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Domingo, 10 / 11 / 19

Milgram Obedience Study and What It Reveals about Human Nature

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted November 10th, 2019.

 
milgram obedience study.

 



Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram conducted his famous series of experiments widely known as Obedience Study almost 60 years ago. The ethics of the experiment have since been subject to criticism. However, it raised important questions about the power of authority in achieving obedience.
 
In this article, we take a look at the Milgram Experiment and what it reveals about human nature. We will also look at the counter-arguments which criticize Milgram’s ethics and dispute his results.
 
What Is the Milgram Obedience Study?
 
The Obedience Study refers to a set of psychology experiments conducted by Milgram. It intended to investigate the relationship between obedience to authority and personal conscience.
 
Milgram’s interest in conducting this study was sparked by the trial of Adolph Eichmann, a Nazi war criminal who was one of the main organizers of the Holocaust. Milgram wanted to find out how humans are capable of committing atrocities that go so far beyond their personal conscience.
 
Participants for Milgram’s experiments were recruited by a newspaper advert and were all male. All participants were given the role of “teacher” and were put in control of an electroshock generator.
 
They were instructed by the “experimenter” to ask the “learner” questions. If they answered them incorrectly, they should deliver a shock to them. Moreover, they would increase this shock by 15 volts with each wrong answer (with the increase leading to shocks that could be fatal).
 
The electric shocks were, in fact, fake and the “learner” in each experiment was part of the research team. So they would act out sounds of pain and plead for the experiment to stop.
 
When participants asked the experimenter whether they should stop the shocks (which the majority did) they were told these commands:
  1. Please continue.
  2. The experiment requires that you continue.
  3. It is absolutely essential that you continue.
  4. You have no other choice, you must go on.
 
What did the Milgram Obedience Study reveal about human nature?
 
The results of the Milgram Obedience Study were that two-thirds of participants (62.5%) delivered the maximum electric shock (450 volts, a shock that could have killed), and a third of participants stopped at 300 volts.
 
The observations showed that participants displayed significant signs of stress during the experiment. All participants stopped to question the experiment and some even offered to return the money they were to be paid so that the experiment would stop.
 
Milgram summed up that the results of the experiment showed that obedience is instilled in us all from an early age due to the way we are raised. Suggesting that, the instruction received by an authority figure, which the individual has deemed to be legally or morally authorized to give such instruction, would lead to obedience.
 
In the case of the Milgram Obedience Study, the authority figure was the experimental scientist and the results of the experiment, Milgram suggested, revealed that stark authority won over a participant’s strong imperative against hurting others. For many, the study revealed an illuminating aspect of human nature.
 
What is wrong with Milgram’s research?
 
Milgram’s research is widely cited and referenced within the field of psychology. Still, both the ethics and the methodology of the study have received ample criticism. Ethically, critics of the study believe that the intense stress levels that Milgram’s participants went through were unacceptable.
 
In addition to this, audio recordings of Milgram’s experiments (which were discovered by psychologist Gina Perry) demonstrate that, in some experiments, the ‘experimenter’ broke away from the set script and used bullying and coercion to force the participants to continue delivering the electric shocks. Perry also found that the majority of participants were not thoroughly debriefed after the traumatic experiment.
 
Methodologically, Milgram’s research has also received much criticism. The 62.5% statistic was used to prove Milgram’s theory of the power of authority on obedience. However, this study was based on the results of just 40 participants. This is too low a number to draw any concrete conclusions.
 
Further experiments conducted by Milgram often had conflicting methodologies with different scenarios and a variance in the severity of the experimenter. The lack of standardization makes the experiments difficult to compare. However, when looking at the 23 experiments as a whole, the average rate of obedience falls to 43%. This is significantly lower than the widely cited statistic of 62.5%.
 
What do current obedience studies say?
 
Despite the criticisms of the Milgram Obedience Study, this pioneering study did pave the way for further research into the causes of destructive obedience and the impact of this on world events and individual lives.
 
 
Research from the University of St. Andrews in Scotland suggests that human obedience to destructive activities is not solely in response to authority, an individual must also have strong ideological links with that authority figure and agree with the orders being given to them.
 
This theory does not completely dispute the work of Milgram, however. It deters from the ‘banality of evil’ idea that ordinary people are capable of committing terrible atrocities purely through following the orders of an authority figure.
 
The Milgram Obedience Study raised important questions about what leads individuals to obey orders. It also paved the way for further investigations into the power of authority on human behavior.
 
 
References:
  1. https://theconversation.com
  2. https://psycnet.apa.org
  3. Image credit: Yale University
 
Lottie Miles
 





 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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publicado por achama às 23:06
Domingo, 10 / 11 / 19

7 Famous Fairy Tales That Are Based on Gruesome True Life Stories

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

November 7th, 2019.

 
famous fairy tales real stories.
 
 

 

What is it about fairy tales that captivate the imaginations of children? Could it be that underneath the thin veneer of fiction lies a much darker truth to the tales? Did you know that the most famous fairy tales are based on gruesome real-life stories? Here are just a few:
 
Famous Fairy Tales and the Creepy Real Stories Behind Them
Bluebeard
 
I loved this fairy tale as a child. So much so that I would beg my sister to read it to me every night before bed. I knew it off by heart and sometimes she would try and skip a line or two. Whenever she did, I would tell her off.
 
The story is pretty awful as a famous fairy tale in its own right. A king named Bluebeard marries a beautiful young princess and takes her to his magnificent castle. He gives her the keys to all the rooms in the castle but tells her not to open the last door in an underground chamber.
 
He then goes off hunting and of course, naturally inquisitive, the young queen goes down to the room and opens the door. Here she finds blood everywhere and the king’s previous wives, murdered and hanging on hooks.
 
Horrified she drops the key in the blood and tries to wash it off. But the blood won’t come off. Will she face the same fate? Luckily, her brother races to her rescue in time to kill Bluebeard.
 
This famous fairy tale is based on two real-life characters. Conomor the Cursed is a savage 6th-century ruler in Breton. This Breton chief had been warned that one of his sons would end up killing him. As a result, he pre-empts this by killing all of his pregnant wives.
 
However, his last wife, Tryphine, is also warned by the ghosts of the murdered wives. She flees but he finds her and beheads her. Miraculously, a sacred monk brings her back to life and when they return to Conomor’s castle the walls collapse around him.
 
The second character is the 15th-century nobleman and notorious serial killer Gilles de Rais. This man earned a formidable reputation fighting alongside Joan of Arc. Yet, in his private life, he murdered children.
 
He was given the nickname of Bluebeard because of the peculiar way his horse’s mane looked blue in the daytime. Gilles de Rais is one of the world’s most evil psychopaths.
 
Hansel and Gretel
 
 
 
 
This is one of those fairy tales that is famous because the story resonates with children today. It tells of a poor woodcutter and his second wife. She is the stepmother to his children – Hansel and Gretel.
 
As food becomes scarce, the stepmother decides there is not enough food for the children. So she persuades the woodcutter to take the children deep into the forest where they won’t be able to find their way home.
 
They come across a witches’ house made of gingerbread. Eventually, they get the better of the witch and return home with the spoils of her house.
 
The story is set during the Great Famine of 1315. Many people starved to death during this time. Acts of extreme cruelty, such as infanticide and cannibalism, took place as people became more desperate. The situation for some families became so wretched that they left their children to fend for themselves.
 
The gingerbread house part of the story comes from a highly profitable baker called Katharina Schraderin. She became legendary in the 1600s thanks to her gingerbread cookies, which everyone wanted. One male baker was so determined to get her recipe he accused her of being a witch.
 
As a result, she was hounded and driven out of the town. But, then in an awful twist, her neighbours brought her back and burned her to death in one of her baking ovens.
 
 
 
Cinderella
 
Cinderella is every young girl’s dream, right? Well, perhaps not mine, as you’ve already heard, I was getting a taste for psychopaths and sociopaths.
 
Everyone knows in this famous fairy tale that Cinders has a tough life. She has to do all the chores, look after her evil stepsisters, and might miss out on the Ball. But, it all comes good in the end. She gets the gorgeous frock, she arrives in a splendid carriage and meets Prince Charming. Furthermore, the story has a happy ending.
 
However, the real-life tale is not so pretty and there’s no happy ever after for Cinders. The story is based around a slave girl in ancient Greece, around 500BC. Rhodopis was a beautiful young Greek woman. At a young age, she was taken from her home in Greece and forced into slavery.
 
Rhodopis was exquisitely beautiful and men lusted after her. As such, she became a prized possession and men showered her with expensive gifts. One of these gifts was a pair of golden shoes.
 
Pharaoh Ahmose II saw the shoes and Rhodopis and wanted her for himself. Although strictly she was not of royal blood, he married her. Her life was to be a ready and willing sex slave to the pharaoh.
 
Beauty and the Beast
 
This is one of those famous fairy tales that you wouldn’t expect to have a real story behind it. But it does.
 
In 1537, a young boy aged 10 called Gonsalvus, was taken from his home in Spain to the Royal French court. Here he was ordered to entertain the King of France. Why? Because he suffered from a condition called hypertrichosis. This causes someone to grow hair all over their body. It is called ‘werewolf syndrome’.
 
The king was enamoured with his little ‘beast’. He educated him and he became a nobleman. When the king died, his wife found the beast a wife. Despite his looks, the pair did fall in love. They had seven children (all of whom also suffered from hypertrichosis) and were married for 40 years.
 
Rapunzel
 
‘Rapunzel, Rapunzel, let down your golden hair!’ I remember this story from my childhood. I kept thinking, why is she waiting for someone to come and rescue her? But the real-life story behind this fairy tale might explain it.
 
As unusual, we have the beautiful protagonist, this time it is an auburn-haired girl living in the 3rd century. Her overbearing father was a wealthy merchant who travelled abroad all the time. No man was good enough for his daughter so when he went off on his travels he locked her up in a tower.
 
It was during these times in the tower that she turned to Christianity to help her through the loneliness. Her praying was so loud the whole town could hear her. The rich merchant was a pagan. Her Christian prayers so angered him that he forced her to stand trial before a Roman consul to give up her religion.
 
The consul demanded the merchant give up his wealth or behead his daughter, should she refuse her Christianity. As she refused, and the merchant would not forfeit the fortune he amassed, he did behead her.
 
However, he was killed by a random lightning bolt shortly afterwards. The daughter was martyred and became Saint Barbara.
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
 
This famous fairy tale has a happy ending. Snow White is hunted by an evil queen who wants to kill her. Seven dwarfs rescue and befriend her. However, the reality is much different and far more gruesome.
 
The story starts in the 16th century in Bavaria. It centres on a young noblewoman called Margarete von Waldeck. Margarete’s brother employs small children to labour in his copper mine. But because of the crippling conditions, the children become dreadfully deformed. The locals begin calling them dwarves to mock them.
 
Now, if this wasn’t bad enough, Margarete was exceptionally beautiful. As such, her stepmother resented her and wanted her out of the picture. She packed her off to Brussels to get rid of her.
 
Here, Margarete began a lustful affair with Prince Philip II of Spain. However, his father, the King of Spain vehemently disagreed with the romance. He organised a plot to kill Margarete. She was poisoned shortly afterwards.
 
The Pied Piper of Hamelin
 
 
 
A pied piper in Hamelin was known for his ability to play hypnotic music and charm certain animals. So, in 1264, the villagers asked him to play his pipe and get rid of all the rats plaguing the area. They promised him a hefty fee for his troubles. Of course, the piper agreed and played his pipe. Soon all the rats followed him to their death.
 
He went back to the villagers who reneged on the deal. Angry and bitter at them, he went out once again to play his pipe. But, this time, it was the children that fell entranced to his hypnotic tune. They followed the piper and were never seen again.
 
The Dark Truth Behind Famous Fairy Tales
 
Most famous fairy tales have a happy ending. The real-life stories behind some of these show that the truth is far from happy ever after.
 
References:
 
Janey Davies
 


About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 22:44
Sábado, 02 / 11 / 19

Saudade: A Profound Emotional State You’ve Probably Experienced

Becky Storey.

https://www.learning-mind.com/

November 1st, 2019.



 
Saudade is a Portuguese word. Its meaning is so complex that cannot be translated into one single word. It has a notoriously complicated definition which can be difficult to explain. There is no English word that it translates to, instead, we use entire phrases, to sum up, its depth.
 
Saudade is often thought to be a kind of nostalgia, but even that isn’t quite right to describe this profound emotion. When you feel saudade, you are experiencing a deep and profound emotion. This emotion is more akin to yearning, pining and longing.
 
The correct version of saudade defines it as a desire for something that once was. It combines the sadness for something that has gone, whilst still being happy as you think of the memories.
 
For example, you would feel saudade for a loved one who has passed away. You would experience a deep sense of sadness at their loss and long for their return. However, you might also be experiencing happy moments as you fondly remember the good times you shared.
 
Simply put, it is a combination of sadness and happiness directed towards something you wish would come back. Sadness for the loss, happiness for the memories, or thoughts of what could have been.
Saudade and Its Origins
 
Like most words, saudade gets its roots from Latin. Ancient versions of the word can be loosely translated to “solitude”. It wasn’t until the 13th-15th centuries when the word developed its modern meaning in Portugal.
 
During the Great Portuguese Discoveries, men would be sent off on ships to discover new territories and wage wars for possession. Their wives, children and loved ones would be left behind. As the men sailed off around the globe, their families would pine for their return.
 
It wasn’t uncommon for the men to go missing in action. This left their grieving families uncertain if they were dead or alive. Saudade is a word perfectly designed to describe the loss they felt.
 
The country experienced a phase of melancholy among its people. Those left behind would dream with the hope of their return, sometimes naively. They wallowed in the sadness that came from missing their husbands, fathers, brothers, and sons.
 
Joy, however, was also in the mix. The people of Portugal were proud of the achievements their men were making. They remembered fondly the times they had with the men who had left. Their loved ones also tried to stay optimistic about the times they would have after they returned home and the golden age their discoveries would bring to Portugal. The only way to sum this up was “saudade.”
 
In the 20th century, this feeling had a resurgence amongst the Portuguese people. As emigration to America and the rest of Europe became popular, so did this confusing emotion.
 
People who had moved away to start new lives felt saudade for the home they had left behind. They fondly remembered their home country and the people in it. They often longed to be back there, though they knew they had to stay.
 
The new countries they settled in were strange and made them wistful for the familiar safety of Portugal again. As the Portuguese started to describe this feeling as saudade to the people in their new countries, the word started to spread.
 
Saudade Versus Nostalgia
 
Though nostalgia is the closest the English language gets to saudade, it’s still not quite the same. Nostalgia is a feeling you get when you feel happy thinking of the past.
 
We get nostalgic for our childhoods because they were joyful and carefree. We feel nostalgic for old television shows or even music because they remind us of those good times. Saudade is more closely connected to sadness. It is a sense of longing or yearning for the past.
 
Saudade can also apply to more than nostalgia ever could. You can feel it for people, places, phases of life and even things that never happened at all. Unlike nostalgia, which is a joyful memory and even wishful return of the past, saudade can be theoretical.
 
So, How Does It Feel?
 
Saudade can be felt for things that never happened at all, like longing for “the one that got away”. In this case, you would be feeling a deep sadness from missing them and wishing they would be back in your life. You might also feel a sense of happiness when you consider what could have been and the good moments you could have had.
 
Saudade can also come on pre-emptively. Imagine your last summer before leaving for college (even hypothetically). The emotions you feel are a complicated mix of sadness and happiness. Your heart might ache, thinking of how much you’ll miss your home and friends.
 
You might also feel happiness, for all the good times you’ve had. Somehow, this happiness could also make you feel more sadness when you consider all that you’ll be losing. This complicated mix of emotions sums up exactly what defines saudade.
 
In 1912, Aubrey Bell, a Scholar, and Author tried to summarize this in his book In Portugal. It became one of the most renowned descriptions of this untranslatable word:
 
“a vague and constant desire for something that does not and probably cannot exist, for something other than the present, a turning towards the past or towards the future.”
 
This tells us even more that saudade is a nostalgia for something that could have been, not just something you’ve lost. Next time you’re yearning for what was or what could have been, know there is a word for how you feel. Saudade will put a face to the complicated emotions of a bittersweet feeling of loss.
 
References:

 
Becky Storey
 


 

About the Author: Becky Storey


 
Becky Storey is a professional writer who has been passionate about the way we think and the human mind since she developed chronic anxiety many years ago. Now she loves to write and educate people on mental health and wellbeing. When Becky is not writing, you’ll find her outside with her Labrador, sitting behind a jigsaw puzzle, or baking something with too much sugar.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

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publicado por achama às 00:12
Sexta-feira, 01 / 11 / 19

The Psychology of Angels of Mercy: Why Do Medical Professionals Kill?

By Sherrie Hurd.

learning-mind.com.

October 31st, 2019.

 
angels of mercy psychology.


 
Angels of mercy are known by two definitions. One is considered a benevolent watchful spirit, and the other a bringer of death.
 
The angel of mercy I refer to today is the one who brings death by my own hands. They’re not winged creatures sent by God, no. They’re more like hospital employees killing patients while playing “nurse”. And yet, they are registered nurses, received accreditation and diplomas, and work in the medical field sometimes for decades. But they are also angels of mercy or rather angels of DEATH.
 
A few cases of “mercy” killings
 
One case concerning the angel of mercy is about an ex-German nurse, Neils Hogel. He admits to killing over 100 patients by injections causing cardiac arrest. Hogel claims he was only trying to impress others by reviving the patients, unsuccessfully, I might add, but this claim didn’t seem viable.
 
Most likely, Hogel was acting as an angel of death, or angel or mercy, however you view this sort of activity. Hogel was able to conduct his killings between 1995 and 2003 before caught.
 
In 2001, nurse Kirsten Gilbert killed four of her patients by injecting epinephrine, causing cardiac arrest, then she would attempt to resuscitate them. It was thought that she was trying to draw attention to herself as a hero, and also draw attention from the police proving that someone else was trying to kill patients.
 
A bit of psychology about serial killers
 
Most serial killers seem to fit in the antisocial category or even have an antisocial personality disorder. Unlike most serial killers, however, medical killers like angels or mercy don’t always fit into this characteristic. For instance, as far back as the 1800s, we see one such angel of mercy conduct several medical killings, with a smile on her face.
 
Jane Toppan was called “Jolly Jane” because she was always happy and kind to everyone. Unfortunately, she had a dark secret. She derived sexual pleasure from killing her own patients.
 
Toppan was a nurse in Boston who experimented secretly on her patients with morphine and atropine and then killing them with overdoses. She would watch them die slowly and gain pleasure from the fact. When she was finally caught, she said it was her goal to kill as many people as possible.
 
 
 
Two types of angels of mercy
 
Just like any other type of serial killer, there are two basic types. There are organized and disorganized killers. The organized version is neater, smarter, and takes more risks, while the disorganized killers are sloppy, random, and generally does the easier killings.
 
Medical killers, like the angels of death, fall into these two categories, and so this is the main similarity between them and other types of serial killers.
 
A few facts about the angel of mercy
 
Most angels of mercy are female, although there are many male versions as well. I can guess this is because of the higher percentage of female nurses in the medical field. Women often seem to be trusted more in the nursing profession as well, which gives them an advantage.
 
Most angels of mercy use more passive ways of murder like medications or injections. It’s rarer to find suffocation or violence as the cause of death in these cases.
 
Reasons for these killings
 
There are a few reasons why angels of mercy do what they do. As I mentioned above, some do this to play hero when resuscitation is involved or getting the attention of authorities, which I might add is risky on their part and rarely works.
 
Angels of mercy may also truly believe that they are helping the patient by ending their suffering, especially if they are elderly or suffering from a terminal illness. It’s more or less like an in-house Dr. Kevorkian, coming to save the patient from extreme and unnecessary pain.
 
Also, some angels of death simply kill for power or as a mode of stimulation. Normal life has lost its meaning for them and something more extreme has to be done in order to feel like life has any meaning, even if it means killing. Many other types of serial killers feel the same way.
 
Past traumas can also cause the angel of mercy killings, especially if past trauma involved an elderly relative or a high number of deaths in the family at any given time. The killer may dwell on death as an inevitable fate, which it is, and turn to kill to aid in the natural process of death.
 
And of course, there are many reasons yet, we’ve found, that make nurses want to kill their patients. But there is never a good enough reason for us to take death into our own hands, especially without the consent of the one being killed. At least with assisted suicide, you do have the consent of the dying before ending the life. But that’s an altogether different topic…
 
It’s kind of frightening
 
While most of the patients killed by the angels of mercy were elderly, there have been a handful of cases where children were involved. It seems no one can be certain where these “angels” may strike again. I guess it’s safe to say, know your medical professionals before you put your life in their hands.
 
There are many more cases of these killings, and between 1070 and the present, they have increased exponentially. The good news is, after profiling and many captures of these serial killers, we can have hope that medical care is getting safer again.
 
Just remember, this is another extremely important thing you must research when switching medical professionals. Know your doctors well, and especially your nurses.
 
Be safe out there.
 
References:

 

Sherrie Hurd.


 





 

About the Author: Sherrie Hurd


Sherrie Hurd is a professional writer and artist with over 10 years of experience. She is an advocate for mental health awareness and nutrition. Sherrie studied Psychology, Journalism, and Fine Arts, receiving an Associates in Marketing. She has written for Beacon, a southern college publication, and is an author of a full-length non-fiction novel. Sherrie spends most of her time giving life to the renegade thoughts. As the words erupt and form new life, she knows that she is yet again free from the nagging persistence of her muse.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 



 

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publicado por achama às 17:03
Sexta-feira, 21 / 06 / 19

14 Origins of Phrases You Probably Use Every Day but Had No Idea about ~ Janey Davies.

14 Origins of Phrases You Probably Use Every Day but Had No Idea about.

By Janey Davies.

June 21st, 2019.

 
 

 



 

Have you ever walked into a tiny room and thought ‘I couldn’t swing a cat in here?’ Have you ever ‘rubbed someone up the wrong way?’ These are examples of phrases we use all the time, but do you know their origins?
I love words. I love metaphors, words that come from foreign languages, I love how words shape our minds, how we use them to influence people, they’re just so powerful.
Lately, I’ve been looking into the origins of phrases and have found some really interesting ones I thought I’d share with you. I hope you find them as fascinating as I did.

14 Little-Known Origins of Popular Phrases

Not enough room to swing a cat

 
1. A very small space
This is a nautical term and derives from a ‘cat-o-nine-tails’, a whip used to punish sailors onboard ships. Sailors would usually receive punishment below decks. However, quarters were cramped, hence the saying, ‘no room to swing the cat‘.

Rubbing someone up the wrong way

 
2. To irritate or annoy
In America in the 16-century, slaves had many tasks to carry out. One was to rub the wooden floors of their master’s houses, first with a wet cloth, then with a dry one. If they went against the natural grain, it looked unsightly and annoyed the master.

Lost your bottle

 
3. Cowardly behaviour
You’ll never guess where this phrase originates from. It comes from bare-knuckle fighters in the 20-century and their bottle men.
Each fighter had their own bottle man to provide them with water between rounds.  Managers with poor fighters would instruct the bottle man to disappear. This would stop the fight. ‘Lost your bottle man’ was eventually shortened to ‘lost your bottle’.

Let your hair down

 
4. To relax
In Parisian society, it was the done thing to have an elaborate hair-do. These hairdos took hours to achieve so at the end of the evening it was a huge relief to let them down.

Take the upper hand

 
5. To gain an advantage
This phrase originates from the 15-century and comes from a game involving two or more people and a long stick. The first person places their hand on the stick at the bottom, the next person places their hand just above and so on until the last person to reach the top of the stick wins. They have the upper hand.

Rule of thumb

 
6. A broad principle
In the 17-century, an English judge ruled that British men could legally beat their wives with a stick, so long as the stick was less than the width of the husband’s thumb.

Blackmail

 
7. To demand money by threats
This is one of those phrases you’d never guess the origins unless perhaps you are Scottish. It originated in the Scottish Highlands in the 16-century.
In those days, ‘mail’ was an old word which meant rent. Farmers paid rent in silver coins. The rent was known as ‘white mail’. Certain clans started racketeering in the farming areas. They threatened farmers with violence then offered them protection but only if they paid. Farmers called this extra payment ‘black-mail’.

Saved by the bell

 
8. Rescue from an unwanted situation
Before advances in modern medicine and technology, it was quite common for doctors to pronounce people dead. The problem was, these people were not dead and some were being buried alive.
Fear spread amongst towns and cities. Stories passed around of gravediggers hearing screams from below the ground at night. To combat the problem, a special coffin was made with a bell that could be rung from inside that would alert people above ground. Hence, ‘saved by the bell‘.

You’re fired!

 
9. Given the sack
No, this phrase does not have its origins in the Whitehouse or anywhere near Donald Trump. It’s much older than that. It’s a mining term.
A miner caught stealing would have his tools burned or ‘fired’. It meant he couldn’t work anywhere. It was so effective a punishment that other trades adopted the phrase.

Get the sack

 
10. Lose your job
Speaking of getting the sack, that’s another one of our phrases that has unusual origins. Today, getting the sack has unpleasant connotations, but in actual fact, in the past, it was a positive sign.
Centuries ago, craftsmen and labourers would expect to work on a job for a few days or a week at most. They would carry their tools in a sack, which the owner would stash for them for safekeeping. The sacks were returned when the labourer finished the job. They got their sack back.

Spill the beans

11. To reveal a secret
This is another one of those phrases that you’ll never guess its origins in a million years. In ancient Greece, people voted in elections using beans. If they liked a candidate, they used a white bean. If they disapproved, they would place a black bean in the container.
If these containers were knocked over, everyone could see how the voting was going. Therefore, if someone ‘spilled the beans‘, the secret was out.

Kicking the bucket

 
12. Dying
You might not use this phrase after you learn of its origins. In slaughterhouses, when cows are killed, a bucket is placed underneath it to catch the blood when it dies. Sometimes, the cow’s legs would kick the bucket when it died.

Let the cat out of the bag

13. Reveal a secret
Back in medieval times, the marketplace was rife with tricksters and fraudsters. One such deception was the sale of suckling pigs. Once the pig was purchased, the hapless buyer would be distracted by the seller.
The pig would then be swapped for a cat and which was placed in the bag, ready for the customer. The customer would only realise when he ‘let the cat out of the bag’.

Cold Feet

 
14. Lose your nerve
German writer Fritz Reuter was the first person to use this phrase. Interestingly, Reuter uses the term in each of his books.
In the first, ‘An Old Story of My Farming Days’, he uses it to describe a poker player to wants to leave the game with his winnings intact. The poker player complains he has ‘cold feet’ and manages to leave without causing upset to the other players.  In the other, ‘Seed-time and Harvest’, it involves a joke made by a shoemaker.
Do you have any interesting phrases or words you’d like to share? Even better, do you know their origins? Let us know!
 
References:
  1. https://www.buzzfeed.com
  2. https://list25.com

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

About the Author: Janey Davies.

Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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publicado por achama às 19:31
Quarta-feira, 15 / 05 / 19

6 Mysterious Disappearances That Were Never Explained ~ Sofia, Learning Mind




6 Mysterious Disappearances That Were Never Explained.

 


 




There is an intensely eerie quality in cases of mysterious disappearances. The loss of people as a result of violent crime is one thing. But an unexplained absence is on a completely different level.

In mysterious disappearances, it is the silence of the empty space where the person used to be, and the lack of explanation to help us piece the events together that chills us.


Mysterious disappearances defy the logical chain of events in missing persons’ cases. Consequently, they make us feel intrigued yet powerless.

Perhaps this involuntary yet seductive pull is the reason why the public has long found fascination in unexplained mysteries and missing persons cases, or why we love a good mystery story. Why urban legends and the stuff of myth stem from such stories.
Mysterious disappearances have been occurring since the dawn of recorded civilization.

The first case of a person going missing without explanation lies in the case of Romulus, one of the legendary founders of Rome. Through the centuries and until today, a host of famous disappearances have accumulated.

Here are some of them:

Flannan Isle Lighthouse Keepers


The mystery of the lightkeepers has inspired many a song and ballad, the most famous being by the band “Genesis”. The mystery concerns a lighthouse near Eilean Mòr, one of the Flannan Isles in the northernmost Outer Hebrides region of Scotland.

The cluster of islands, under the nickname “the Seven Hunters”, supposedly took its name from Saint Flannan, the seventh-century Irish preacher and abbot.

In 1900, Donal Macarthur, James Ducat and Thomas Marshall vanished from the lighthouse on Flannan Isle. The three keepers were at the end of a 14-day shift but remained in the Isle due to bad weather. After a passing ship noticed that the lighthouse was dark, a search began for them.

Following the disappearance, massive investigation and speculations ensued. The investigators did not have much to go on. The most credible theory is that a freak wave swept the men out to sea during the storm.


The island was completely deserted, and unmade beds and cups still full were in the lighthouse. There were no clues of a struggle or an accident happening. No bodies were ever found.

The three men had vanished in the foam.


Ambrose Bierce



“As to me, I leave here tomorrow for an unknown destination”.

Such were the closing lines of Ambrose Bierce’s last ever letter to his friend, Blanche Partington. The date was December 26, 1913. The following day, one of America’s most widely known and influential writers, journalists and satirists, would leave no trace.

Bierce, under his capacity as a war journalist and correspondent as well as an adventurer, went to follow Sancho Villa’s Army during the unfolding revolution in Mexico. Historians believe that sometime during the fighting he perished, or criminals murdered him.

Nobody ever found any remains of indication of what really happened. And so, one of the founders of ghost literature and horror stories had a fitting end to his unconventional life.


Roanoke Colony

As far as mysterious disappearances go, Roanoke Colony is one of the most extreme. For a person to go missing is strange for sure. But a whole colony? Now that’s something else entirely.

Roanoke received funding by Sir Walter Raleigh and was the first attempt at a permanent colony in North America. Since the very beginning, the mission faced many difficulties; storms, shortage of funds and food, illness, you name it. The harsh conditions forced the majority of the prospective colonists to leave, a small part remaining behind.

By the time the ones who left returned with reinforcements during a second expedition, the entire colony was missing.

There was only a single clue to indicate what happened to them: the word “CROATOAN” carved into a tree.

Nobody knows what happened. Speculation suggests that local tribes either killed or assimilated the colonists. The Croatan are a small Native American group living in the coastal areas of what is now North Carolina.

They may have been a branch of the larger Roanoke people, a tribe with Alonquian roots, or allied with them. The story of Roanoke has inspired certain well-known adaptations, such as a season of the popular TV show “American Horror Story”.


Connie Converse

Elizabeth Eaton Converse had such a poignant life. She was one of the first singer-songwriters, and her work and life remained underground until the 2009 release of her song recordings, titled “How Sad, How Lovely”.


During the 50’s, she moved to New York, writing and singing songs accompanied by her acoustic guitar. They were mostly melancholy or playful tunes, about love, loss and everyday life.

She had a distinctly old-style folk sound. Her music did not yet have elements of electric instruments like the folk music that would come after Bob Dylan and Simon and Garfunkel’s rise to success.

As the years passed, Connie had been drinking and smoking a lot, and become disillusioned by the discrepancy between the life she had dreamt of and the life she had had.

In 1974, Connie Converse sent letters to a few close family members and friends, informing them that she was going to set out and make a fresh start. That was the last anyone heard of her.

How sad and lovely indeed.


Megumi Yokota and the North Korean Abductions

And then there’s North Korea. During the period between 1977 to 1983, North Korea was responsible for at least thirteen mysterious disappearances.

According to official announcements made by North Korea at the time and ex post facto, a number of Japanese persons, most of them teenagers or young adults, were abducted in order to train as Korean Spies.


One of them was a student named Megumi Yokota. North Korean agents reportedly dragged her into a boat and took her straight to North Korea to a facility which taught North Korean spies about South Korean customs and practices.

After also learning Korean, Megumi forcibly married another captive and taught North Korean agents how to pass as Japanese and assimilate into Japanese routine.

In 2002, North Korea admitted having orchestrated the abduction but claimed that Megumi had committed suicide. It returned what it said were her remains. The captive she had had to marry corroborated the story, claiming she had committed suicide after a bout of mental illness ensuing from her captivity.

Megumi’s remains returned to Japan sometime during the 00’s, though controversy as to their authenticity accompanied them.

The North Korean abductions made headlines once, but sadly enough no international legal action ever took place.


Yuba County Five and the American Dyatlov Pass

On the night of February 24, 1978, Gary Mathias, age 25, Bill Sterling, age 29, Jack Huett, age 24, Ted Weiher, age 32, and Jack Madruga, age 30, stopped at a local convenience store in Yuba City, California.

It was just after a basketball game they had attended, and they meant to buy snacks and drinks and go for a ride. That was the last time anyone saw them alive.

The press dubbed their mysterious disappearances “The American Dyatlov Pass”, after a disappearance incident involving Soviet hikers in 1959.

Police discovered the youth’s car in a remote part of Plumas National Forest. There was no sight of them in the surrounding area.

Investigators could not, however, determine why they had abandoned it as they could easily have pushed it out of the snowpack it was in.
A few months later, the bodies started showing up.

All of them, at least, apart from Gary Mathias, who the police never found. The other four bodies lay in a shelter approximately 32 kilometers from where the car had been. They showed signs of exposure, famine and dehydration.

The police still have no idea what happened. Why was the car where they found it? Why did the bodies show signs of exposure, starvation and hypothermia despite the ample provisions left next to them? Even more perplexing is the disappearance of Gary Mathias.
The above were just a fraction of mysterious disappearances will never cease to attract us.

It is in the absence that one finds the most material, and it is the silence of a vanishing that is most deafening.

References:
  1. bbc
  2. britannica
  3. wikipedia

About the Author: Sofia

Sofia has a bachelor degree in law. She is moonlighting as a writer and aspiring to one day gather enough experiences and turn them into ink and paper. The intricacies of the human mind and its peculiar ways have always fascinated her and urged her to explore more, not only humans but humanity as a whole, hopefully leading her to interesting findings. She is a literature, music and movie geek to boot.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. 
All rights reserved. 
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publicado por achama às 07:45
Sábado, 27 / 04 / 19

18 Famous People with INFJ Personality Traits ~ Janey Davies.

18 Famous People with INFJ Personality Traits.

By Janey Davies.

April 27, 2019.

 

Of all the Myers-Briggs Personality Types, INFJs are the rarest.

It stands to reason that famous people with INFJ personality are going to be pretty remarkable individuals.
So what is so special about the INFJ personality anyway? Well, for a start, it is incredibly uncommon. Only 1-3% of the population belong to the INFJ personality group. But why is it so rare? To clarify, the INFJ personality stands for:
  • Introversion
  • Intuition
  • Feeling
  • Judgement
Now the INFJ personality has several traits, qualities and weaknesses.
  • INFJs are quiet, private individuals who are conscientious but in an undramatic way. They prefer a one-to-one rather than large groups.
  • These are the nurturers who value good morals. They devote themselves to their relationships.
  • Not only are INFJs visionaries, but they will also use their intuitionand can sense if others are unhappy. They will do their best to help and understand, not just others but themselves also.
  • They are highly creative in all aspects of their lives and see the world in a rich and colourful way. They appreciate art in many different forms.
  • If they are in charge they will lead in a quiet manner and resolve differences with cooperation and understanding, not aggression or conflict.
“You are not here merely to prepare to make a living. You are here in order to enable the world to live more amply, with greater vision, with a finer spirit of hope and achievement. You are here to enrich the world, and you impoverish yourself if you forget the errand.”Woodrow Wilson
  • Although they keep themselves to themselves, they will have a few close friends to confide in. However, they do not make new friends easily.
  • The INFJ personality gets upset easily and takes things personally. They won’t let you know, instead, they’ll shut you out. Silence or withdrawing is their way of hurting you.
So now that we know a little more about INFJs, here are 18 famous people with INFJ personality traits.
 

Famous People with INFJ Personality

 

Actors

Al Pacino

Al Pacino infj
Al Pacino credited acting with helping him cope with his shyness. He has also said that, despite his onscreen roles in the past that portray him in a certain light, he is not comfortable with confrontation. He prefers to walk away and say nothing rather than hurt someone’s feelings.

Jennifer Connelly

American actress Jennifer Connelly found fame at a very young age, but as an introvert, she was overwhelmed and decided to take time off. She left acting at the height of her career to study drama, a huge risk which eventually paid off as she returned, a mature student with the confidence to take on leading roles.

Cate Blanchett

This successful actress likes to observe rather than take part. In fact, she bases her acting skills on being able to immerse herself into other people’s emotional states. She uses these to create her onscreen characters.

Michelle Pfeiffer

This is another actress that likes to observe from afar without getting too involved. This famous INFJ personality shows all four traits. She is introverted and uses her intuition when it comes to working. She likes to be well-prepared in all aspects of her life.

Adrien Brody

Adrien Brody gives meaning to the word ‘creativity’. You certainly cannot pigeonhole this actor. He has starred in many different kinds of films including sci-fi romance, psychological thrillers, comedy, suspense and biographical dramas. He’s also a fan of hip hop music.
 

Musicians

Marilyn Manson

Would you guess that Marilyn Manson is an introvert? This eccentric musical genius has often said his dressing style is a mask to shield him from the public’s eye.

George Harrison

George Harrison
Known as the ‘quiet Beatle’, George’s influence was anything but quiet. George was intensely spiritual before it became popular. Inspired by Hinduism and Eastern culture, you can hear these influences in his music.

Leonard Cohen

Canadian singer and songwriter, Cohen began his career as a poet and novelist. He had many poems published before moving onto writing books and was a successful author. He started writing songs after he met a flamenco guitarist who inspired him to learn to play the guitar.
 

Politics

Eleanor Roosevelt

Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt was as well-known as her husband, President Franklin D Roosevelt. She became a political activist in her own right, attending hospitals to offer support during WWII. She was particularly outspoken on African-American human rights and was awarded the United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights.
“No one can make you feel inferior without your consent.” Eleanor Roosevelt

Martin Luther King Junior

Martin Luther King Junior
Speaking of African-American rights, Martin Luther King Jr led the Civil Rights Movement in a peaceful manner. He advocated non-violent methods of protest which included rousing speeches that are still listened to today.

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler infj
Adolf Hitler instigated WWII because he had a vision of the future. He had the power to inspire devout followers because of his oratory prowess. His powers of persuasion were second to none.
He used his intuition to predict how people around him would react so that he could pre-empt them. This skill enabled him to remain one step ahead of his opponents.

Gandhi

Gandhi famous people with infj personality
Gandhi was the antithesis of Hitler. Gandhi loved mankind and was opposed to all kinds of violence.
He starts a series of non-violent civil disobedience, for example, a march against a tax levied at Indian people only. The march forced the British to drop the taxes and Gandhi realised how powerful non-violent protest could be.
“An eye for an eye only ends up making the whole world blind.” Gandhi

Novelists

JK Rowling

There can’t be many people who haven’t heard of British novelist JK Rowling. But go back a couple of decades and it was a very different story.
She was a young, single mother, living on benefits who would go to a local café to write to keep warm. Now she has lost her billionaire status because she has given away so much of her fortune to charitable causes.
“Are you the sort of person who gloats when they see a woman fall, or the kind that celebrates a magnificent recovery?” JK Rowling

Fyodor Dostoevsky

fyodor Dostoevsky famous infj personalities
Russian author and philosopher Dostoevsky grew up in socially and politically charged times. He had an extraordinary youth. Arrested for being involved in revolutionary acts, he was sentenced to death, however, at the last minute, he was pardoned.
He was a chronic epileptic and suffered poor health for most of his life. But he persevered and went on to write some of the greatest Russian novels of all time.

Agatha Christie

Agatha Christie was a British writer known as the ‘Queen of Crime’. She wrote over 66 crime books and created two classic detectives – Miss Marple and Hercule Poirot. She is also credited with writing ‘The Mousetrap’, the world’s longest running play.
 

Scientists and Philosophers

Carl Jung

Jungian Archetypes
Carl Jung is a Swiss psychoanalyst that took on Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis and developed analytical psychology.
He devised the personality types of introvert and extrovert and had a huge influence on modern psychology. In fact, the Myers-Briggs personality types, including INFJ type, was devised from his original work.
By psyche, I understand the totality of all psychic processes, conscious as well as unconscious.” Carl Jung

Plato

plato's philosophy lessons
Plato and Aristotle in “The School of Athens” painting by Raphael
Although we cannot tell if Plato was an INFJ personality, his character traits are an indication that he would have been one.
He was a quiet and reflective man who wanted very much to help improve society. He would have had an enormous amount of knowledge, both given to him from mentor Socrates and imparted to Aristotle.

Niels Bohr

Finally, Danish Noble Prize winner Niels Bohr makes it onto our list of famous people who had INFJ personality traits. He was a physicist who worked alongside Ernest Rutherford on atomic structure and quantum physics. In WWII, he escaped from the Nazis and fled to the US where he began his humanitarian work.
References:
  1. https://www.thefamouspeople.com

About the Author: Janey Davies.

Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 


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publicado por achama às 18:18
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