail, coherence, and depth than they really do.” Leonid Rozenblit and Frank Keil (2002)
Rozenblit and Keil conducted multi-phase studies to test the illusion of explanatory depth (IOED).
In the first phase, they asked participants to rate how well they understood the workings of objects such as sewing machines, mobile phones or bicycles.
In the second phase, they were asked to explain in a detailed report of how each object worked. They then re-rated their understanding of how each one worked. The results showed again and again that their confidence in understanding the workings of an object fell drastically from phase one to two.
In another study, Rebecca Lawson asked participants to draw a bicycle in her Science of Cycology report. Some of the results are featured below:
known unknowns unknown unknowns
In fact, it doesn’t matter whether we are talking about the workings of objects or scientific theories or the stock market. IOED is this pervasive feeling we know more than we do.

Why do we accept that some things are beyond our knowledge whilst others are not?

We don’t need to know how things work

The main reason for the ignorance of our own ignorance is that we don’t need to know how everyday things work. They just do. Generations that came before us invented them and they have been in our lives for decades.We are used to seeing them wherever we go. They are part and parcel of the fabric of life. Thanks to others, we haven’t had to invent them; we just use them. So there’s no need for us to know the ins and outs of the workings of a toaster or a bicycle.
I liken it a little to spellcheck. Sure, we could learn every difficult word there is in the world by heart, but why bother? Our computers have spellcheck, so we don’t need to make the effort to learn. But we wouldn’t call ourselves stupid because of this.
It’s the same with gadgets, theories or mechanics.
Now, more than ever, thanks to search engines and sharing information, we can find out a lot more than our predecessors. We can look things up on Google, share content but more importantly, build on what our previous generations have already made.
And we don’t need to know how things work to be able to do this.

Sharing knowledge makes us think we are smart

The other thing about our generation compared to previous ones is that by sharing information, we give ourselves the illusion of knowledge.
If I asked you why the planets are round, or what causes gravity, you wouldn’t throw your hands up in the air with despair. You’d look it up and tell me the answer.It’s this instant access to knowledge that gives us all expert status when we are not experts. But the lines are blurred. And we certainly don’t consider ourselves to be stupid when we can research the answer.
But it’s not just this kind of instant access to information that gives us IOED, it’s the way we consume this knowledge.
We skim the top of news items, we click on salacious headlines for the juicy parts of a story, and we allow tweets to inform us of global political moves. We tap into viral videos, we listen to soundbites and agree with memes.
This is a superficial way of ingesting knowledge. We never really deep dive into a topic. As a result, we know a lot of stuff, but not in that much detail. In other words, we know a little bit about a lot.

Why the Illusion of Explanatory Depth Is Dangerous

When we believe we know more than we actually do, it can lead us to prejudice without us even knowing.
One study tackled how understanding people and IOED could help reduce political extremism. In 2013, Philip Fernbach et al asked participants to rate how well they understood a range of policies such as:
  • A national flat-rate tax
  • A single-payer healthcare system
  • A cap-and-trade system for carbon emissions
Participants were then asked to explain in detail how each one worked. Afterwards, they had to re-rate their knowledge on the subjects. As expected, their confidence fell after they were asked to fully describe the policies.
But here’s the interesting part, as their confidence fell, so did their extreme views on the policies. Those that either strongly opposed or supported the policies became more moderate in their views. And as their views became more moderate, so did their reluctance to fund these policies also reduce.
This study is an example of how IOED could be used to encourage a more moderate approach to political extremism.
I always use this example to show how people always think they are right, if for no other reason than it makes you think about the other side. Amaryllis Fox was a former undercover officer for the CIA and has met a lot of opposing factions in her time.
“If I’ve learned one lesson from my time with the CIA, it is this: Everybody believes they are the good guy,” CIA Officer Fox

Final thoughts

We can’t possibly know everything and we can’t always be right. Understanding that we are all susceptible to IOED could lead to a more empathetic world for all of us.
 
References:




Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 20:03
Sexta-feira, 13 / 03 / 20

5 Benefits of Slow Thinking, According to Science

5 Benefits of Slow Thinking, According to Science

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted March 12, 2020.

 
Benefits of Slow Thinking.

 

 
In a world where everything inexorably requires us to speed up, most people’s intuition tells them that being faster is better. However, according to research, our intuition may not always be as good as we think it is. Moreover, thinking slow may have several benefits over fast thinking in a variety of settings.
 
In this post, we will outline the debates about slow vs fast thinking and 5 benefits of slow thinking, according to science.
 
Fast Thinking Vs Slow Thinking
 
People often associate thinking fast with intelligence, strength, and being funny. In this vein, Malcolm Gladwell’s interesting book ‘Blink’ champions thinking without thinking.
 
Gladwell argues that intuition is the result of meaningful work undertaken by individuals and is more like intelligent design than some magical property from within. This understanding leads Gladwell to argue that spontaneous decisions are good or sometimes even better than decisions we carefully plan. However, this position fails to recognize the value of slow thinking.
 
In the book ‘Thinking Fast and Slow’, Kahneman argues that the human mind is made up of two systems. The first relies on fast, instinctive, and emotional action. This system is linked to our survival instincts, helping us to quickly respond to danger. The second relies more on logic, deliberative thought, conscious effort, and taking time – or being slow.
 
When we do difficult Math, we are usually forced into using this second system. As such, these systems can both be beneficial at times. However, they can also come into conflict. If we let system 1 dominate too much, then we will miss out on the potential benefits of thinking slow.
 
5 benefits of slow thinking, according to science
 
Here, we outline 5 ways that slowing down your thinking can be beneficial for you and society at large.
 
Improved mental health & emotional control
 
Studies like “The Rediscovery of Slowness: Exploring the Timing of Cognition” have shown that the ability to use slow thinking processes can be characteristic of a healthy brain. They also found that an inability to adaptively regulate emotional responses to challenging situations was a common trait in numerous forms of psychopathology.
 
Similarly, a 2015 study found that thinking slowly could be beneficial in cases of psychosis. When patients were supported to slow down their thinking processes and recognize fast thoughts, they were able to bring down levels of paranoia.
 
Reduce Stress
 
In the world today, our fast-paced lives can lead us to feel like we never have enough time to do anything. This naturally arouses our sympathetic nervous system, the part of our autonomic nervous system that puts us into fight or flight mode, heightening our stress levels.
 
On the other side of our autonomic nervous system is the parasympathetic nervous system. This helps us to produce calm and relaxed states. Thinks like mindfulness seek to activate this system by using techniques drawing on our slow thinking systems. Check out our article about relaxation techniques for coping with negativity, anxiety and stress that will help you to benefit from slow thinking.
 
Prevent biased thinking
 
Slow thinking allows us to recognize when our thoughts and feelings may be being directed by automatic responses. It also helps us to recognize how this might be causing us to react in certain ways.
 
The situation could be feeling that you have been ignored, spoken over, or pretty much anything. This could make us feel angry or jump to assumptions about why this happened. If you find yourself in such a situation, try taking a step back and imagining yourself outside the situation you are personally in. Try to reason through why it might have happened. Then, reflect on this before acting.
 
By imagining yourself outside of a situation, you make it possible to see different perspectives and improve objectivity. You will likely find your initial response quickly dampens in extremity by taking this time and considering more ‘data’. This helps to avoid confirmation biases affecting your decisions. Cognitive reappraisal like this is also beneficial for mental well-being.
 
Make better decisions
 
Thinking slowly can help you master the art of decision making. A classic example of slow thinking fostering better decisions is demonstrated by something called the Cognitive Reflection Test. Based on 3 questions, this test is designed to temp human intuition into answering incorrectly.
 
In a study of 3,428 people, 83% answered at least one question, with 33% answering all 3 incorrectly. The test serves to highlight that intuition is not always as good as you think it is. Understanding this can help people realize that spending more time on decisions can enable them to take different actions with improved results.
 
Studies have also shown that slow thinking can help people make better decisions that are noticeable at the macro level. For example, a McKinsey Quarterly report found that leaders of business will be more successful in their investments and strategic efforts by thinking slowly.
 
Improve Research
 
There has long been growing pressure in academia to produce fast results, with a heavy focus on the number of publications. This outweighs considerations of quality-driven research done at a slow and methodical pace.
 
Studies have shown that this has actually led to reduced quality in research and increased mistakes. Indeed, Lakens & Evers’ 2014 study found statistical evidence that more productive researchers, measure by publication output, produce the least reliable research with less statistically significant results.
 
Final Thoughts
 
The benefits of slow thinking should not mean that we seek to banish swiftness from all of our actions. Both thinking fast and thinking slow have important benefits for our mental health and well being. However, taking the time to slow down our thinking is vital in our fast-paced world. It helps us to recognize our emotions, make improved decisions, and ultimately leads to better mental health.


 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 20:54
Terça-feira, 10 / 03 / 20

4 Most Interesting Theories of Intelligence in Psychology

4 Most Interesting Theories of Intelligence in Psychology

Francesca Forsythe.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 9th, 2020.

 
 
 
Intelligence and how we gain it has been a puzzle for centuries, but there are four theories in psychology I think you’ll find most interesting.
 
Psychologists have been trying to define intelligence for centuries, but many disagree on what intelligence really is. This has led to the development of many different psychological theories of intelligence that fall into four major categories.
 
These categories are psychometric, cognitive, cognitive-contextual, and biological. As there are too many theories to talk about at once, allow me to introduce the most interesting theories from each of these research areas.
 
Theories of Intelligence in Psychology
 
Psychometric: Fluid and Crystallized Ability
 
The fluid and crystallized intelligence theory was originally developed by Raymond B Cattell between 1941 to 1971. This theory of intelligence rested upon a set of ability tests that were used as factors to define an individual’s abilities.
 
Fluid intelligence relates to inductive and deductive reasoning, comprehending implications and understanding relations between stimuli. To Cattell, these skills lay the foundation for the very basic biological capacity to learn. Crystalized abilities are related to vocabulary and cultural knowledge. They are learned through formal schooling and life experiences.
 
Fluid and crystallized abilities are not independent of one another, their main difference is the academic dimension of crystallized ability. Fluid ability was shown to be at its height when the individual is in their 20s and then drops as they age. Crystalized abilities peak much later and remain high until later in life.
 
Cognitive: Processing Speed and Aging
 
In relation to fluid and crystallized ability intelligence theory, processing speed and aging seeks to explain why fluid ability declines with age.
 
Timothy Salthouse proposed that the decline is the result of our processing speed for cognitive processes slowing down as we age. He states that this is related to two mechanisms of impaired performance:
  • The limited-time mechanism – The time to perform later cognitive processes is restricted when a large proportion of the available time is given to earlier cognitive processing
  • The simultaneity mechanism – Earlier cognitive processing may be lost by the time later cognitive processing is completed
 
Salthouse found that nearly 75% of age-related variance in cognitive processing was shared with measures of cognitive speed, which is incredible support for his theory. Although it is not exactly classed as one of the theories of intelligence, it does go a long way to explain why intelligence changes as we age.
 
Cognitive-contextual: Piaget’s Stage Theory of Development
 
This theory of intelligence is essentially related to child development. Piaget posed that there are four stages of intellectual development. The theory suggests that the child assimilates to different environments by using different methods of thinking about the world.
 
The child will eventually find a mismatch between their environment and their ways of thinking, encouraging them to create new and more advanced ways of thinking to adapt.
 
Sensorimotor stage (Birth to 2 years old)
 
In this stage, children understand their environment through sensation and motor operations. By the end of this stage, children will understand that objects continue to exist when out of sight, otherwise known as object permanence. They will also remember things and imagine ideas or experiences, also known as mental representation. Mental representation allows for the development of language skills to begin.
 
Preoperational stage (2 to 6 years old)
 
During this stage, children can use symbolic thinking and language to understand and communicate with the world. Imagination develops and flourishes during this stage and the child begins to take an egocentric position. They will see others and only be able to view their actions in light of their own perspective.
 
However, at the end of this stage, they will begin to understand the points of view of others. By the end of this stage, children will also be able to start reasoning about things in a logical manner.
Concrete operational stage (7 to 11 years old)
 
It is at this stage when children begin to apply logical operations and specific experiences or perceptions of their environment. They will begin to learn about conservation, classification, and numbering. They will also begin to appreciate that most questions have logical and correct answers which they can find by reasoning.
 
Formal operational state (12 years old and onwards)
 
At the final stage, children begin to think about abstract or hypothetical questions and ideas. They no longer need to use the objects involved in a question to answer it. More abstract topics, such as philosophy and ethics, become much more interesting as their personalities really begin to develop.
 
Biological: Brain Size
 
Many theories in psychology have addressed the connection between the size of the brain and the level of intelligence. It is clear that there is a relation between the two, however, there is no clear relationship. There are also theories of intelligence which state that genetics is a greater factor than brain size, but research is still being conducted.
 
With a huge number of theories of intelligence in psychology, it is impossible to cram them all into a single article. These four theories are my favorite, but there are so many others to look into what you may prefer. Intelligence is a mystery, but seeking to understand it is how we learn.
 
 
References:

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  2. https://faculty.virginia.edu

 
 
 

Francesca Forsythe





 

About the Author: Francesca Forsythe

Francesca is a freelance writer currently studying a degree in Law and Philosophy. She has written for several blogs in a range of subjects across Lifestyle, Relationships and Health and Fitness. Her main pursuits are learning new innovative ways of keeping fit and healthy, as well as broadening her knowledge in as many areas as possible in order to achieve success.
 
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 
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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 


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publicado por achama às 08:27
Segunda-feira, 09 / 03 / 20

6 Cognitive Effects That Distort the Way You Think

6 Cognitive Effects That Distort the Way You Think

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted March 7, 2020.

 
cognitive effects.

 

 

Cognitive effects can distort the way you think, increase anxiousness, and lead to numerous other difficulties. However, they are usually thought patterns viewing reality in an inaccurate and, typically, negative way.
 
An example might be thinking “I am the unluckiest person on the planet”. As a result of this sort of thinking, or when experiencing any other cognitive effect, you are more likely to see things in a more negative way.
 
 
In this post, we will look at what cognitive effects are. We will then look at 6 cognitive events that distort the way you think and introduce some coping mechanisms and methods to help you stay in control.
 
What are cognitive effects?
 
They are sometimes called ‘cognitive distortions’ and relate to patterns of thinking that are twisted in some way. Studies show that cognitive effects can be used as a coping mechanism for dealing with adverse events in people’s lives.
 
They are usually distorted through a negative lens and cause habitual errors of thought with some studies finding an increased vulnerability to depression in people suffering from cognitive distortions.
 
As such, whilst they can be beneficial in terms of dealing with the immediate effects of stress, in the long run, they can cause issues for our mental health if they shape the way we think.
6 cognitive effects that distort the way you think
 
According to Beck, Rush, Shaw, and Emery (1979), there are 6 types of cognitive effects that distort how you think:
 
1. Overgeneralization
 
This refers to taking a thought that is plausible in certain contexts and assuming it is always generalizable to other contexts, similar or otherwise. This is a common cognitive effect experienced by people after public speaking.
 
Other examples could be thinking it is always/never good to take risks, or always being optimistic/pessimistic is good, or linked with things like the Dunning Kruger effect, etc. Overgeneralizing in this way can cause you to see things in only one way and lead to repeated behaviors that may not be healthy.
 
2. Catastrophisation
 
This relates to always expecting the worst thing possible is likely to happen. Examples could include thinking “I will never find someone if my partner leaves me” or “I will be a failure in life if I don’t pass this test/get this job”.
 
 
Everyone will have had similar thoughts to these at some time. However, if it dominates your thinking, it can lead to depression. As such, it is important to try and notice these thoughts if they arise so we can deal with them healthily.
 
Some of the ways to recognize and ceal with it when you have anxiety caused by catastrophic thinking are outlined below.
 
3. Personalization
 
Whenever we blame ourselves for something that is not our fault, we are experiencing the cognitive effect of personalization.
 
Equally, personalization can involve being the imagined cause of an external event, such as thinking “because I didn’t have an alcoholic drink, everyone else had a worse time”. It has been linked to anxiety disorders. In extreme cases, this can lead to people taking everything personally.
 
4. Predicting with insufficient evidence
 
Sometimes called temporal causality. This refers to the belief that, because something bad happened in a situation once, it will necessarily happen in the same or similar situation in the future.
 
However, it premised on insufficient evidence. This could be failing at a test and assuming you are bad at that subject. However, you could sit the same test again and succeed for various different reasons.
 
5. Self-reference
 
The effect of this cognitive distortion is to believe that your own actions are the center of everybody else’s attention. This is a common feeling almost everyone experiences. It is often linked to self-assessment of bad performance at something.
 
 
Equally, we might experience it when we enter a situation and are unsure where to go or what to do. We can feel like everyone notices our internal emotions sees our bad performance. If we experience this in the extreme, it can prevent us from taking action to avoid this sensation.
 
6. Dichotomous thinking
 
This sometimes called ‘polarized thinking’ or ‘black and white thinking’. This cognitive effect refers to always expecting an extremely positive or negative result.
 
For example, if we think we are destined to always be a success at everything, or that we will inevitably fail no matter what we do, we are experiencing the cognitive effect of dichotomous thinking. Because these extremes are unrealistic, this can lead to issues arising when this concept of reality is broken.
 
How to cope with cognitive distortions
 
These are only 6 types of cognitive effects that can distort how we think about the world around us. However, there are many more. The important thing to be aware of is that we can manage these distortions and correct their effect on our actions over time.
 
You can try the following steps to achieve this:
 
Step 1 – Identify the thought
 
The first thing to do to achieve this is to identify the thought itself. Is the thought you have noticed causing you to feel more anxious or worsening your mood in another way?
 
Step 2 – Identify the cognitive effect/distortion
 
Try to think of which cognitive effect you are experiencing. Are you overgeneralizing or thinking dichotomously? Understanding this can help you see how it is shaping your analysis.
 
Step 3 – Reframe the debate
 
Consider how you can reframe your original analysis. What other evidence is there that might challenge your original thought?
 
Step 4 – Consider CBT
 
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) can give you guidance to change how cognitive effects are distorting your thinking. Research has shown the positive effects of this technique and there are numerous techniques you can use that will calm your anxious mind.


 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 01:40
Sexta-feira, 21 / 02 / 20

Brain and Emotions: How Anger, Fear or Love Work in Your Brain

Brain and Emotions: 

How Anger, Fear or Love Work in Your Brain

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted February 21st, 2020.

 
brain and emotions.

 
 
 
The human brain is incredibly complex. Neuroscientists are still uncovering hidden depths to this intriguing organ. and there is still a lot that we don’t know about it. However, what we do know about the brain, and the part of it that deals with recognizing and controlling your body’s reaction to emotions is incredibly fascinating.
 
In this post, we look at our brain and emotions and what different reactions occur in our heads when we feel anger, fear or love.
 
Why do we have emotions?
 
When it comes to discussing the way our brain processes emotions, a helpful starting point is looking at why we have emotions in the first place. Essentially, emotions help us to survive and exist thanks to evolution. They act as triggers to help us to react to situations that may cause us harm.
 
Feeling anger triggers a response of being ready to fight. When we feel fear, we try to get ourselves out of the situation we’re in. On the other hand, feeling happiness can motivate us to pursue the activity that made us feel like that.
 
Which area of the brain controls emotions?
 
The main area of the brain that is involved with emotions is called the limbic system. It is also responsible for our memories and arousal. All parts of the limbic system are connected through a variety of neural pathways. This part of the brain is what enables us to react to situations when we feel a certain way.
 
The limbic system, therefore, is the part of the brain that is thought to control our emotions and the brain functions that coincide with them. It is said to consist of four main parts:
  • Hypothalamus: this part of the limbic system is responsible for regulating our body temperature, releasing hormones, and plays a key part in our emotions and our sex drive.
  • Amygdala: the amygdala is what helps us to respond to emotions including anger, fear, sadness in order to protect us. The amygdala also retains memories of emotions experienced and when they occurred. This helps us to prepare when similar experiences happen in the future.
  • Thalamus: the thalamus is where we detect and respond to our senses and is linked with the cerebrum which is where thinking and movement are triggered.
  • Hippocampus: the hippocampus plays a key part in our retention and retrieval of memories.
 
Which part of the brain controls fear?
 
The emotion of fear is an evolutionary response that helps us to survive. While most of us are no longer living in the wild we still need to feel fear to keep ourselves safe. Fear triggers a chain reaction and involves multiple parts of the brain.
 
First of all, your thalamus uses sensory data to pick up on what you are witnessing/experiencing. This then passes through the sensory cortex which interprets the data and your hippocampus draws on memories to establish the context and how the body needs to react. Your amygdala then decodes these emotions and establishes whether a threat has occurred, this then stimulates the hypothalamus.
 
The hypothalamus then triggers what many of us know as the ‘fight or flight’ response. When you feel fear, you will often find that you have a physical reaction. This could be your hair standing on end and your heart pumping in your chest. This is triggered by the hypothalamus and gets you ready to react.
 
Which part of the brain controls anger?
 
When it comes to anger and the brain, the process is not dissimilar to that of fear. In fact, the fight or flight response triggered by the hypothalamus is what causes us to be angry and can be our response to feeling fear.
 
 
The thalamus recognizes the potential threat, your amygdala produces your emotional response and stimulates the hypothalamus which initiates your physical response. It is also thought that the prefrontal cortex can impact our ability to regulate anger and put the brakes on when we feel ourselves getting fired up.
 
Which part of the brain controls love?
 
While love is a favorable emotion to feel, we can all admit that it is accompanied by some pretty unpleasant emotions. Nerves and excitement are both physical responses we feel when we see someone we love. These are triggered by the hypothalamus, which releases a mixture of hormones that are associated with the reward circuit. These produce reactions such as sweaty hands, pink cheeks, a racing heart, as well as feelings of anxiety and passion.
 
When we are in love, our brain also produces the chemical dopamine. This is what makes love a desirable experience. The other hormones our brain produces when we experience romantic love are oxytocin (triggered by skin-to-skin contact), which encourages attachment and vasopressin, which is connected with social bonding.
 
Oxytocin is known as the ‘love hormone’ as it triggers feelings of security, calmness, and contentment that help us to feel connected with a potential mate.
 
Emotional processing is a complex field. How our brain deals with emotions is far beyond the scope of this article. The incredibly complicated chemical processes that are occurring in your brain when you experience certain emotions are fascinating.
 
It can help you to understand why your body reacts in a certain way. As well as how our emotions are trying to protect us. We hope we’ve whetted your appetite and that this marks the beginning of a fascination with neuroscience!
 
 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 20:53
Domingo, 16 / 02 / 20

Mirror-Touch Synesthesia: the Extreme Version of Empathy

Mirror-Touch Synesthesia: 

The Extreme Version of Empathy.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

February 14th, 2020.

 
mirror-touch synesthesia.
 


 
 
When a person says ‘I feel your pain,’ you take it to mean emotionally, not physically. But people that suffer from mirror-touch synesthesia feel exactly that; other people’s physical pain.
What Is Mirror-Touch Synesthesia?
 
The Condition of Synesthesia
 
Before we discuss this strange condition, let’s get some background on the basics of synesthesia.
 
The word ‘synesthesia’ comes from Greek and means ‘joined perception’. It’s a condition whereby one sense, such as seeing or hearing, triggers another overlapping sense. People with synesthesia are able to perceive the world through multiple senses.
 
For instance, those with synesthesia experience seeing music as colourful swirls. Or they might associate letters or numbers with different colours. Smells are linked to colours or sounds.
 
Mirror-Touch Synesthesia
 
It is a condition whereby the sufferer feels the sensations another person is experiencing. It’s called mirror-touch because the feelings occur on the opposite side of the body; as if you’re looking in a mirror.
 
For example, if I were to stroke the palm of my left hand, a sensation would occur on the sufferer’s right palm. Sights and sounds trigger feelings that can be painful or pleasurable.
 
Mirror-touch synesthesia is incredibly rare. It occurs in just 2% of the world’s population. Experts have described it as ‘an extreme form of empathy’. This is because the sufferer feels exactly what the other person is experiencing on and in their own body.
 
Meet Dr. Joel Salinas – the doctor who can feel your pain
 
One person that knows all about mirror-touch synesthesia is Dr. Joel Salinas. This doctor is a Harvard neurologist and a clinical researcher at Massachusetts University. He comes into contact with sick and ailing patients on a daily basis. But it’s not just their pain and discomfort he feels.
 
Dr. Salinas describes the pressure on the bridge of his nose as he watches someone walk past wearing glasses. The sensation of vinyl against the backs of his legs as he glances at a woman seated on a plastic chair in the waiting room. How her hat fits snugly around his head. The way his hip automatically contracts to mimic a volunteer shifting from one leg to another while taking a break from pushing a wheelchair.
 
“Through mirror-touch synesthesia, my body physically feels the experiences I see others have.” Dr. Joel Salinas
 
What Causes Mirror-Touch Synesthesia?
 
Experts believe it’s all to do with neurons and the part of our brain which is responsible for forward-thinking and planning. For instance, I look at my coffee and want to drink some of it. The neurons in my premotor cortex spring into action. This prompts me to reach out and take the cup.
 
Scientists in Italy discovered something interesting whilst researching macaque monkeys and neurons in the premotor cortex. They noticed high activity in this part of the brain when the monkeys reached to take an object, but also when they observed another monkey reaching out for an object. They called these particular neurons ‘mirror-touch’ neurons.
 
I find this all pretty incredible; it’s almost like a superpower built into our brains. But more importantly, it suggests a deeper connection between us.
 
What’s It Like to Experience This Type of Synesthesia?
 
People with mirror-touch synesthesia can have very different experiences. For some, it can be incredibly intense and disturbing. In fact, it’s not uncommon to hear this condition described as: “shocking electricity – like bolts of fire.”
 
One woman referred to a particularly distressing incident as: “It was a moment of trauma for me.” Another talks about his partner and how exhausted she felt on a daily basis: “Sometimes after being out in the world with everyone else’s feelings pulsing through her body, she’d come home and just pass out.”
 
Of course, we cannot forget there are also good feelings as well as bad. Moreover, some people with this condition seem able to focus on positive experiences.
 
One woman talks about the sense of freedom she goes through: “When I watch a bird in the sky, I feel like I’m flying. That’s a joy.” Another recalls the pleasure he senses: “When I see people hug, I feel like my body is getting hugged.”
 
Is Mirror-Touch Synesthesia a More Extreme Form of Empathy?
 
For some people, having this condition could be seen as a benefit. Certainly in Dr. Salinas’ view, it is.
 
“It is up to me to reason through that experience so that I can then respond to my patients from a truer, more enduring place of compassion and kindness. Or, I can respond with whatever else is needed: Sometimes that means prescribing a medication.” Dr. Salinas
 
However, anyone with empathic traits will know just how exhausting it can be. Putting yourself in another’s person’s situation and feeling their emotions is physically draining in its self. Regardless of actually physically experiencing pain or discomfort, empaths have a hard enough time as it is.
 
Final Thoughts
 
Dr. Salinas believes there are good reasons for some of us to be able to feel what others feel. And it’s all about curiosity and understanding another person.
 
“Being curious about where another human being is coming from, and wondering why they might think, feel, or do what they do.”
 
Because it’s the fear of the unknown that can lead to prejudice, radicalisation, stereotyping minority groups and hate crimes. Surely, the more we know about a person, the better for all of society.
 
 
References:
  1. www.bbc.co.uk
  2. www.vice.com
  3. www.sciencedirect.com
  4. www.theguardian.com
 

 

 
Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 02:49
Domingo, 09 / 02 / 20

Spiral of Silence Theory Explains Why You’d Rather Stay Quiet.

Spiral of Silence Theory Explains Why You’d Rather Stay Quiet.

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted February 8th, 2020.

 
spiral of silence theory.

 


 
 
 
During the 1970s, Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann, a German political scientist, developed the spiral of silence theory. Working in the context of post-World War Two Germany, Noelle-Neumann coined the theory. She sought to explain why individuals choose to remain silent when they believe their view isn’t held by the majority.
 
In this post, we look at how the spiral of silence can explain human behavior. We will also consider whether or not the theory is still relevant today.
 
Spiral of silence theory explained
 
The theory was coined by Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann in 1974. It was partly designed in an attempt to explain the lack of resistance to the Nazi regime. The idea of the spiral of silence suggests that people remain silent when they think their views are different from majority viewpoints.
 
According to the theory, this unwillingness to speak out is due to fear of social isolation. It is also due to the expected negative consequences of going against the perceived status quo. On the other hand, those confident their beliefs and opinions meet ‘public opinion’ can voice their thoughts without fear. This also perpetuates the silencing effect on those in the minority.
 
We are all able to determine what the prevailing ‘public opinion’ actually is, according to the theory. In Noelle-Neumann’s words, we all have a ‘quasi statistical sense’ of whether our own opinions are either popular or unpopular. This is based on the cues we have had from the mass media and our environment. In other words, we have a ‘sixth sense’ of the popular public consensus on a range of issues.
 
The spiral effect begins to occur as those who feel validated about their beliefs become more and more vocal. Concurrently, those in the minority lose confidence in expressing their opinions. This loss of confidence is built on the fear of rejection and subsequent social isolation.
 
As a result, the minority are silenced. In this way, predominating public opinion is seen as a form of social control in the spiral of silence theory.
 
Research into the theory
 
Since the theory of the spiral of silence was developed, there have been numerous studies that have tested it. These studies have sought to either prove or disprove its legitimacy. The majority of these studies have focused on the effect of the theory in political environments.
 
Most recently, a meta-analysis conducted by Matthes et al (2017) revisited the theory and the effect of the spiral of silence on either restricting or enabling the expression of political opinions. They analyzed 66 studies exploring this topic which collectively contained 27,000 participants.
 
The analysis found that there was a significant positive relationship between one’s perception of the prevailing opinion and the subsequent suppression of their own opinions. This was seen to be particularly acute when amongst family, friends, and neighbors.
 
Despite this result, there are critics of the theory. Some have criticized the assumption that we all have an in-built understanding of what the prevailing climate of opinion is, and whether there can actually be something that can be defined as such.
 
Others have questioned the theoretical underpinning that fear of isolation is a strong enough deterrent for silencing a minority opinion. There have also been criticisms of the theory’s failure to take into account cross-cultural differences. Others have noted that the nature of the issue itself can impact on the spiral of silence effect.
 
How relevant is the spiral of silence today?
 
With the rise of alternative online media channels and social media, critics of the spiral of silence are suggesting that the theory is no longer relevant. The theory was proposed pre-internet and was based on a mass-media that was relatively uniform.
 
Today, the mainstream media often follows the same trajectory. However, the internet has provided people the opportunity to seek alternative opinions. It has also given voice to those who have previously been disadvantaged by unequal power relations.
 
If an individual does not wish to publicly express their opinion amongst friends, family, or colleagues they may well do so anonymously via the internet. This is sometimes known as the online disinhibition effect. This itself creates its own spiral effect.
 
However, within this context, a minority opinion may no longer be felt as such. This is due to the fact that the World Wide Web enables the participation of many within the political domain.
 
The birth of the internet, therefore, has shifted the conversation around the spiral of silence into a new trajectory. While some believe the theory has had its day, others still see the theoretical concept as a useful means of exploring behavior.
 
Using it as a starting point for many studies into whether a climate of opinion can still be said to exist, and how this affects our willingness to speak out about controversial opinions that we deem to go against the grain.
Does it ring true for you?
 
The spiral of silence, therefore, may have struck a chord with your own behavior and responses. Ever felt silenced during a political conversation? Fear of isolation or rejection is certainly something we can all relate to.
 
So, while the spiral of silence theory may need some modern re-jigging, as a concept, it can certainly serve to explain those occasions where we ponder about what we could have said, only when it is too late to say it.
 
 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

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publicado por achama às 03:25
Sábado, 08 / 02 / 20

Dunbar’s Number or Why Most of Your Social Connections Are Not Your Friends

Dunbar’s Number or Why Most of Your Social Connections Are Not Your Friends.

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

February 7th, 2020.

 
Dunbar’s Number.
 
 
 
Have you heard of Dunbar’s number? My sister certainly has. Years ago, when her new neighbour asked her if she wanted to pop round for a coffee, she said: “No thanks, I’ve got enough friends.”
 
Now, before you start judging my sis for being unnecessarily blunt, she does have a point. And that’s where Dunbar’s number comes in. You see, it suggests that a person can only maintain a maximum of 150 social connections at once. So why is this and where does the idea come from?
 
The Origin of Dunbar’s Number
 
Robin Dunbar is a British anthropologist and an evolutionary psychologist. Back in the 1990s, he was interested in the number of social connections a person could have.
 
For instance, how many people do we know; how many do we actually care about and is there a common link to this number? Do some people have more connections, others less? Now, remember, this was the 90s so well before social media and ‘likes’ and ‘friends’ and all of that.
 
Dunbar began his research by examining the patterns of sending Christmas cards.
Dunbar and the Christmas Card List
 
Sending cards at Christmas seems fairly innocuous, but there is a certain amount of investment involved. You make the list of people, you choose and buy the cards, the stamps, and you look up the addresses. Then you write them all out and post them. It all takes time and effort. Dunbar reckoned that most of us would not go to all this trouble and effort for just anyone.
 
After collecting data from thousands of households, Dunbar found a remarkable coincidence. Of every household he collected data from, the average number of cards sent was always around 150. There was also a fairly unanimous split in who the cards went to. For example, around a quarter were sent to close relatives, two-thirds to friends and the remaining small percentage to colleagues.
 
But why did the number 150 keep cropping up? It was a mystery. Dunbar carried on researching. But this time he turned his attention to primates and social groups.
Why Is Dunbar’s Number 150?
 
Dunbar discovered a link between a primate’s brain and the size of their social groups. Specifically, their brain mass and the primate’s preferred group sizes. He looked at different primate species and catalogued social activity.
 
In particular, time spent grooming (the equivalent of socialising for humans), the size of the neocortex (the area of the brain related to language and cognition) and group size. He found that in primates, the smaller the size of the brain, the smaller the size of the groups were formed. As brain mass increased, so did group size.
 
 
Dunbar proposed that brain size was the overriding factor in deciding the number of social connections a primate could successfully manage. Dunbar then collected data across all primate species, including humans.
 
He proposed that humans can only comfortably maintain 150 social connections. Larger numbers require stricter social rules and larger neocortical processing capacity.
So what exactly does Dunbar mean by 150 and social connections?
 
Dunbar characterises the number 150 as:
 
 
“..the number of people you would not feel embarrassed about joining uninvited for a drink if you happened to bump into them in a bar.”
 
There is strong evidence, throughout history, that shows 150 is an average size for social groups. Indeed, it is the optimum number for a group. For when numbers start to exceed this size things tend to collapse or fail to function effectively.
Dunbar’s Number applies to many social groups
 
Even our earliest ancestors, the cave-dwellers, the hunter-gatherers, lived in groups consisting, on average, of 150 people. The earliest villages consisted of around 150 people. From African tribes to Roman legions, we are always drawn back to this magic number of 150.
 
Perhaps stranger still, Dunbar and his magic number of 150 can be seen in many other aspects of human social groups, not just our personal lives. For example, offices, campsites, hotels, military organisations, even book-clubs. Indeed, research proves time and time again that if numbers exceed 150 the group fails.
150 only applies to primates and humans
 
So why 150? It appears that 150 is the prime number for evolutionary survival. Primates, in particular, live in social groups, and this helps them to survive. In our ancestor’s time, humans were prey, not predators. We didn’t have sharp teeth, razor-like claws or strong muscles.
 
 
Whereas it suited other predators to hunt alone, for humans to stay alive, we needed to form groups. We used our shared knowledge and cunning. We planned and formulated ways of attack. For us, staying in strong, social groups was a matter, literally, of survival.
 
Now, look at other animals. For instance, the tiger, a predator at the top of the food chain, or a penguin, prey and near the bottom. Tigers are solitary animals. They survive without the need of a group and therefore hunt alone.
 
On the other hand, penguins are at risk from many predators, including extreme weather conditions. As a result, it is in their best interest to form huge groups. In fact, some of the largest penguin colonies have consisted of up to 180,000 to 200,000 birds.
 
Of course, tigers and penguins are very different from primates and humans. Penguins may form groups but they are not social in the way that human groups are. For the penguins, it is all about staying alive. For humans, it is more about emotional, psychological and spiritual connections.
 
And this is where it gets interesting. Because it takes a lot of effort to maintain all this emotion, and our brain can only manage so much. However, have we changed in the 21st century?
Has Social Media Changed Dunbar’s Number?
 
Now, in today’s society, there is nothing unusual for a person to have hundreds, if not thousands of friends on Facebook. So is it possible that Dunbar’s number no longer applies in our modern world?
 
Dunbar first proposed the number 150 in the 1990s. The 2020s is a very different place. We communicate online. We meet for the first time online. We date online. Surely, Dunbar’s number must have increased a little to keep up with our modern society?
 
 
I mean, this doesn’t make sense for a modern age. People communicate in seconds across the globe. Our social reach has expanded as our grasp of technology has stretched our imaginations. Also, I would have thought that our brain capacity would have increased substantially since our ancestors first set up villages over 250,000 years ago.
 
Well, not really. And that’s because it is all to do with our emotional capacity.
 
 
“It is as though we each have a limited amount of social capital and we can choose to invest it thinly in more people, or thickly in fewer people. But you can’t exceed these limits.” Dunbar
 
So what do these social connections look like? Dunbar arranges them in ever-decreasing circles. Our closest friends are in our inner circle and our acquaintances are in the furthest circle.
Most people, on average, have:
5 loved ones
15 best friends
50 good friends
150 meaningful contacts
500 acquaintances
1500 people you recognise
 
So we may know thousands of people, but Dunbar states that the 150 number is the important cut-off.
 
 
“The 150 layer is the important one: this defines the people you have real reciprocated relationships with, those where you feel obligations and would willingly do favours.” Dunbar
 
Because humans are complex creatures, maintaining these relationships take effort and time. And that’s why we only have the capacity for 150 social connections.
 
Of course, people move in and out of our lives at any given point. There are also huge differences between the social connections of an extrovert and an introvert. An extrovert may have a larger social network. However, they tend to spread themselves out thinly across a wide network of people. Introverts have a smaller social pool of contacts. But they like to spend more quality time with a few special friends.
 
 
There are also interesting differences between the genders. For example, men have a wider spread of contacts throughout their social circles. Whereas women have more contacts within their inner circles.
Final Thoughts
 
So is there really any advantage to knowing that humans have a limited capacity for maintaining social connections? Well, I think so yes. I realise it is all about time and effort. If we only have space for 150 connections then we should make sure those connected to us are worth the effort, and that we make the effort to preserve them.
 
Oh, and my sister? She did pop round for that coffee after all. They’ve been good friends ever since.
References:
  1. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  2. www.forbes.com
  3. www.bbc.com
 

 

 
Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 02:45
Sexta-feira, 24 / 01 / 20

4 Examples of Sublimation That Demonstrate How It Works in Daily Life

Lauren Edwards-Fowle.

learning-mind.com

Posted January 23rd, 2020.

 
 
 
 
We all have thoughts and feelings which we know are ‘not okay’ by society’s standards. It’s a natural element of the human condition. What sets humans apart from animals is not a lack of animal impulses, but rather how we manage our animal impulses. One of the techniques we subconsciously use is sublimation. Following is a brief discussion of the theory and a set of examples of sublimation in progress, to help crystallise the concept in your minds.

The Theory of Sublimation

The concept of psychological sublimation finds its roots in the work of Sigmund Freud. Although his theories are contentious these days, there are some fascinating facets to his beliefs about the human mind.

Freud divided the human psyche into three distinct aspects. The Id, our ‘animal brain,’ is home to impulses and urges. The superego, which is the expression of society’s morality, engineers our behaviour to comply with morals, laws and expectations. Last but not least, the ego, which continually works to find the balance between the two.

One of the ways in which the ego balances out the Id’s impulses and the superego’s lofty ideals is through a set of defence mechanisms. These include repression, reaction formation, projection, denial, regression, intellectualisation, rationalisation, displacement and, you guessed it, sublimation.

What Is Sublimation?

But what is sublimation? In essence, it’s the phasing of one thing into another. In chemistry, it’s the transformation of a solid into a gas, in psychology it’s the channelling of inappropriate impulses into positive and productive behaviours.

Instead of reacting in extreme anger, you might clean the house, or go for a run. Instead of sexually propositioning a person, you might write poetry or dance. This can be done consciously but happens most of the time subconsciously.

The process of sublimation protects us from the anxiety around having unacceptable thoughts and urges, preventing us from being negatively impacted by them. Channelling animalistic and primitive impulses into positive outlets preserves our social relationships, our social standing, and essential elements of our lives like jobs and our ability to support ourselves.

It can also act on positive feelings if we subconsciously believe they are too good to last, to protect us from disappointment. In this form, sublimation can become part of the self-sabotaging tendencies people often subconsciously enact when things are going well.

Examples of Sublimation

Sublimation happens mostly subconsciously. We may, therefore, be unaware that this is one of our coping mechanisms. Still, most of the following examples of sublimation apply to the majority of people at some point or another in their lives.

Physical Activity

Competitive sports is one productive way in which aggressive or dominant personality types channel their impulses. Rather than fight or dominate other people, they metaphorically crush them on the sports field. It can be seen as a human version of the ritualised challenges for territory or females that occur in the animal world. A few examples of how sublimation works in full swing might be combat or contact sports and racing.

Often if people feel frustrated, angry, and scattered, or if they are sexually aroused, they go for a run, for a walk, to the gym, use their punching bag etc. These are also sublimation examples. In this way, our mind converts the unacceptable urge to lash out or to have sex with strangers into a beneficial activity.

Chores and menial tasks

Another typical example of sublimation is the conversion of inappropriate urges into useful, menial tasks that, let’s be honest, may otherwise never get done. Instead of being unfaithful to your partner, you pull the weeds out of your flower-beds. Rather than obsessively micro-manage your children, you purge and re-organise all of your belongings.

When you feel like yelling at or confronting your boss, you tidy your desk-space. If your anxiety is causing you deeply distressing and troubling thoughts, you scrub the kitchen and bathrooms clean.

Creative Pursuits

Creativity is a prevalent alternative to inappropriate urges and impulses, most frequently when it comes to sexual sublimation. Instead of sexually accosting a particular person, an example of sublimating your sexual desire might be turning to paint, drawing, sculpting, writing, or any form of craft.

Another example of using creativity to sublimate socially frowned-upon emotions is the transferring of depression, sadness, anxiety or addiction into works of art. Through poetry, story-telling, or other artistic pursuits, negative emotions are channelled into socially valued expressions.

Life-Paths

People’s chosen life-paths can often be expressions of their sublimated urges and desires. Successful managers or administrators have a strong passion for control, micro-managing and organisation. Another example of sublimation might be leadership roles. People in positions of authority often have a need to be obeyed, listened to, feared, loved or respected, that is satisfied through the successful fulfilment of their jobs.

On the darker end of the scale, someone with an urge to cut or harm people might train to be a surgeon, or someone with aggressive tendencies might join the military or the police.

Can we consciously choose sublimation?

Sublimation is, for the most part, a mature subconscious way of dealing with inappropriate urges and impulses. Using the above examples of sublimation and with the help of mental health professionals, train yourself to recognise it. You can then try to identify the urge or impulse your ego is working to conceal.

The crucial element in sublimating consciously is to accept, recognise and validate your feelings, before determining which activity to channel them into. There is no such thing as an inappropriate feeling, only inappropriate or harmful actions. Once you are aware of the urges your ego is hiding from you, you can consciously sublimate them into the activity of your choice.

 

Lauren Edwards-Fowle
 
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 

 

 
About the Author: Lauren Edwards-Fowle


 
Lauren Edwards-Fowle is a professional copywriter based in South East England. Lauren worked within Children's Services for five years before moving into the business sector. She holds an MSc in Applied Accountancy and BSc in Corporate Law. She now volunteers within the community sport sector, helping young people to live healthier, more productive lifestyles and overcome the barriers to inclusion that they face. With a keen interest in physical wellbeing, nutrition and sports, Lauren enjoys participating in a variety of team sports in her spare time, as well as spending time with her young family and their dog Scout.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 09:36
Quarta-feira, 15 / 01 / 20

Ebooks vs Printed Books: Which Are Better for Your Brain, According to Science?

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted January 11th, 2020.

 
printed books vs ebooks.

 

Book enthusiasts have long defended the benefits of the printed word over ebooks. Yet, the arguments are frequently centered on the look and feel of a book. In a world where much of our lives are conducted on a screen, the arguments for the benefits of a printed book over an ebookare increasingly focusing on the benefits the former have on our brain.

If you’re on the fence when it comes to a preference over ebooks vs printed books, this article intends to look at the science behind the debate.

Are printed books better for your brain than ebooks and why?

5 reasons why printed books are better for your brain

1. They keep your attention

With a printed book, you simply have the pages in front of you and nothing else. Whereas, with an ebook, there are multiple temptations at your fingertips. Your e-reader might allow you to look up definitions of words, browse other readers comments on the book, or have a browse option that allows you to search the internet.

A study conducted at American University found that 92% of those surveyed found that they concentrated better when reading the printed word over an e-version. A printed book, therefore, encourages us to read more carefully and helps our brain to hold focus on the task in hand.

2. Ebooks encourage us to skim read

Whether you use an ebook to read or download titles on your phone or tablet, research has shown that reading on a screen alters the way our brain views the text.

Professor Ziming Liu, from San Jose State University, refers to ‘screen-based reading behavior’ which constitutes the tendency to browse and scan a text rather than practice in-depth and concentrated reading as we do with printed books.

The consequence of foregoing in-depth reading has been the focus of further studies. Maryanne Wolf, in her work on the evolution of the reading brain, has explored the impact reading digital text has on the cognitive functions we draw upon when reading.

While she recognizes that we still know very little about the digital reading brain, she laments the possible loss of ‘deep reading’ which printed text facilitates.

3. Printed books help us to absorb and retain more information

Another strong argument in the ebooks vs printed books debate is the capacity with which we absorb information from the printed word over its digital counterpart. Unsurprisingly, as printed books help to hold our attention and trigger more concentrated reading, we are better able to absorb and retain more information from them.

A study conducted at Stavanger University in Norway gave 50 readers the same short story to read, with half the readers using a Kindle to read the story and half reading from a printed book. Participants were then tested on their ability to remember certain aspects of the story.


The results found that those that read the story on a Kindle found it significantly harder to reconstruct the plot when asked to.

4. Printed books help us to be more emotionally engaged


Printed books not only help us to draw on more cognitive resources, they draw on our emotional responses also. Similar to the point about keeping our attention, printed books are said to help the reader to be more emotionally absorbed in the book.

Another study from the University of Stavanger, conducted by Anne Mangen, found that participants that read an upsetting story on paper reported higher levels of ‘empathy, transportation, immersion, and narrative coherence’ than those who read the same story on an iPad.

So, if you really want to get lost in a story, go for the hard copy.
5. Printed books bring more joy

Despite fears that digital books would remove the need for printed versions, these predictions have proved way off the mark. Sales of e-readers and ebooks have, in fact, slowed since reaching their peak in 2014 and printed books have enjoyed a resurgence. A lot of this has come down to the joy one feels when holding a book.



In terms of the impact this has on our brain, proponents of the printed word suggest that a printed book serves to ignite multiple senses in a way that an ebook cannot.


The feel of a book, the way it smells, the way it looks, the satisfaction one feels as they see their progression through the pages are all elements that are unique to a paper book.

Research has shown that the senses that are awakened by a paper book can, in fact, inspire individuals to do something new, make important life-decisions, reduce stress and increase happiness.
Final Words

Despite the many benefits on the brain of a printed book, there are, of course, benefits of ebooksand digital text. Ebooks have assisted with the democratization of information, in that they help to ensure books can be available in formats that make them accessible to those in a way that the printed word is not.

However, theories that predicted that ebooks would cause the death of the paperback have proved unfounded as many are drawing on the scientifically proven benefits of reading from printed books.

The ebooks vs printed books debate is sure to continue, but with studies increasingly showing that printed books draw on more of our brain’s resources it may lead you to renew that library card and stock up on the paperbacks.
References:
  1. https://www.mentalfloss.com
  2. https://www.theguardian.com

 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 21:48
Quinta-feira, 02 / 01 / 20

5 Surprising Benefits of Thinking Aloud, Backed by Science

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted December 31th, 2019.

 
Thinking Aloud benefits.

 


 
 
Talking to yourself out loud is typically seen as a social faux pas. Indeed, we get encouraged to stop guiding our behavior by talking out load as we get older. However, a recent study from Bangor University has found that thinking and talking out loud may actually offer a number of benefits and talking to yourself might even be a sign of intelligence.
 
But can thinking aloud really have benefits in terms of concentration, achieving multiple tasks, and controlling emotions as this study suggests? In this post, we will look at 5 surprising benefits of thinking aloud and the science behind why.
 
Thinking Aloud vs. Inner Thinking
 
We are often talking to ourselves silently in our own heads throughout the day, asking ourselves silent questions to find what we need to get out of the house, cook the dinner, or complete our work. This inner talk is both healthy and helpful when it comes to organizing our thoughts and emotions. However, in the study from Bangor University thinking out loud whilst completing a task was found to improve control in comparison to inner talk.
 
A separate study also found that participants told to say random words aloud repeatedly whilst trying to carry out a variety of tasks made it impossible for them to tell themselves what to do to achieve the tasks. This serves to show the power of talking out loud in a negative way, but what are the benefits of thinking thoughts out loud?
 
5 Surprising Science-Backed Benefits of Thinking Aloud
 
Here we outline five of the most surprising ways thinking out loud can be beneficial and the scientific studies that explain why.
 
Self-motivation
 
Sometimes we may find motivation elusive when it comes to approaching a challenging task. However, we can actually be great at giving ourselves our own pep-talk. Kamal’s study on positive self-talk shows that our thoughts can have huge implications over our emotions, motivations, and achievements and a greater impact can be attained by thinking aloud.
 
Indeed, when preparing for interviews, it is a great idea to not only think positively about the outcome but to actually tell yourself it is going to go well. If you are feeling low, telling yourself things will be okay and complimenting yourself on something you have done well today can also have a noticeable effect on your mood. However, you should be sure to avoid letting negative self-talk ruin your life.
 
Improved perceptual processing
 
Audio cues are much easier to process than instructions we read or think silently through inner talk. This is backed up by a study for the University of Wisconsin. Participants were either given written instructions or told to read the instructions out loud when looking at a picture. Those reading the instructions out loud were better able to find it.
 
The vocalization of the word improved participants’ ability to visualize what they were looking for, indicating an increase in their brain’s processing power. This is because, when we use inner talk, we are much more likely to jump from one thought to another and at a quicker pace than we would be able to when thinking and speaking out loud.
 
Enhanced problem-solving skills
 
Computer programmers commonly use a method known as rubber ducking to overcome the most challenging problems. It refers to talking through the problem in its most basic step-by-step form to the nearest thing on your desk, say a rubber duck for example? By explaining what they want the code to achieve and going into the line by line detail of how it will do this whilst speaking aloud, the answer soon springs to mind as if leaping from the spoken thoughts.
 
 
This is backed up by a study by Dr. Christopher Atkin for Nottingham Trent University which found participants talking through complex tasks were far better at problem-solving. In fact, participants in this study made 78 percent fewer mistakes than participants asked to complete tasks by working things out in their heads. Thinking out loud focuses your attention and improves concentration facilitating enhanced problem-solving.
 
Improved timing & precision
 
Thinking out loud has also been found to be beneficial when it comes to timing and precision. For example, one study looked at the effect of using thinking aloud as a motivational tool to improve basketball performance. They found that players instructing themselves verbally were able to pass and shoot more accurately. The study specifically noted that instructional self-talk (IST) improved precision and timing, whilst motivational self-talk (MST) helped with speed-based tasks.
 
Similarly, a study by Yannis Theodorakis found that thinking out loud using IST and MST improved timing and precision for both methods in comparison to the control group with statistically significant results. Indeed, self-talk is commonly used in sports-psychology at the highest levels and you will often see professional tennis players using this method as they move between points.
 
Boost memory
 
One way we commonly use thinking out loud naturally as we get older is to ensure we have properly memorized information. This works great with lists but has also been found to be beneficial when it comes to retaining information we read. This is because memory is improved by the brain being actively involved with what we do as it is when we speak versus when we simply read.
 
As such, thinking out loud could have potential benefits as we get older. We are commonly told that doing puzzles and crosswords can help us to stave off some of the mal effects of aging on the mind. However, making sure our brain is more actively involved in other tasks, such as reading the newspaper in the morning or a book in bed can be similarly beneficial.
 
Thinking out loud has long been much maligned. However, as more and more research shows a wide range of benefits that talking our thoughts out loud can have, it can be a good idea to try and bring this practice into your daily life. Indeed, it turns out thinking out loud can be a great way to get your mojo back.

 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 07:14
Quarta-feira, 25 / 12 / 19

Do Binaural Beats Work? Here Is What Science Has to Say

Sherrie Hurd.

learning-mind.com

Posted December 24th, 2019.

 
 



 

As humans who suffer from a multitude of disorders, we look for cures that work, so have we found healing in binaural beats?
 
Being diagnosed with an anxiety disorder among other things, I’ve tried many so-called solutions and medications to improve my quality of life. I also tried yoga, nature walks, prayer, and martial arts – you name it. Then I started to experiment with sound, mainly ambient music and things of that sort.
 
 
For a while, the sounds seemed to transport me to another place, soothing me and removing the husks of tension from my brain. But it would always come back, the anxiety, so I’m not sure what really works the best for me. Now, I’m researching binaural beats, in hopes that this will be the key to my healing. So, do binaural beats work?
Working with binaural beats
 
Many people back up the idea that binaural beats can relieve anxiety and pain. There are also those who put their faith in these sounds to correct cognitive issues, ADHD, and even mental trauma. There is such a large consensus of those that think binaural beats reduce headache pain, that Bayer, the manufacturer of aspirin, has seven files of binaural beats on its website in Austria.
 
Bayer’s statement is that it’s not necessarily used to stop headache pain, but to bring about relaxation which may help with headache pain. But all this talk about how well the beats work makes us want to understand exactly what binaural beats are.
What are binaural beats and how do they work?
 
To some, these sounds, or absences of sound, are illusions. In a way they are, but in truth, they do exist. They are beats created by opposite sounds being poured into each ear, thus the name “binaural”.
 
Here’s the basic concept: one ear hears a tone that is slightly different than the other ear. Just a few hertz difference, and your brain perceives a sort of beat that isn’t even present within the song or sound that you’re listening to. You cannot hear binaural beats with one ear. This is why it’s called an illusion.
 
What we do not know is which region generates the binaural beat sound – the sound that isn’t really there. While there are theories, it’s uncertain, and it’s also uncertain which tones and frequencieswork best for improvements.
When were binaural beats discovered?
 
In 1839, Heinrich Wilhelm Dove, a German physicist, discovered the concept of the binaural beat. However, much of what we understand about how binaural beats work only surfaced in 1973 in an article by Gerald Oster in Scientific American. Oster’s purpose was to use binaural beats in medicine, but its uncertain which area of medicine.
 
In modern times, these auditory illusions are seen as tools to improve mental wellbeing in conjunction with meditation, relaxation, and sleep – these among other mental exercises for mental health. They are also being used to alleviate pain as well. If proven to work, binaural beats could be the answer to a plethora of serious issues.
 
How these beats pertain to brain waves
 
Brain waves, or the activity of neurons, are oscillations that appear on an EEG. Two examples of brain waves are Alpha waves, which are responsible for relaxation, and Gamma waves which are responsible for attention or memory.
 
Those who stand behind the validity of binaural beats claim that these illusionary sounds can actually shift the brain waves from Gamma to Alpha or vice versa, moving you either into a state of rest or improvement of memory.
 
Most studies that focus on whether binaural beats work or not, unfortunately, are inconclusive in this area. However, as far as anxiety is concerned, there are consistent reports from those who suffered from disorders that binaural beats reduce levels of anxious feelings.
 
Studies concerning anxiety have proven to be the most promising for proving the effectiveness of binaural beats in improving life for the future. On more than one study, participants with anxiety reported being less anxious when listening to these sounds in the delta/theta range, and even more so, for longer periods in the delta range alone.
 
It’s not clear why this happens, regardless of the tests and studies on these non-sounds. While some patients reported a decrease in pain listening to beats around 10 hertz, in the alpha range, further research is needed to back up this claim.
 
Where children with ADHD are concerned, the tests show that binaural beats can improve focus for a temporary time, including during the tests themselves, but not for the long-term. There is still a bit of research that must be done in this area, including finding the right tone and frequency which seems to work after the initial effects of the study.
So do binaural beats work, according to science?
 
Joydeep Bhattacharya, professor of psychology at the University of London, states,
 
 
 
“A lot of big claims have been made without adequate verification.”
 
And he is right. While many people claim to experience an improvement in the quality of life, science hasn’t found the hard evidence it needs to produce a helpful system for the whole of society, and that’s really what we need. We can take Bhattacharya seriously due to his 20 years of study in the neuroscience of sound, which includes binaural beats, or as some are now calling auditory hallucinations.
 
Science has unearthed contradictions concerning binaural beats with different conditions. The studies to understand the localization of sound in order to treat anxiety, modulate cognition, and treat brain injuries, among other issues are, as of now, inconclusive.
 
The positive results, which point toward binaural beats being a significant cause for improvement in certain areas, are short-lived success stories. They are still without an idea of the definite region of the brain which is stimulated during these illusionary sounds. Also, most studies that produced positive results for helping anxiety or cognitive function did not use EEG measurements to do so.
 
Another factor in the study of binaural beats is tone. It seems the lower the tone and beat frequency, the more chance of positive results in this area. Each condition, each case and each level of frequency all play a part in whether binaural beats really work and improve conditions in our lives.
 
 
“In the electrophysiological neuroimaging studies, you will find the results are split. And that gives you a good indication that the story is more complicated than many of the behavioral studies want to convince you”
 
-Prof. Bhattacharya
How should we take this information?
 
Whether or not science has conclusively proven the effectiveness of binaural beats, which apparently it hasn’t, it doesn’t stop us from trying them out. I might not suggest making a large investment in a program targeted completely toward these concepts. However, if you have a chance to listen to binaural beats, then sure, it’s worth that try.
 
As a sufferer of anxiety, depression and other mental illnesses that can prove almost impossible to endure, I’m not against trying new ways to improve my life. So, as for me, I just might try binaural beats for myself, just a few options here and there that I find. If I notice any difference, I will be sure to let you know. While I’m doing that, maybe science can conclusively let us know if binaural beats are the answer to many of our problems.

 

Sherrie Hurd

 

 

Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us. 

 

 

 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 04:14
Terça-feira, 17 / 12 / 19

6 Unexpected Ways to Relieve Stress, According to Science

Becky Storey.

https://www.learning-mind.com/

December 16th, 2019.

 


 


Stress seems to be just a part of life these days. Whether it’s at work or at home, or on the commute between the two, stress can be unavoidable. A little stress is natural, but when it weighs on us heavily, it can be dangerous for our health. High stress increases our susceptibility to all sorts of dangerous health conditions. Knowing the best ways to relieve stress can be lifesaving.

Sometimes, when the usual techniques aren’t enough, you have to try some more unexpected ways to relieve that stress.

Unexpected Ways to Relieve Stress

Put on A Fake Smile


It seems there is some science behind the idea that you can “fake it ‘til you make it”. Smiling is a way to relieve stress and it works by convincing your body that you aren’t stressed at all. When you smile, you create the face shapes we naturally make when we’re happy. When you’re faking it, you trick your brain into reducing your stress levels. While it’s not recommended to hide your feelings, sometimes, you just have to get through it.

This study has proven that when we smile through stressful situations the intensity of our stress response will reduce. It is especially beneficial for our cardiovascular systems, including the heart. In this particular study, they also tested different kinds of smiles. They showed that full-face smiles, known as a Duchenne smile, are an even more beneficial way to relieve stress.

Some scientists also explain that our brains are wired for socializing. Mirror neurons in our brains make us want to recreate what other people do. This means what if we see another smile, we want to do it too. We can use our smile as a way of relieving the stress of others. By flashing someone a bright smile and letting them do it back, you might be helping them through a tough time.
Look at Fractals

Our brains love soothing patterns, but did you know they were a great, and rather unexpected, way to relieve stress? A fractal is a pattern that repeats identically or at least similarly. These could be created in paintings or drawings, like a mandala. Fractals can also be seen in nature, in places such as leaves, snowflakes, and seashells.

A number of studies have been done by tracking eye movements and using fMRI scans to show our biological response to fractals. They’ve proven that simply looking at fractals is a good way to relieve stress and can even reduce it by up to 60%.

There’s still some confusion about why this relieves stress, but some scientists suggest it should be due to the subconscious concentration that they require, or the repetition involved. Repetition is a great way to relieve stress naturally.


Use Your Thumbs
Unexpected is definitely the operative word. You can actually use your thumbs to relieve your stress. Doctors believe that if you put your thumb in your mouth and seal it, then blow, you can calm yourself down.

The theory goes that this will activate your Vagus Nerve, which is connected to your nervous system, responsible for the stress response. By blowing out in this way, you can reduce your heart rate and blood pressure, which are both heavily affected by stress. This way to relieve stress can even help to treat mild mood disorders.

If you aren’t in a position to put your whole thumb in your mouth, there is also a way to relieve stress by simply blowing on it. Your thumb has its own pulse, so by cooling it down, you can slow your heart rate and feel calmer.

Even eastern medicine has a way to relieve stress using your thumb. Apply pressure, using your thumb, on the side of your middle finger. Do this right at the base of your finger, where it meets your knuckle. This method is said to activate a nerve which loosens the muscles around the heart, helping you to relax.

Chew Gum

There have been countless studies done that show that chewing gum is a great way to relieve stress. The researched showed reduced stress, fatigue, anxiety, and depression in the participants. These studies involved collecting data and samples from volunteers, including saliva, before and after they took on stressful tasks, with and without chewing gum. The results showed measurable differences in their stress levels.

Ancient societies are also known to have chewed as a way to relieve stress. The Mayans and the Greeks would chew tree sap.
Do Some Chores

Deep down, we all know that procrastinating only creates more stress, but it doesn’t stop us from doing it. Research has now shown that putting off tasks is bad for our health! Cleaning, in particular, can be a great way to relieve stress. This study recommends washing dishes. Despite finding it hard to motivate ourselves to do it, once we start cleaning, our stress levels do decrease rapidly.

Scientists believe this could be down to the repetitive nature of the movements that cleaning requires. When we repeat an easy action over and over again, we start to do it on autopilot, allowing our minds to switch off and rest.

Sometimes, the world can seem a little out of control. Scientists have suggested that cleaning and organizing our own spaces can help us to feel some element of control. Finding a sense of control is a good way to relieve stress.

Be Near Plants


We all know that being in nature is a great way to relieve stress, but studies show that simply being in the presence of a plant is good enough. A study carried out at Washington State University proved that having plants around makes workers more productive and feel more focused on their work. They even recorded participants’ blood pressure lowering in the presence of plants.

Studies have shown that employees’ attendance rates rose when plants were introduced to the workplace and they often report feeling that the space was larger.

A study has also been carried out into the effects of plants on hospital patients’ healing. The presence of plants in a medical environment improves patients’ well-being and does help to speed up recovery. Even seeing photos of plants relieve stress.

Scientists have theorized that plants are a way to relieve stress because of their association with fractals and their ability to improve air quality.

As you have seen from the above, stress can be relieved in many ways, no matter how incredible they may sound at first. Do you have your own tricks that help you cope with daily stress and release tension? Share them with us in the comments below!

References:
  1. https://www.forbes.com
  2. https://www.scientificamerican.com

Becky Storey
 

 




 

About the Author: Becky Storey


 
Becky Storey is a professional writer who has been passionate about the way we think and the human mind since she developed chronic anxiety many years ago. Now she loves to write and educate people on mental health and wellbeing. When Becky is not writing, you’ll find her outside with her Labrador, sitting behind a jigsaw puzzle, or baking something with too much sugar.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
Archives:

 

 
 

A Trusty with Privacy Search 
Alternative to Google
startpage.com

Alternative to YouTube
brighteon.com

 
 



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 05:25
Quarta-feira, 04 / 12 / 19

Foreign Accent Syndrome: a Curious and Extremely Rare Brain Condition

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted December 3rd, 2019.

 
Foreign Accent Syndrome.

 

 
 
Foreign Accent Syndrome (FAS) is a rare speech disorder that can happen after a head injury, stroke, or some other form of damage to the brain and sees you suddenly start speaking with a different accent beyond your control.
 
This condition is extremely rare, with only around 100 people known to have been diagnosed since the first recorded case in 1907. But what causes this little known condition that causes the adoption of a new accent and the loss of part of a person’s identity in the process?
 
In this post, we will look at what the different explanations for Foreign Accent Syndrome are, its symptoms, how it gets diagnosed, and what treatment options you have if FAS strikes.
 
What Is Foreign Accent Syndrome?
 
FAS is characterized by the patient taking on a new accent to their native language, with examples more common amongst speakers of English as a native language but not restricted to English speakers.
 
FAS can involve changes in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary as well as changes in phonological intonation. It is important to note that the person’s voice sounds foreign both to themselves and the person they are speaking to.
 
What Are the Causes?
 
As already mentioned, FAS is usually caused by some form of stress caused to the brain causing a brain lesion. Specifically, when there is damage to the left-hand side of the brain in the Broca’s area which is linked to speech production, there is a heightened risk of FAS.
 
However, more recently, a study by McWhirtner et al. for the BMJ found there may also be a psychological component to the disorder. Indeed, even when there has been structural damage to the brain, this study found that psychology could also be involved.
 
The medical literature breaks FAS down into 3 main types which each have unique characteristics:
  1. Neurogenic (eg. linked to structural damage caused to the brain from things like a stroke, brain injury, aneurysms, etc.)
  2. Psychogenic (eg. where there is no apparent structural damage to the brain but where the person may have suffered emotional or mental stress or psychological or psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia)
  3. Mixed (where there is structural damage to the brain but there seems to be a psychogenic component).
What Are the Symptoms of Foreign Accent Syndrome?
 
Examples of FAS include a British lady called Julia Matthias who started speaking with an accent somewhere between French and Chinese after she was involved in a car accident. An American woman suffered a headache one night and woke up speaking in a combination of British, Irish and Australian accents.
 
However, cases have also been reported of a 44-year-old Japanese lady speaking with a Korean accent and a Spanish person taking on a Hungarian one.
 
Other common symptoms include things like:
  • Difficulty pronouncing certain sound clusters, particularly consonant clusters, such as S-P-L in words like “Splash”
  • Vowels and consonants may be reduced, made simpler, or appear unarticulated or broken.
  • Intonation and stress on words may become more frequent, ie. rather than highlighting some words through stress or tone, someone with FAS may highlight every word
  • Sounds requiring the tongue to tap against the roof of your mouth can become problematic
  • The “uh” sound can frequently be added within words
 
Can This Syndrome Be Medically Diagnosed?
 
If you notice symptoms like the ones above or any other changes in your normal speech, it is a good idea to seek medical help. Changes in the way you speak can be a sign of more serious issues so you should not put off seeing a doctor when you notice a change. Doctors can diagnose FAS using a variety of tools, such as SPECT, PET, MRI or CT scans which provide detailed images of activity inside your brain.
 
As mentioned, FAS is incredibly rare. For this reason, if you do present with symptoms, you will need to see a variety of specialists to confirm a diagnosis. A speech and language pathologist can record your new accent and look into where the changes have occurred in order to rule out other types of speaking disorder.
 
A neurologist can interpret the CT and MRI scans, whilst a psychologist can help you deal with the potential emotional stress caused by the changes and seek to explore any psychological causes of FAS.
 
Going to sleep and waking up with a new accent can have a profound effect on people’s sense of self and make it feel like they have lost a vital part of their own identity. Indeed, the accent can sound strange and be unconnected to our class, educational level, and where we come from so it is easy to see how challenging this can be.
 
Can Foreign Accent Syndrome Be Treated?
 
Given the 3 different variants of FAS, there is a range of treatment options that people can try. In terms of targeting psychogenic causes and effects, these include speaking to a speech and language therapist who can give you targeted exercises targeting past pronunciation, counseling, and therapy to help you deal with your new identity.
 
You can also practice things like Psychological First Aid and positive affirmation to help you cope with the challenges thrown up by FAS.
 
On the neurogenic side, medication to prevent strokes, anti-seizure medication, and even surgery may be suitable treatment options. However, because the condition is so rare, more work needs to be done to understand the various treatment options and the causes of the condition itself.
 
Foreign Accent Syndrome is a very rare condition that can cause those who suffer it serious emotional distress due to the loss of identity associated with a change of accent.
 
It is important to seek medical advice if you notice any of the symptoms even if you are unaware that you may have suffered physical damage to the brain. Treatment is possible, as is a full recovery, however, more research needs to be done to better understand both the causes and treatments for FAS.
 

References
  1. https://www.utdallas.edu
  2. https://www.bbc.com
  3. https://www.healthline.com
  4. https://www.discovermagazine.com
 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 09:20
Sexta-feira, 29 / 11 / 19

Why Is Intrapersonal Intelligence Important and How to Develop It?

Becky Storey.

https://www.learning-mind.com/

November 28th, 2019.

 


 
 
In the 1980s, a brand-new theory on intelligence emerged. Developed by Howard Gardner, this theory suggested that there is more than just the one version of intelligence. Instead of the typical IQ test, based on logic and numbers, there are several ways in which a person could be intelligent. These new types of intelligence include linguistic, spatial, musical, inter and intrapersonal.
 
Psychologists had developed this new theory, known as the Multiple Intelligence Theory, based on the idea that being intelligent shouldn’t be limited to a person’s ability to do math or science alone. A person could be incredibly intelligent in all kinds of ways.
 
What Is Intrapersonal Intelligence?
 
A person with intrapersonal intelligence is skilled at looking inwards and understanding themselves. They tend to be more aware of their own feelings, their triggers, and solutions than others are.
 
If you are able to analyze your own behavior and thoughts and understand why it is that you feel certain ways, you could be intrapersonally intelligent. A person who has intrapersonal intelligence is usually easily self-motivated and doesn’t require inspiration from the external world to be productive.
 
If you enjoy being alone, you might have intrapersonal intelligence. Instead of fearing being alone with their thoughts, someone with this intelligence would thrive because they are comfortable with their own being. Being able to understand what has caused your feelings or impulse reactions is a highly intelligent skill to have.
 
Why Is Intrapersonal Intelligence Important?
 
This type of intelligence is essential to living at peacewith yourself. If you’re constantly jumping through emotions, reacting with no idea why and feeling totally unaware of your true self, you’re probably not at peace. “Blissfully unaware” only applies if you’re so detached from yourself that you don’t feel much at all.
 
To be truly content, you’ll need to develop your intrapersonal intelligence.
 
Self-Motivation
 
Some of the most fundamental life skills are self-motivation and self-discipline. These things come naturally to people who are intrapersonally intelligent.
 
We all know the struggle that is forcing yourself to sit down and get some work done, but those with this type of intelligence find it much easier. They don’t rely on external forces, deadlines or pressure to get things done. They are able to connect with themselves enough to create motivation to get started and discipline to get finished.
 
Without intrapersonal intelligence, you’re likely to coast along hoping the work just goes away because you lack the drive to succeed for your own satisfaction.
 
Self-Esteem
 
Intrapersonal intelligence also includes having better self-esteem than most. Not over-confidence, but a stable self-belief and comfort within one’s self. When you know yourself as a friend would, you learn to appreciate your flaws and are better adapted to working on them.
 
Self-awareness and being self-assured will help you to navigate life’s difficulties much easier too. If you aren’t in touch with your inner thoughts, then you’re far more likely to fly off the handle at minor inconveniences and major disruptions alike. A person with intrapersonal intelligence is likely to reflect rather than react when life comes bumpy.
 
When people with this skill become angered or upset, they will have the ability to control their reactions and think rather than lash out. They will be better able to keep themselves calm during trying times because of an awareness of their own needs. If they need to leave, they will. If they need to communicate, they’ll do it with a cool head and be more successful in getting what they want.
 
Brilliant minds like Albert Einstein and Virginia Woolf are known to have been intrapersonally intelligent. By being mindful of their own thoughts and calm in the face of difficulties, they were able to achieve incredible goals.
 
How to Develop Intrapersonal Intelligence?
 
If you aren’t the type to have natural intrapersonal intelligence, you can still develop it yourself. It’s a skill that can be learned to help improve your life and mental wellbeing. There are all kinds of ways to practice getting in touch with your inner self.
Writing
 
The most often recommended way to practice your intrapersonal intelligence is to keep a journal. Writing allows you to talk to yourself in a way you might struggle to do in your own mind. When you have feelings, good or bad, try writing about them in your own private notebook.
 
You could even write as if you were having a conversation with a friend. Tell them about how you feel and consider all the possible causes, it’s highly likely that you’ll start to unfold your own mind.
 
After a while of practicing writing in a healthy voice, you might find that it becomes your own inner voice too. Ultimately, this is the most key part of intrapersonal intelligence to develop. It’ll allow you to access parts of your mind that you usually leave to your subconscious and stay more in control.
 
Meditation
 
You can also try meditation or meditative activities such as yoga, walking or running. These things are all encouraged to help you clear your mind of the clutter and access your real feelings.
 
They allow you to develop intrapersonal intelligence by quieting the noise and letting you slow down. Slowing down your thoughts prevents you from reacting too quickly and promotes your connection with your true needs.
 
Through meditative activities, we can learn more about ourselves and let go of the nonsensewe’ve been carrying. Consider these quiet times as an opportunity to chat with yourself. Like getting to know a new person, you would need a peaceful place to be in the present and share. When you let your mind be peaceful, your conscious voice can chat with your inner needs.
 
Disconnect
 
If you want to get to know yourself, remove influences from the outside world. Our phones, tv screens, computers, they all fill our minds. Instead of avoiding silence by staying constantly connected, try switching off. When you’re left in the quiet, you’ll find it much easier to reconnect to yourself and listen to your own thoughts.
 
Being intrapersonally intelligent allows a person to think clearer and more independently. It promotes inner wisdom and better management of your emotions. No more spontaneous tears or easily triggered anger. Disconnect from the world and the noise around you and you’ll find it easier to set goals and achieve them.
 
References:

Becky Storey
 

 




 

About the Author: Becky Storey


 
Becky Storey is a professional writer who has been passionate about the way we think and the human mind since she developed chronic anxiety many years ago. Now she loves to write and educate people on mental health and wellbeing. When Becky is not writing, you’ll find her outside with her Labrador, sitting behind a jigsaw puzzle, or baking something with too much sugar.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
Free counters!

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publicado por achama às 09:02
Quinta-feira, 28 / 11 / 19

Why Do We Laugh and Find Some Things Funny, According to Science?

Becky Storey.

https://www.learning-mind.com/

November 26th, 2019.

 

 


 
Laughter is the best medicine, they say. Endless studies have shown that laughing is good for our health, but why do we do it? Why do we laugh at all?
 
There are several scientific theories which try to explain why we laugh, and why we find some things so funny. It seems that there is a reason behind why we laugh at sneezing panda videos, painful fail compilations, and very taboo stand-up comedy. No one single theory can explain the full extent of our sense of humor, but all together we can start to build a picture.
 
So, Why Do We Laugh?
 
Superiority Theory
 
This theory is the oldest, and possibly the most cynical of the bunch. It even appears in the earliest versions of the bible. Promoted by legendary philosophers, the superiority theory suggests that we just love to feel more fortunate than others. Plato and Aristotle both agreed that we find seeing others fail absolutely hilarious.
 
Science suggests that humor is derived from situations where we get to see that we’re better off than others. Obviously, this reaction is subconscious in most of us. We don’t laugh because we genuinely enjoy the suffering of others – or at least most of us don’t – we just can’t help it.
 
This theory explains why we laugh at programs like “Funniest Home Videos” and why we can’t resist a peek when a video of someone falling appears on our Facebook feed.
 
Scientists believe that the sudden realization that we are superior to the people we see is why we laugh at the misfortune of others, even when we don’t really “enjoy” their suffering. We can feel bad for the pain a person might feel when they fall while still finding the circumstances hilarious because it didn’t happen to us. In this situation, we’re above them in a superiority chain.
Relief Theory
 
This scientific theory is based on the idea that laughing is a physiological way to relieve tension. Mentioned first in 1709, scientists have long thought of laughter as a kind of pressure release value.
 
When we laugh, they say, we let out a build-up of nervous energy and mental stress we’ve accumulated since our last laugh. This theory fits the closest with our knowledge of how laughter promotes the release of our “feel good” chemicals and endorphins, making us feel happier and calmer.
 
Relief theory also answers the question “why do we laugh when we’re uncomfortable?”. If laughter allows us to release the negativity we’ve been carrying, then we may subconsciously deploy it to calm ourselves down. Similarly, it may explain why we laugh so hard when we’re tickled. Our body is responding to the fear and tension and trying to calm us down by laughing out loud.
 
The Relief Theory can be used to undermine the superiority theory too. Some scientists, particularly Sigmund Freud, uses it to explain why we laugh at the pain or suffering of others.
 
When we see a funny video of someone falling, we become tense, fearing for their safety. When it’s revealed that they’re okay, we laugh to release that tension. The same can be applied to taboo jokes on controversial topics, such as race or gender.
 
Incongruity Theory
 
This theory on humor tries to explain why people laugh at and find certain strange thingsfunny. The incongruity theory is the most dominant modern explanation we have. It was founded in the 18th century and was even supported by impressive minds like Immanuel Kant.
 
According to this theory, we just find it hilarious when things go completely against our expectations. This applies most commonly to stand-up comedians and one-liner jokers. These both induce fits of laughter by simply building up a story then ending it in a completely incongruous (unexpected) way.
 
This theory can also be applied to the “silly” things we laugh at. We love innocent nonsensical humor, like animals doing unexpected but hilarious things. This kind of humor is harmless and doesn’t involve superiorities or a build-up of tension, it’s just pure joy created by our expectations not being met.
 
“It’s sad that a family can be torn apart by something as simple as wild dogs.”
 
– Jack Handey
 
Benign-Violations Theory
 
This final theory tries to bring all the theories together into one. It is based on the idea that all humor requires three important things:
It must violate some kind of normal expectation. This could be a social norm, a moral norm, or a physical norm. Whatever expectation is violated, it needs to be a wrongdoing.
A safe context in which this violation occurs.
Both of these things happen alongside each other. We need to know that although something bad was done, no one was harmed long-term. The violation was benign.
 
The violation also has to be appropriate to the audience. For example, if the violation occurs in church, religious people may not find it funny. If the violation involves being rude in front of children, parents may not laugh.
 
Ultimately, humor is subjective. Psychologists have yet to come up with a single theory that can explain all our bizarre jokes and the strange videos we see online and laugh at for hours. What we do know is that we love to laugh and that it’s great for our health. So, laugh as often as possible and don’t think too much about why such strange things are so funny!
 
 
References:

Becky Storey
 

 




 

About the Author: Becky Storey


 
Becky Storey is a professional writer who has been passionate about the way we think and the human mind since she developed chronic anxiety many years ago. Now she loves to write and educate people on mental health and wellbeing. When Becky is not writing, you’ll find her outside with her Labrador, sitting behind a jigsaw puzzle, or baking something with too much sugar.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 09:30
Domingo, 24 / 11 / 19

The Psychology of Obedience: Why Do Some People Obey While Others Don’t?

Becky Storey.

https://www.learning-mind.com/

November 24th, 2019.

 

 
 
Law and order keep us safe and under control. For the most part, we can all get along with that. So, what is it in our psychology that makes some people content with obedience, while others shun the whole idea?
 
Obedience and obeying the rules seem like second nature to most of us. We navigate our entire lives within the confines of the rules set by our parents, our schools, our jobs, and our country. This is not a bad thing, despite what the class clowns might want you to think.
 
The Psychology of Obedience
 
There are a whole host of reasons for why we obey. These extend from a fear of punishment to truly believing in what we’re told to do. These reasons can be personal or very general, based on our natural human psychology.
 
Status Quo Bias
 
This theory on the psychology of obedience highlights our desire to avoid change. Traditionally we tend to stick with rules and routines that we’re used to. We obey rules that are ingrained in society because deviating might mean losing what we’ve already established.
 
We feel we have less to lose if we obey the rules. This is because our lives will stay the same when we don’t deviate from tradition. Just like choosing the same meal in a restaurant with every visit, we simply try to avoid regret. This is called Loss Aversion.
 
We’re also victims of the Mere Exposure Effect. This theory suggests that we choose obedience simply because we’ve been exposed to it. This suggests that psychological obedience is actually created environmentally. If our parents and friends are obedient people, we usually are too.
 
Mass Surveillance
 
We know we’re being watched. Sometimes, our obedience isn’t psychological at all. We may disagree with the rules. We may wish we were behaving differently.
 
Unfortunately, the presence of CCTV cameras means we typically do our best to obey the rules. The risk of being caught in the act is too great when we know we could be seen.
 
Coercive Power
 
When we fear punishment, we obey the rules. Authority figures have this kind of power. The psychological element of this kind of obedience is the anxiety we feel when it comes to consequences. We are terrified of being scolded. We dread having our luxuries taken away. If we disobey at work, we lose our job.
 
Similarly, our obedience can be influenced by Reward Power. In this case, we obey the rules and demands of others because we want to be rewarded. This could be praise, a raise, or even awards. Psychologically, rewards can even be more influential on our willingness to obey than the fear of punishment.
 
Agentic State
 
Psychologists hold that The Agentic State is a mind-space we enter which influences our obedience. This especially applies when the order or rule we’ve been given is not something we like. We shift into this state to put blame on those who gave the orders, rather than ourselves.
 
A real-life application of this psychological state is seen in those who commit terrible crimes. Psychologists first noticed this phenomenon during the trials of officers who worked under Hitler. These Nazi officers would use the “I was only doing as I was told” excuse to justify their part in such heinous crimes.
 
The agentic state allowed them to hide behind their superiors, and genuinely believed they were blameless, despite carrying out monstrous acts. By convincing ourselves that we wouldn’t be to blame, we’re much more likely to obey even the evilest of commands.
But why, if we’re so psychologically prone to obedience, do we ever disobey?
 
Peer Pressure
 
When we crave popularity or acceptance into a group, we’ll do whatever it takes. Back in school, the “popular kids” tended to be the ones who broke the rules. They skipped class, drank alcohol and took drugs. They disobeyed most rules set by teachers and parents, and they were adored for it.
 
Especially in our teenage years, rebellion is considered desirable. It shows courage and a laid-back attitude that draws attention.
 
With this theory, all the psychology that goes into obedience flies out of the window. If we wanted to be liked by the “coolest” of our peers, we had to disobey. Right and wrong weren’t factors.
Intelligent Disobedience
 
Education is a strong factor in the psychology of disobedience. Simply put, the more naïve you are, the more likely you are to follow without thinking. With intelligence comes the ability to review rules, and especially government policies, for yourself.
 
The rise in protests and acts of defiance around the world recently can be blamed on new knowledge. These are known as acts of Civil Disobedience.
 
These rule-breaking, and sometimes law-breaking, protests are the result of education. As we become more knowledgeable about matters of climate change or social justice, we begin to realize that our rules and laws are incorrect. We try to rise up and get noticed by politicians, who we feel aren’t as educated on certain matters.
 
In order to have these injustices rectified, we have to break some rules. As the saying goes, you cannot make an omelet without first breaking some eggs. Psychologically, we feel our knowledge outranks the traditional hierarchies. This can include parent to child, teacher to student, or citizen to government.
 
Helper Syndrome
 
Consider the story of Robin Hood. Steal from the rich, give to the poor. This is an obvious act of disobedience; theft is a crime. However, we can often justify our actions if we think we’ve done them for the greater good.
 
If your family is poor and starving, is it okay to steal bread to feed them? If you’re under threat, is self-defense a valid excuse for murder?
 
Sometimes, we believe we must do something bad in order to rectify wrongdoing. This could be to ourselves personally, or on behalf of society as a whole.
 
References:

Becky Storey
 

 




 

About the Author: Becky Storey


 
Becky Storey is a professional writer who has been passionate about the way we think and the human mind since she developed chronic anxiety many years ago. Now she loves to write and educate people on mental health and wellbeing. When Becky is not writing, you’ll find her outside with her Labrador, sitting behind a jigsaw puzzle, or baking something with too much sugar.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 16:03
Domingo, 10 / 11 / 19

Milgram Obedience Study and What It Reveals about Human Nature

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted November 10th, 2019.

 
milgram obedience study.

 



Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram conducted his famous series of experiments widely known as Obedience Study almost 60 years ago. The ethics of the experiment have since been subject to criticism. However, it raised important questions about the power of authority in achieving obedience.
 
In this article, we take a look at the Milgram Experiment and what it reveals about human nature. We will also look at the counter-arguments which criticize Milgram’s ethics and dispute his results.
 
What Is the Milgram Obedience Study?
 
The Obedience Study refers to a set of psychology experiments conducted by Milgram. It intended to investigate the relationship between obedience to authority and personal conscience.
 
Milgram’s interest in conducting this study was sparked by the trial of Adolph Eichmann, a Nazi war criminal who was one of the main organizers of the Holocaust. Milgram wanted to find out how humans are capable of committing atrocities that go so far beyond their personal conscience.
 
Participants for Milgram’s experiments were recruited by a newspaper advert and were all male. All participants were given the role of “teacher” and were put in control of an electroshock generator.
 
They were instructed by the “experimenter” to ask the “learner” questions. If they answered them incorrectly, they should deliver a shock to them. Moreover, they would increase this shock by 15 volts with each wrong answer (with the increase leading to shocks that could be fatal).
 
The electric shocks were, in fact, fake and the “learner” in each experiment was part of the research team. So they would act out sounds of pain and plead for the experiment to stop.
 
When participants asked the experimenter whether they should stop the shocks (which the majority did) they were told these commands:
  1. Please continue.
  2. The experiment requires that you continue.
  3. It is absolutely essential that you continue.
  4. You have no other choice, you must go on.
 
What did the Milgram Obedience Study reveal about human nature?
 
The results of the Milgram Obedience Study were that two-thirds of participants (62.5%) delivered the maximum electric shock (450 volts, a shock that could have killed), and a third of participants stopped at 300 volts.
 
The observations showed that participants displayed significant signs of stress during the experiment. All participants stopped to question the experiment and some even offered to return the money they were to be paid so that the experiment would stop.
 
Milgram summed up that the results of the experiment showed that obedience is instilled in us all from an early age due to the way we are raised. Suggesting that, the instruction received by an authority figure, which the individual has deemed to be legally or morally authorized to give such instruction, would lead to obedience.
 
In the case of the Milgram Obedience Study, the authority figure was the experimental scientist and the results of the experiment, Milgram suggested, revealed that stark authority won over a participant’s strong imperative against hurting others. For many, the study revealed an illuminating aspect of human nature.
 
What is wrong with Milgram’s research?
 
Milgram’s research is widely cited and referenced within the field of psychology. Still, both the ethics and the methodology of the study have received ample criticism. Ethically, critics of the study believe that the intense stress levels that Milgram’s participants went through were unacceptable.
 
In addition to this, audio recordings of Milgram’s experiments (which were discovered by psychologist Gina Perry) demonstrate that, in some experiments, the ‘experimenter’ broke away from the set script and used bullying and coercion to force the participants to continue delivering the electric shocks. Perry also found that the majority of participants were not thoroughly debriefed after the traumatic experiment.
 
Methodologically, Milgram’s research has also received much criticism. The 62.5% statistic was used to prove Milgram’s theory of the power of authority on obedience. However, this study was based on the results of just 40 participants. This is too low a number to draw any concrete conclusions.
 
Further experiments conducted by Milgram often had conflicting methodologies with different scenarios and a variance in the severity of the experimenter. The lack of standardization makes the experiments difficult to compare. However, when looking at the 23 experiments as a whole, the average rate of obedience falls to 43%. This is significantly lower than the widely cited statistic of 62.5%.
 
What do current obedience studies say?
 
Despite the criticisms of the Milgram Obedience Study, this pioneering study did pave the way for further research into the causes of destructive obedience and the impact of this on world events and individual lives.
 
 
Research from the University of St. Andrews in Scotland suggests that human obedience to destructive activities is not solely in response to authority, an individual must also have strong ideological links with that authority figure and agree with the orders being given to them.
 
This theory does not completely dispute the work of Milgram, however. It deters from the ‘banality of evil’ idea that ordinary people are capable of committing terrible atrocities purely through following the orders of an authority figure.
 
The Milgram Obedience Study raised important questions about what leads individuals to obey orders. It also paved the way for further investigations into the power of authority on human behavior.
 
 
References:
  1. https://theconversation.com
  2. https://psycnet.apa.org
  3. Image credit: Yale University
 
Lottie Miles
 





 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
Free counters!

  geoglobe1
 
 
publicado por achama às 23:06
A Luz está a revelar a Verdade, e esta libertar-nos-á! -Só é real o AMOR Incondicional. -Quando o Amor superar o amor pelo poder, o mundo conhecerá a Paz; Jimi Hendrix. -Somos almas a ter uma experiência humana!

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