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Sexta-feira, 12 / 07 / 19

5 Examples of Herd Mentality and How to Avoid Falling into It ~ Sherrie.

5 Examples of Herd Mentality and How to Avoid Falling into It.

By Sherrie.

July 11th, 2019

 
 
 
It’s easy to fall into the herd mentality without even thinking. Following the leader isn’t always good.
People may not be animals, but they still often exhibit a herd mentality. What this means is they tend to congregate in groups to perform certain objectives or uphold common beliefs. There are ways that herd mentality can benefit us in the short term, I will not lie, but there are also reasons why we should avoid this train of thought altogether.


Unlike mob mentality

Individuals who operate in herds are different than those who contribute to mobs. Mobs are often seen as violent or aggressive groups. Being in a herd is basically being a part of the “in crowd” or adhering to a majority mentality. We see this in religious organizations and school affiliations.
Here are examples and explanations of the herd mentality.

1. Black Friday
I’m starting with one of the largest global phenomena in recent times – Black Friday. If there was ever a more moldable herd of people, it would be this group. Every year, on Thanksgiving day and the weekend following, Black Friday hits most retail stores and online sites offering ridiculous discounts in pricing.

When this happens, people go mad. More and more individuals are following the masses into this hysterical mode of shopping. Following the leader has never been so massive, and it doesn’t seem like it’s going to be slowing down any time soon.

2.Investing

The herd mentality can also be seen in investments as well. Instead of making independent decisions, many will make moves depending on emotions and instinct. Social aspects are also a huge part of how people herd together to invest in certain stocks.
Investors will make rash decisions solely based on what their close friends are doing. Most people choose to do what others do simply because of the fear of embarrassment or the fear of being wrong. This fear of being wrong sometimes even goes against the better judgment of making a different choice that seems more logical – a judgment call that could be more profitable in the long run.

3. Choosing restaurants

Being a part of a herd also shows when looking for a place to eat. Let’s be honest, if you saw two restaurants that were almost exactly alike, one was crowded and one was almost empty, which would you choose? I think you would choose the busy and crowded one.
At least, this is true if you have a herd mentality. Many people think that if a restaurant is busy, the food must be better, and yet, it could only be a coincidence. This is a simple example, but it’s true, isn’t it?

4. Social groups

Just like in high school, the herd mentality can rear its head during adulthood. When it comes to making friends and being a part of a social group, people tend to gravitate toward larger groups or groups of popular and extroverted individuals.
In school, peer pressure told us that we were outcasts if we weren’t friends with certain people. Unfortunately, this attitude carries into later life more often than you think. Pay close attention and you may see a herd of people comprised of identical mentalities.

5. Beliefs/spirituality

As I mentioned earlier, herd mentality can be present in belief systems as well. There are many self-professed teachers in this area who are more than willing to share “truths” to others.
A following sometimes develops, not entirely unlike a cult, I venture to say. A person’s beliefcan quickly become a community’s belief. The bigger the community the larger the influence for others to join.

Why is herd mentality unhealthy?

Hey, let’s look at herd mentality this way – if you have a huge group of people of sub-par intelligence, and you add a few highly intelligent people to the large group, do you think the group will become smarter? No.
With the herd mentality, the intelligence level of the group does not change when a different form of stimulus joins. It’s usually the opposite. Most of the time, if intelligent people decide to join such a group, their higher intelligence is dormant to the group, or rather ignored.
All in all, I think we should avoid the herd mentality, and here are a few ways to do that.

Accept conflict

Instead of conforming to the norm, choose the other choice, so to speak. Stop going the easy route and agreeing with people, just because you live with them or they are part of your family. They could even be friends.
It’s easy to become part of the herd, and going against the grain is hard… but you must choose conflict in order to pull away from this mentality. You should practice saying no, get used to confrontations, and choose that road that many others abandon. This is how you start.

Know thyself

Who are you? I mean, if no one else existed, who would you be? Most people identify themselves with some connection to another. When I was younger and married, I often identified as a wife or a mother.
Here’s the thing. One way to find out if you are falling into herd mentality is to spend time with yourself. Find out what makes you happy without any influence of another human being. This is how you know yourself and this is how you sever from the majority rules concept.

Disagree some more

Yes, I mentioned saying no, but you must go further. Stop agreeing with people just because you feel they are going to be picked for promotions or because they’re the popular group. If you feel like disagreeing, then do it.
Sometimes just disagree to surprise the majority and shake up the room. Taking a stand against the majority vote, for instance, will help you further achieve your individuality and tear away from the group. After all, who really knows where these herds are going anyway?

It’s never too late to leave the herd

If you’ve been following the herd for a while now, you can still change this mentality. After a while of following the masses, you may feel a part of yourself dying. This is a wake-up call that you’re falling in deep.
Take some time and look at what your following, who you’re following and why. You may be surprised by what you find. Maybe you can avoid falling into the herd mentality altogether if you’re lucky.
References:
  1. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk
  2. https://www.sciencedaily.com
 

 

 
About the Author: Sherrie

Sherrie is a freelance writer and artist with over 10 years of experience. She spends most of her time giving life to the renegade thoughts. As the words erupt and form new life, she knows that she is yet again free from the nagging persistence of her muse. She is a mother of three and a lifetime fan of the thought-provoking and questionable aspects of the universe.
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 
 

 
Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
 



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


More @ http://violetflame.biz.ly and 
https://rayviolet.blogspot.com/




 

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publicado por achama às 23:29
Sábado, 29 / 06 / 19

The Bandwagon Effect: How It Affects Your Decisions without You Knowing

The Bandwagon Effect: How It Affects Your Decisions without You Knowing.

By Janey Davies.

June 28th, 2019.

 
 

 



 

We all like to think we are completely unbiased when we make decisions, but, actually, there are a number of things that influence us. One of them is the Bandwagon Effect.

What is the Bandwagon Effect?

The Bandwagon Effect is a psychological cognitive bias in which people do, say or believe something, despite their own beliefs because they see others doing it. Therefore, it must be right.

Where did it originate?

Nowadays, the saying is most associated with politics, consumer behaviour and the stock market. But where did it come from?
Most of us have heard of ‘jumping on the bandwagon’, which suggests joining or supporting others in something that’s likely to have a favourable outcome. What you might not know is where this phrase originated from.
In the 19-century, performing bands played on carts during carnivals and street parades. These were called bandwagons. As the band played and the wagon went from street to street, the musicians encouraged people to jump on the bandwagon so they could carry on listening to the music as they played.
It wasn’t until 1848, however, that the phrase ‘jump on the bandwagon’ came about during the presidential campaign of US senator Zachary Taylor. Dan Rice was a clown campaigning for Taylor and while promoting him he encouraged potential voters to ‘jump on the bandwagon’ to show support for Taylor.
At the same time, he suggested that anyone who wasn’t on it was missing out on the fun. His campaign was ultimately successful. Zachary Taylor became the US president in 1849.

Examples of the Bandwagon Effect:

  • Facebook post has a lot of ‘likes’, so it gets even more.
  • An item of clothing becomes fashionable because lots of people start wearing it.
  • A beauty product sells out because everyone wants it.
  • Stocks soar as people invest in a particular company.
  • A political party is performing well in the polls and gets increased support.
  • You start a new diet because everyone else is on it.

How does the Bandwagon Effect affect us?

Herd mentality

“Collective fear stimulates herd instinct, and tends to produce ferocity toward those who are not regarded as members of the herd.”  ― Bertrand Russell
Herd mentality is another name for people following the same patterns of behaviour. Examples of this are queuing up all night for the latest Apple smartphone, parents having to buy the must-have toy for Christmas, and Black Friday. These are relatively harmless examples of a herd mentality, but when can the effects become dangerous?
In 2008, the US housing market crashed. When it became obvious that many homeowners would not be able to pay their mortgages, investors, instead of remaining calm, went into a herd mentality and panicked. Once a few starting selling shares, the rest quickly followed which led to one of the biggest financial disasters in US history.

Manipulation

No one likes to admit that they are being manipulated, but we look for validation of our beliefs every day. For instance, when you go to book a holiday, you might go on TripAdvisor, when you buy a product online, you may read the customer reviews. Even something as innocuous as watching a film, we’ll check out the rating and it will influence our choice.
So is this manipulation or being selective? Well, it depends. Studies have shown that we’ll pay more for a product if other people recommend it.

Voting

We all like to think we are on the winning side when it comes to voting for a candidate. Studiesshow that voters who are undecided are more likely to vote for who is ‘expected to win’. This is a clear case of the bandwagon effect.
But the media also plays a huge role in influencing society. Whoever controls the media can decide whether they want to give a candidate positive or negative coverage. Once a politician has the popular vote, it is easy to skim over our rational thoughts. They have the backing of the nation and the majority of voters, and the majority of us can’t be wrong, surely?

Fear and the Need for Belonging

Why is it so hard to escape this particular cognitive bias? Because we all want to belong and that’s why it is important to align ourselves with a group. Outsiders don’t do well in society. They get singled out, bullied, made fun of and isolated.
Studies have shown that as a result, teenagers are most susceptible to the bandwagon effect and it’s not surprising when you consider how much they want to fit in. As we get older, we grow in confidence. We become more assured of our beliefs and we feel able to confront those who don’t share the same ideologies as us.
Of course, there is another reason and that is that we all like to think we are right. And when we join likeminded people on our particular bandwagon, it reassures us that we are on the right path. Moreover, once we have formulated an opinion, either side of an argument, we’ll find everything we can to support that opinion. Whether it’s facts, reviews or people.
So is it possible to avoid this effect or are we destined to remain on the bandwagon? There are ways we can stop jumping on one in the first place.

How to Avoid the Bandwagon Effect

  • Take some time before you make a decision.
  • Get feedback from other sources and compare your results.
  • Make decisions on your own, away from people that share similar views to you.
  • Think about alternative views.
  • Put yourself in the other person’s situation.
  • Try and take emotion out of the scenario.
We all like to think we exercise free will over our actions. Perhaps with a little forethought and knowledge, we will be able to in future.
 
References:
  1. Medium.com
 
 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

About the Author: Janey Davies.

Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


More @ http://violetflame.biz.ly and 
https://rayviolet.blogspot.com/



 

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publicado por achama às 07:47
Domingo, 16 / 06 / 19

What Is Introverted Thinking and How It Is Different from Extroverted One ~ Janey Davies.

What Is Introverted Thinking and How It Is Different from Extroverted One.

By Janey Davies.

June 15th, 2019.

 
 

 



 

Did you know that the Myers-Briggs Personality Theory uses our way of thinking to separate us into introverted and extroverted individuals?

If this is a surprise to you, then you’re not the only one. I thought the personality traits of introverts and extroverts extended only to external behaviour. For example, the way we act around others, whether we like social contact or whether we prefer to be left alone.
For instance, a typical introvert will tire easily in company and find solitude the best way to recharge their batteries. On the other hand, extroverts love to be the centre of attention and find alone time hard to deal with.
However, I didn’t realise that we could also think in an introverted or extroverted way. So what exactly is introverted thinking?
You might imagine that when we think, we do so in a kind of social and personal vacuum, but that’s far from the truth. Every experience, every connection, every person we’ve ever met colours our thinking process. As a result, when we think, we bring up all this knowledge and it shapes our thoughts.
So, it stands to reason that someone who is, by nature, more of an introverted person is not suddenly going to start thinking in an extroverted way. But it’s actually more complicated than that. There are very clear differences between introverted and extroverted thinking. And some you might not have thought of.

Differences between Introverted Thinking and Extroverted Thinking

Introverted Thinkers:

  • Focus on what’s in their head
  • Deep thinkers
  • Prefer concepts and theories
  • Good with solving problems
  • Use precise language
  • Natural followers
  • Get projects moving
  • Need to know how things work
Examples of Introverted Thinkers:
Albert Einstein, Charles Darwin, Larry Page (Co-founder of Google), Simon Cowell, Tom Cruise.
Introverted thinkers don’t mind mess and chaos because it allows them to sift through the mess to find answers. They like to analyse a situation before they make a decision.
They will gather all the necessary information they have on the subject, measure it carefully against what they already know, and see if it corresponds or not. Any new information gets stored for later use, anything that’s incorrect gets tossed.
They continue to work in this way, re-evaluating every situation until they are satisfied they have the right conclusion. Having said that, they are always open to new information because at the end of the day they want the truth.
They have an almost obsessive need to know how things work and, as a result, are renowned for coming up with new inventions. They understand complex theories which they can then use in the real world.

Extroverted Thinkers

  • Focus on the real world
  • Logical thinkers
  • Prefer facts and objectives
  • Good with planning and organising projects
  • Use commanding language
  • Natural leaders
  • Get people moving
  • Need to know how people work
Examples of Extroverted Thinkers
Julius Caesar, Napoleon Bonaparte, Martha Stewart, Judge Judy, Uma Thurman, Nancy Pelosi (US Speaker of the House).
Extroverted thinkers can’t stand mess. They are typically much-organised people who need to know where everything is before they can either start work or begin to relax. You won’t find an extrovert with a messy desk. Moreover, if you are messy and disorganised, just ask one to help you and you won’t ever regret it.
Extroverts are direct people and this applies to their approach to life. They won’t faff about. They make quick decisions, take the fastest route or skip lunch to make a meeting. They plan in advance, schedule appointments and know exactly when their train or bus is due to arrive.
Also, they stick with what they know and don’t like new information because it might mess up their carefully thought-out plans.

5 Signs You Might Be an Introverted Thinker

ISTPs & INTPs use introverted thinking.
  1. You don’t believe everything you read.
Do you find you are always fact-checking before you repost on Facebook? Did you question your tutors at school? Do you take things with a pinch of salt? These are all signs of introverted thinking.
  1. You like to take your time when making a decision
No one can accuse you of making rash decisions or acting on impulse. You won’t be rushed when it comes to important decisions.
  1. You’re not afraid of arguing your point of view.
Some people don’t like confrontation, but that’s not you. If you believe you are right, you’ll back yourself, even if it makes you unpopular.
  1. Sometimes you find it hard to explain your position
Just because it makes sense to you doesn’t mean it’s easy to tell someone else.
  1. You don’t follow normal societal routines
People that follow their own path, whether it’s getting up late and working until midnight, or going vegan, natural rule breakers are internal thinkers.
 

5 Signs You Might Be an Extroverted Thinker

ENTJs and ESTJs use extroverted thinking.
  1. You like facts and figures
You have a tendency to believe and trust people. You look to experts to give you advice and you’re happy to follow it.
  1. You can’t bear people who procrastinate
There’s no ‘doing it tomorrow when you can do it today’ for you. In fact, you don’t get the point of putting something off and you can’t understand why someone would.
  1. You’ll make a decision quickly
People can rely on you in a crisis because of your quick thinking and the fact that you are not afraid of making hard choices.
  1. You are able to vocalise your thoughts
You can easily externalise your inner thoughts to others. It’s part of how you can communicate easily and get the job done.
  1. You like rules and regulations
Following the rules allows things to run smoothly and that lets you plan and organise your world more efficiently.
Did you recognise yourself in any of the above descriptors? If you want to know more, why not see which Myers-Briggs personality type you are?
 
References:

 

 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

About the Author: Janey Davies.

Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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Archives:


 
 



Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.

 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 

 

No religious or political belief is defended here. (Investigate yourself)

 

Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 

If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 


More @ http://violetflame.biz.ly and 
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publicado por achama às 05:30
Segunda-feira, 03 / 06 / 19

What Is the Barnum Effect and How It Can Be Used to Fool You ~ Janey Davies.

What Is the Barnum Effect and How It Can Be Used to Fool You

By Janey Davies.

June 2nd, 2019.

 
 

 



 

Have you ever read your horoscope and thought that it was amazingly accurate? You might just be a victim of the Barnum Effect.

The Barnum Effect, also known as the Forer Effect, occurs when people believe that vague and general descriptions are accurate representations of traits that belong to them personally. The phrase indicates a level of gullibility and comes from P.T Barnum.
Psychologist Paul Meehl coined the phrase in 1956. In those days, psychologists used general terms to fit all patients:
“I suggest—and I am quite serious—that we adopt the phrase Barnum effect to stigmatize those pseudo successful clinical procedures in which personality descriptions from tests are made to fit the patient largely or wholly by virtue of their triviality.”
But who exactly is P.T Barnum and how did the phrase originate?
Anyone that has seen The Greatest Showman will recognise P.T Barnum as the incredible 19-century circus entertainer behind the story. What many people don’t know is that in his early life, Barnum ran a touring museum.
This was a carnival full of live freak shows and sensational attractions, many of which were hoaxes. In fact, although he may not have said “There’s a sucker born every minute,” he certainly believed it. Barnum was famous in his early years for pulling off incredible hoaxes on his audiences.

Examples of P.T Barnum’s Greatest Hoaxes

 

George Washington’s 161-year-old nursemaid

In 1835, Barnum actually purchased an 80-year-old black slave and claimed she was President George Washington’s 161-old nursemaid. The lady was blind and disabled but sang songs and regaled audiences with stories of her time with ‘little George’.

The Cardiff Giant

Barnum wasn’t the only one scamming audiences in the 19-century. In 1869, workers on William Newell’s land ‘discovered’ the petrified body of a 10-foot giant. The giant was, in actual fact, a statue placed there for the hoax.
So started the exhibition with audiences paying 25 cents to see the giant. Barnum wanted to buy it but Newell had already sold it to another showman – Hannah, who refused.
So Barnum, realising an opportunity, built his own giant and called the Cardiff version a fake. This prompted Newell to say “There’s a sucker born every minute.”

The ‘Feejee’ Mermaid


Barnum convinced New York newspapers he had the body of a mermaid which had been captured by an American sailor off the coasts of Japan.
The so-called mermaid was actually a monkey’s head and torso sewn onto a fishtail and covered in paper-mâché. Experts had already proven it to be fake. This didn’t stop Barnum. The exhibit toured and crowds flocked to see it.

What is the Barnum Effect?

So Barnum started off his career with elaborate hoaxes and fooling large audiences. And that’s how we come to the effect. This effect occurs most commonly when describing personality traits. As a result, mediums, astrologers, mentalists and hypnotists will use it.

Examples of statements that show the Barnum Effect:

  • You have a great sense of humour but know when to be serious.
  • You use your intuition, but you have a practical nature.
  • You are quiet and introspective at times, but you like to let your hair down.
Can you see what’s happening here? We are covering all bases.
One study showed it was possible to run a personality test on college students and then give every student exactly the same description about themselves. Moreover, the students believed the descriptions.
In the now-famous Forer personality test, Bertram Forer gave his psychology students a personality test. A week later he delivered the results by providing each and every one of them a ‘personality sketch’ made up of 14 sentences which, he said, summed up their personalities.
He asked the students to rate the descriptions from 1 to 5. The average was 4.3. In fact, the majority of students rated the descriptions as ‘very, very accurate’. But how come?  They all got exactly the same descriptions.

Here are some examples of Forer’s descriptions:

  • You are an independent thinker and need proof from others before you’ll change your mind.
  • You tend to be critical of yourself.
  • You can at times doubt whether you’ve made the right choice.
  • Sometimes you are sociable and extroverted, but at other times you need your space.
  • You need the admiration and respect of other people.
  • Although you may have some weaknesses, you can generally overcome them.
  • You are easily bored and need variety in your life.
  • You are not using your full potential.
  • You may appear to be disciplined and controlled on the outside, but inside, you can worry.
Now, if you read the above, what would you think? Is it an accurate reflection of your personality?

Why we get fooled by Barnum Descriptions?

Why do we get fooled? Why do we believe general descriptions that could apply to anyone? It could be a phenomenon called ‘subjective validation’ or the ‘personal validation effect’.
This is a cognitive bias by which we tend to accept a description or statement if it contains something that is personal to us or is significant to us. So, if a statement resonates powerfully enough, we are more likely to believe it, without checking its validity.
Consider a sitter and a medium. The more invested the sitter is to make contact with their deceased relative, the harder they will try to find meaning in what the medium is saying. They want to find validation and make it personal to them. But that doesn’t mean it’s true.
The next time you find yourself agreeing with something you’ve read, ask yourself, does this apply to me specifically or is it a general description applicable for anyone? Remember, some people use this as a method of deception.
References:
  1. http://psych.fullerton.edu
  2. https://psycnet.apa.org

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

About the Author: Janey Davies.

Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 



Archives:


 
 



Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.

 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 

 

No religious or political belief is defended here. (Investigate yourself)

 

Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 

If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 


More @ http://violetflame.biz.ly and 
https://rayviolet.blogspot.com/




 

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publicado por achama às 18:32
Segunda-feira, 27 / 05 / 19

The Psychology of Anchoring and How It Affects Your Ideas and Decisions ~ Margaret B.

The Psychology of Anchoring and How It Affects Your Ideas and Decisions.

By Margaret B.

May 26th, 2019. 



 

Anchoring in psychology is a specific cognitive bias. It takes the form of individuals grabbing hold of the one piece of information they heard first, to the detriment of other information.
You might know this as ‘first impressions’ – when someone relies on their own first idea of a person or situation.

How the psychology of anchoring works

Anchoring affects the information around it. It works in such a way that information which is close to the original information is assimilated.
Those pieces of information that are not, however, is ignored or pushed away. When this happens, any decisions are made with reference to the anchor.
Psychological anchoring influences the way we assesslikelihood and probability. The anchor point is the place and information where we begin. When making decisions, people then make adjustments relative to their original anchor.

Anchoring in psychology was first explored by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman.

They ran a series of experiments to determine how people would guess based on previous information.
One test involved a roulette wheel that had been preset to only stop at two numbers – ten and sixty-five. People were asked to spin the wheel and then estimate how many African countries had entered into the UN.
The two researchers found that the level of countries estimate varied with the numbers of the roulette table.
A similar study was conducted by Dan Ariely, using people’s numbers. He had people write the last two digits of their number out and then asked them if they would buy certain items for that amount of money.
The catch was that the people involved in the experiment were not told the value of the items that they were buying. Ariely found that people who had a higher two digit number made higher bids for the items at hand.
Those who had a lower number had lower bids. The psychology of anchoring made the people choose the numbers they had, even though they affected nothing.

Can you avoid anchoring?

Unfortunately, it would appear not. The psychology of anchoring inevitably affects us when we make decisions. Even studies that have gone out of their way to give people bad information (i.e. untrue anchor facts) showed this.
One particular study asked people, separately, when they thought Gandhi had died. They were given the choice of either before and after nine or before and after one hundred and forty. Both of these numbers are wrong, of course, but people still acted as though the numbers (anchors) were correct.

How anchoring biases affect your decision making

Money

Buying

Imagine, if you will, that you are in the market for a new car. Through visits to various car sites online, you can see that the average price for the car you want is nearly thirty thousand pounds. When you go to a car lot to actually buy the car, the lot is offering it for five hundred pounds less than the price you saw.
The psychology of anchoring will almost inevitably lead you to buy the car at that price due to the five hundred pound difference, even if further searching would give you a car at a still lower price.

Salary negotiations

We’ve all heard the stories about women finding it harder to negotiate salaries than men. The psychology of anchoring, unfortunately, can also affect salary negotiations negatively.
Many people will find themselves hesitating to even start the process, much less make a large demand. Recently, research has begun to show that specific actions mean that people have the best chance of successfully negotiating their own salaries.
These actions include making your own demand first, instead of allowing others to begin negotiations. When you make a demand first, it becomes your focus point.
Psychological anchoring will make sure that this first offer will become the one that you fix on as reasonable. It will form the basis of your later demands, so make it a good salary!

It influences much more than money

The psychology of anchoring affects much more than simply financial decisions. It can affect the daily lives of both ourselves and the people around us.

Dating

When do you allow your kids to date? The standards are changing all the time, but anchoring will probably make you follow the standards which were deemed appropriate when you were growing up.
This can mean that you actively prevent your children from dating until they reach the age you had to be.

Longevity

Many people calculate the age they will live to courtesy of their parents. This can have detrimental effects because it ignores other information in favour of just one idea. You might focus on the ages of your parents, without regard to their lifestyle, eating habits, and other factors.
References:
  1. http://psiexp.ss.uci.edu
  2. http://web.mit.edu
  3. https://www.sciencedaily.com

 

 

 
About the Author: Margaret B.
 
Margaret is a freelance writer and tutor. She spends her time reading and writing, hoping to learn why people act the way they do. She is a lifelong fan of both philosophy and fantasy.
 
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publicado por achama às 04:08
Sábado, 25 / 05 / 19

8 Important Plato Quotes and What We Can Learn from Them Today ~ Alexander

8 Important Plato Quotes and What We Can Learn from Them Today.

By Alexander

https://www.learning-mind.com/

May 25th, 2019.

 
 

 

The following Plato Quotes are profound, important and representative of his philosophy as a whole. However, before we examine these quotes, let’s take a look at who Plato was and what his philosophy amounts to.

Who Was Plato?

Plato (428/427 BC or 424/424 – 348/347BC) was born and died in Ancient Greece. He is one of the most famous and influential philosophers in the western world, and is, along with Socrates, responsible for building the foundations of philosophy as we know it today.
His works are vast, entertaining, interesting but also very complex in some parts. Yet, they are profoundly important and relevant to us still because of the core aim in all of his writings: how to reach a state of eudaimonia or the good life.
This means reaching a state of or attaining fulfilment. He concerned much of his life to helping us to achieve this. This idea is representative of what philosophy has been over the last two millennia and still is now: a means to help us live well.
The form that his writings take is significant and interesting and makes his ideas and teachings much more vivid and engaging. But what form of writing is this?

Plato’s Dialogues

All of his works are dialogues and are always set out as a conversation between characters. Most of the time, we see Socrates having a conversationwith counterparts as they discuss all manner of things.
These dialogues cover many subjects such as politics, love, courage, wisdom, rhetoric, reality and much more. However, they are all concerning themselves with the same thing: working towards an understanding of the good.
Plato was a follower of Socrates, and much of Plato’s own thoughts are probably expressed through the character of Socrates in his dialogues.
The conversations are a demonstration of elenchus or The Socratic Method, whereby Socrates elicits the truth through a series of questions and answers with the other characters in the dialogue. These conversations can also be entertaining; as well as discussing deeply important and relevant issues about life and society.
Yet, if you don’t want to read whole dialogues, there are certain quotes by Plato that shed light on his main ideas. Moreover, they can prove to be important and helpful when analysing and questioning our own lives.

8 important and interesting Plato quotes that are helpful and relevant to us today

Plato’s dialogues eloquently provide us with theories and ideas about ultimately how to improve society and ourselves so we can become fulfilled beings. They demonstrate the need for reason and analysis in our lives; only then can we truly reach the good life.
These dialogues showcase this clearly as a whole, however, there are certain quotes that give succinct insight into Plato’s ideas.
You can still take something of great value and worth from these quotes, even if you don’t read the dialogues. Here are 8 important and interesting quotes by Plato that we can learn from today:

“There will be no end to the troubles of states, or of humanity itself, till philosophers become kings in this world, or till those we now call kings and rulers really and truly become philosophers, and political power and philosophy thus come into the same hands.” – The Republic

 
The Republic is one of Plato’s most popular and widely taught dialogues. It discusses topics such as justice and the city-state. It heavily comments on aspects of politics within ancient Athens.
Plato is deeply critical of democracy and offers a theory of a governing body of a city-state that would be best suited to achieving the good.
Plato says that ‘philosopher kings’ should be the leaders of society. If philosophers were our leaders, then society would be just and everyone would be better off for it. This is alluding to a society where democracy isn’t the political structure of our communities.
However, the idea can be transferred to our society. If our political leaders were also philosophers, then we would have strong guidance on how to attain fulfilment in our lives (or so Plato thinks).
Plato wants a unification of philosophy and politics at the helm of political power and our governing bodies. If our leaders were those who spend their life guiding us on how to live a good life, then maybe our society and our lives would improve.

“The inexperienced in wisdom and virtue, ever occupied with feasting and such, are carried downward, and there, as is fitting, they wander their whole life long, neither ever looking upward to the truth above them nor rising toward it, nor tasting pure and lasting pleasures.” – The Republic

 
Those who don’t make an effort to learn and become wise can never achieve fulfilment or realise how to live a good life. This refers to Plato’s Theory of Forms, whereby true knowledge is in the unintelligible realm.
We must learn and educate ourselves in the material world in order to gain an understanding of these forms, and then we can attain true knowledge of the good.
This theory is complex, so we do not need to dwell on it much now. However, the ideas are transferable to our own lives.
We cannot hope to progress and move forward in our lives, mend our troubles and anxieties if we do not make a personal effort to do so.
We must learn, seek advice and strive to be virtuous if we are to live a fulfilled life and minimise the suffering that we encounter.

“On the other hand, if I say that it is the greatest good for a man to discuss virtue every day and those other things about which you hear me conversing and testing myself and others, for the unexamined life is not worth living for men, you will believe me even less.” – The Apology

 
The Apology is an account of Socrates’ defence when he was facing trial in Ancient Athens. Socrates was accused of impiety and corrupting the youth, and this dialogue allegedly recounts his own legal defence.
The famous line: “the unexamined life is not worth living” is attributed to Socrates. Indeed, it does reflect much of what Socrates appeared to believe when practising his philosophy. But we only learn of Socrates through Plato’s dialogues so we can say it reflects Plato’s philosophical thought as well.
We must examine and analyse the different aspects of our lives in order to work towards fulfilment. It is not worth living an unexamined life because you will not recognise how to change or improve your life for the better. An unexamined life can never reach a state of eudaimonia.

“Nor must one, when wronged, inflict wrong in return, as the majority believe, since one must never do wrong” – Crito

 
Socrates was sentenced to death after his trial, despite his defence. Crito is a dialogue where Socrates’ friend, Crito, offers to help Socrates escape from prison. The dialogue focuses on the subject of justice.
Crito believes that Socrates has been unjustly sentenced, but Socrates points out that escaping from prison would also be unjust.
When we are wronged, performing a wrong or immoral act will not resolve the matter, even though it may provide us with some fleeting satisfaction. There will inevitably be repercussions.
Plato echoes the popular idiom “two wrongs don’t make a right”. We must be reasonable and prudent in the face of injustice, and not act on impulse.

“For consider what good you will do yourself or your friends by breaking our agreements and committing such as wrong. It is pretty obvious that your friends will themselves be in danger of exile, disfranchisement, and loss of property.” Crito

 
The decisions we make can have an effect and repercussions on those around us. We must be wary of this.
We may feel we have been wronged, but we should be rational and restrained in these situations. Only then can you sensibly work past events that have caused you suffering, or else you may make matters worse.

“Rhetoric, it seems, is a producer of persuasion for belief, not for instruction in the matter of right and wrong … And so the rhetorician’s business is not to instruct a law court or a public meeting in matters of right and wrong, but only to make them believe.” Gorgias

 
Gorgias is dialogue that tells of a conversation between Socrates and a group of sophists. They discuss rhetoric and oratory and attempt to give definitions of what they are.
This extract says that a rhetorician (for example, a politician) or a public speaker is more concerned with persuading the audience than with what is actually true. We should use this as reference and guidance when listening to the rhetoricians of our own times.
Plato wants us to be careful of the information that we are being fed. Make an effort to educate yourself and come to your own conclusions rather than being consumed by entertaining and attractive speeches.
This feels achingly relevant considering current and recent political phenomena.

“I tell you that whoever is led by his teacher thus far in relation to love matters, and contemplates the various beautiful things in order and in the correct way, will come now towards the final goal of matters of love, and will suddenly catch sight of a beauty amazing in its nature” The Symposium

 
The Symposium tells of a conversation between several people at a dinner party as they all give their own definitions of what they think love is. They all come up with differing accounts, but Socrates’ speech appears most relevant to Plato’s own philosophical ideas.
Socrates tells of a conversation he has with the prophetess Diotima. What is explained is what is known as Plato’s Ladder of Love.
This is essentially the idea that love is a form of education and development of the self from the love of the physical to eventually the love of the form of beauty.
Love can begin as physical attraction, but the ultimate goal should be to use love to become wiser and more knowledgeable. This will allow for fulfilment and the living of a truly good life.
Love should not just be the companionship with and caring for another, but also a means of improving oneself. It can, for example, help you to deal with and understand past traumas, or encourage you to become a better person. It is a good thing if you change because of your lover.

“Knowledge is the food of the soul” – Protagoras

 
Protagoras is a dialogue concerned with the nature of sophistry – using clever but false arguments to persuade people in a discussion. Here, a strikingly succinct quote sums up Plato’s philosophy.
Knowledge is the fuel to become fulfilled individuals. Learning and striving for wisdom is the route towards living a good life. Thinking rationally about issues about our lives will allow us to deal with them better, and so will allow us to be more content with our lives.

Why these quotes by Plato are important and relevant

These Plato quotes are very relevant and helpful to our own lives and society today. We are all sensitive and troubled beings who long for contentment and happiness.
Plato dedicated his life to helping us understand how to achieve this. We must think rationally about issues in our lives and society, strive for wisdom and be willing to change in order to improve ourselves.
Only then can you hope to reach a state of eudaimonia. These Plato quotes shed light on how he believes we can do this.
These quotes are brief, and only partially represent Plato’s philosophical work as a whole. But the fact their relevance is tangible two and a half thousand years later demonstrates Plato’s lasting importance and impact on society, and our own individual lives.
References:
  1. https://www.biography.com
  2. https://www.ancient.eu
  3. Plato Complete Works, Ed. by John M. Cooper, Hackett Publishing Company
  4. Plato: Symposium, Edited and Translated by C.J. Rowe

 

 
 

 

 

 

 


 
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

About the Author: Alexander



I am an English and Philosophy graduate and freelance writer and blogger. I have always been fascinated by art, culture and philosophy, and believe they are an integral and important part of all of our lives. My particular interests and passions include Film and ancient Greek philosophy.
 
 



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publicado por achama às 22:07
Domingo, 19 / 05 / 19

Debt Problems: Consumer Society’s Tool of Manipulation and Control ~ Sherrie.

Debt Problems: Consumer Society’s Tool of Manipulation and Control.

By Sherrie.

May 17th, 2019

 

Life isn’t always fair, and debt problems remind us of this fact. Debt is controlling, so make wise decisions to avoid this.

I’ve been in debt, oh yes, but I am thankful that it was a problem I fixed as soon as possible. However, I have seen other people’s debt spiral out of control at a fast rate. Debt problems for them were more like tsunamis, hitting hard and leaving few surviving options.
I watched them go down, and it took quite a long while for them to swim back to the surface. It was heartbreaking not being able to help like I wanted, in fear that debt would attack me again as well. Debt is contagious and can be used as a form of control like this.

How we are tricked into living with debt problems

Debt and the problems which come with it are manipulative. It’s society’s way of holding sway over consumers in order for more money to circulate.
I learned a bit about this in economics class during college. I was taught that if money didn’t circulate, the economy would fail. Yes, money has to circulate, and yes, we must purchase things for this to happen. And I am sure most of you understand this.
But, do we really have to get so out of control in this area? There are so many ways that debt becomes a problem. It becomes a manipulative beast. Let’s examine a few ways it works:

Consumerism can be devastating

While the world of economics thrives off consumer purchases, us, as consumers sometimes suffer greatly from them. As products are introduced, we desire them.
As others are getting these products, we grow envious. Sometimes, we understand that we cannot afford these products, but we find a way to attain them anyway.
Most of the time, we use small loans to acquire what we want. It can have good results or bad ones, all depending on how we use these financial tools. Yes, this type of spending also keeps money flowing through the system, but how does it affect national debt?

National consumerism

Yes, debt is seen on a grander scale. Debt as a national problem can affect, not only us as an individual, but also the world.
As we produce products to improve sales in fast food restaurants, for instance, we are putting a great strain on the production of livestock and farms. In other countries, which do not thrive on fast food industries, which means poorer countries, livestock and farms are used in more logical rates.
So, how does consumerism contribute to debt? When we want something, whether it’s individually or as a group, again, this brings us back to credit cards and loans. We often pay with money we do not have in order to purchase some things we don’t need or that we waste.

Paying the minimum trap

You now understand that debt is a major problemCredit card debt is one of the worst kinds of traps for the consumer when misused. While credit cards can be beneficial, they can also be a seed that exacerbates one of the greatest debt issues. Here’s why.
Do you want something you cannot afford? Well, some people decide to wait until they have enough money to attain this product or service. Others, however, use credit cards to attain the product now.
This is how credit cards work. We purchase products and we pay at a later date. But of course, most of you already know the benefits of using credit. How credit cards fail is when payments aren’t made and late fees accrue, creditors turn to the Minimum payment trap.
While paying the interest gives you more time, it adds to your credit card debt. Some consumers have been stuck with this sort of debt for most of their lives.
Minimum payments help you temporarily get out of paying a huge payment on your past purchase, but it also pushes other fees into future regular payments. These fees grow until your debts are out of control.
Obviously, credit card debt is easy to understand, but it’s not easy to eliminate when the debt has gotten out of control. But will we stop making these unwise decisions?

Taking the loan route instead

While loans aren’t exactly like credit cards, they can bring about debt and problems in a similar manner. The worst action you can take with loans is by taking another loan to pay the first one.
As interest grows, loans for loans tend to make it almost impossible to pay what’s owed unless a great deal of money is shelled out to remedy the accruing debt. And some loans are necessary, like buying a home or car. This is much different than using loans for personal reasons like getting things immediately instead of waiting to afford them.

The real pain and the devastating consequences

One of the scariest things for me to consider as a consumer is the long-term effects with my own personal debt. Loans, such as education loans can also be debilitating and extremely controlling.
Did you know that a loan of $40,000 or more can seek payments for the rest of your life? It’s true. This is the predicament my own son is in now. This debt also affects me as a parent as well.
Education loans have become ridiculous and there are few ways to escape the debts they develop. A few options are available, but few remove the responsibility entirely.

You can win the manipulative game

As for loans, as I stated before, there are few benefits, especially if you are never paying a large amount of principle, and interest is eating up your payments. All loans aren’t manipulative, but they can still cause problems like this.
When taking out a loan for a home, you start to build equity, this is true. Over time, the value of your home becomes greater than the remainder of your mortgage, and you may be tempted to take out a loan – do not do this. Taking out a home equity loan may be a bit different than personal loans, but it can still trap you in debt.

Let’s do our part to reduce debt

Debt related problems have become national. We just can’t keep purchasing products, services and the like without severe repercussions. As we go into debt to resolve a debt, it becomes a never-ending cycle of destruction.
The sad part is there are more than a few options for society to control national debt, this control creates debt which lasts a lifetime.
The good news is, we can start individually. We can waste less, buy less unneeded productswhile still keeping the economic wheel turning. We don’t have to be underneath the thumb of society and it’s pressure.
All we need to do is take a look at other countries, countries which, in their simplicity, have learned to use products and services to fulfill a need and not so many wants in life.
Debt problems, yes we have them. However, if we can learn to avoid the manipulation and control of society, we can learn to reduce this debt over time.
Are you up to it? Are you ready to make a change? Yes, be wise, invest in improving your home and other possessions, but be wise to the tricks society uses. There are good and bad choices. We should be able to tell the difference now.
 
About the Author: Sherrie

Sherrie is a freelance writer and artist with over 10 years of experience. She spends most of her time giving life to the renegade thoughts. As the words erupt and form new life, she knows that she is yet again free from the nagging persistence of her muse. She is a mother of three and a lifetime fan of the thought-provoking and questionable aspects of the universe.

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publicado por achama às 04:36
Quinta-feira, 16 / 05 / 19

4 Ways Social Conditioning Secretly Affects Your Behaviors and Decisions ~ Janey Davies.

4 Ways Social Conditioning Secretly Affects Your Behaviors and Decisions.

By Janey Davies.

May 15th, 2019.

 
 
 
 
 

 



 

We all like to think we have free will and make our own decisions in life, but in actual fact, we are programmed at an early age by social conditioning.
Social conditioning is a set of rules and behavior dictated to us by society. It’s very easy to see how we as individuals can be conditioned in this way.
No one wants to stand out when they are younger. We all want to fit in. If you are different, you are bullied, ridiculed and ostracised from popular groups.
We soon learn to fall in line with whatever everyone is doing, saying, wearing, wanting, even believing. So how does it start and who conditions us?
“The things you read will fashion you by slowly conditioning your mind.” A.W. Tozer
The thing is, this kind of conditioning begins as soon as we are born. Parents immediately reinforce gender differences. Parents tell girls to behave in a quiet and polite manner and boys must not cry.
Teachers take on the baton and steer boys towards scientific subjects such as maths and physics. On the other hand, girls are pushed to creative topics. Our newly qualified graduates head out into the workplace.
Adverts bombard them with messages on what to wear, what to look like and who they should like. This constant drip-feeding of nudging and reinforcing the right responses actually affects our behavior without us really knowing.

Examples of conditioning by society:

  • Models have to be thin in the fashion industry.
  • Pink for a girl, blue for a boy.
  • Nurses are female.
  • Money buys you happiness.
  • We have to get our protein from meat.

So how does social conditioning affect our behavior?

Language

Language instantly jolts our unconscious mind. For instance, what do you immediately think of when you read the word immigrants?
For some people, their initial thoughts might center on closing the borders, the country is full up, a lack of resources, or there’s too many of them for us to cope with.
For others, the word immigrants may suggest qualified doctors and nurses, ex-pats living abroad, EU nationals, foreign students, or NHS workers.
Depending on the type of media you watch or read will color your view of immigrants. For example, typically, right-wing media depicts most immigrants in a negative light.

People

The homeless; responsible for their own fate or in need of help from society? Some people have very strong ideas about how you can end up living on the streets. They think that it would never happen to them and, therefore, it must be the fault of the homeless person.
How did they come up with that belief? Were their parents particularly critical of homeless people? Statistically, we are all three pay cheques away from losing our homes and ending up with nowhere to live. It could happen to many of us, so why do some believe it is purely down to the individual and not the situation?
Society has been telling us for decades that hard work and effort are all we need to succeed in life. So it’s easy for us to blame the person rather than the longstanding message that everyone else believes and follows.

Religion

You cannot mention conditioning of any kind, social or otherwise, without talking about religion. I’m guessing that whatever religion you belong to or believe in as an adult, you learned about it when you were a child.
When we are children, we believe what our parents and teachers tell us. Because we are so young when this information is first absorbed, it is extremely difficult to dismiss it as incorrect when we are older.
You see similar examples with the retelling of major war battles in history lessons. Countries will favor their side of the story when it comes to educating children on the exploits of battle outcomes and actions of generals, even prime ministers.
Whole nations are outraged decades later when their respected war heroes are then revealed to be less than perfect.

Social Media

Does the life you present on social media have any resemblance to the life you actually lead? The selfies you have carefully crafted, spending hours choosing just the right one that shows you at your best.
Or deliberating over a post that isn’t too self-righteous but shows how devastated you are over the latest world tragedy (after all, it does affect you personally).
We are conditioned now to look our best, say the right things and at least appear to be loving life like never before. However, in reality, more and more men are committing suicide, teenagers are being bullied to death and children as young as 6 are worried they are too fat.
Social media is a portal into our lives, but we are faking this insight because the life we are leading doesn’t live up to social expectations.

So what can you do to break free from conditioning?

  • Don’t be afraid to question or confront people about their behavior.
  • If you see something you don’t agree with – say so.
  • Don’t surround yourself with like-minded people. You’ll only reinforce your own views.
  • Watch media from different sources. If you only ever read one newspaper, switch to another.
  • Do your own thing! Live by your own rules. So what if you don’t earn a lot of money? Do what makes you happy!
  • Finally, recognize when your behaviors or beliefs are a result of social conditioning and work to change them.
As the Indian teacher of meditation S. N. Goenka advises:
“Removing old conditionings from the mind and training the mind to be more equaimous with every experience is the first step toward enabling one to experience true happiness.”
References:
  1. https://www.academia.edu

 

 

About the Author: Janey Davies.

Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
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publicado por achama às 08:23
Quarta-feira, 01 / 05 / 19

3 Interesting Decision-Making Theories Which Explain the Choices We Make ~ Sherrie.

3 Interesting Decision-Making Theories Which Explain the Choices We Make.

By Sherrie.

April 30, 2019


 

Decision-making theories come are quite useful. When it’s time to make an important choice, there’s no need to delay.
Whether we are familiar with theories regarding decision-making or not, in this day and age, choice is in abundance. What do we want to eat, which sofa should we purchase, do you get a dog or not? Because we have way too many options, it can make choosing much harder than it should be.
Choice is our ability to make decisions when presented with two or more options. When we have more than two options, we must make a choice. This is what the world presents to us. Therefore, it is the truth of how free will works. We can then live and artistically create the life we want to.
So, why is it so difficult? Ultimately, choice represents the sacrifices we must make. We automatically give up something else when we make a choice between two or more things.
This means, if we find ourselves wanting something else next month, chances are that choice will be gone – non-existent. We have to take what we have today, and this depends on what we choose.

Decision-making theories – the basics

Different approaches to decision-making are sometimes called Choice theories. William Glasser founded this term from a book with the same title. According to Glasser, freedom, fun, power, love and belonging, and survival are basic satisfied needs which come from choices we make.
The idea that choices are mostly made by humans, which enhance what we really want, is an idea that’s been around for quite some time. Choice and the psychology behind it is the reason we make the decisions that we do. It’s a subconscious decision that motivates our satisfaction and meeting those satisfactions.

Here are three decision-making theories that will help you to understand the choices you make. It might even encourage you to make better ones!

1. Our emotions connect to our actions

Neuroscientist and professor at USC and Salk Institute, Dr. Antonio Damasio says that our decisions come from visceral emotion. The definition of his theory is that there is a link between “raw” emotions and the part of the brain which governs decisions. He, therefore, concluded that decision making and judgment come from a critical neural circuit.
Damasio concludes that non-rational and rational processes bridge feeling and emotion. If meaning and motivation, would not be possible if emotional input was absent, and decision making could not happen.
Damasio believes that we don’t only base our choices on logic and fact, but also on memories and emotions. This is why we make decisions on unconscious levels. Our intuition guides us.

2. Decisions can be costly – literally!

Does making decisions result in reduced self-control? A study from the University of Minnesota points to yes. The study also showed more procrastination, lack of ability to persist in failed circumstances, decrease in physical stamina, and worsening of arithmetic abilities
Researchers, to conduct the study asked students for help. After dividing into two groups, the teams take on studies much like the others but to understand how choices affect things. Identical product lists were given to all the students in the initial experiment.
A singular group was asked questions revolved around how often, in the past, that the product was used. However, one group was about how often they’d used the products in the past. The same product, with variations, were chosen by the other group. In another experiment, one group answered questions such as this and the other did not.
“Making choices apparently depleted a precious self-resource,” wrote the authors in the conclusion of their study. “This is because subsequent self-regulation is poorer among those who had made choices than it was among those who had not. This pattern became clear in the laboratory, classroom, and shopping mall.”

3. Watch out for bias!

There is absolutely no doubt that our biases affect our choices. However, there is one particular bias that focuses on decision-making theories in many situations.
Loss aversion bias is one such example. No one likes to be left out or miss important things. Fact. However, it isn’t as important to gain something than it is to avoid losing something. This is the way aversion works. The endowment effect shows us through our desire to keep what we have instead of striving for more.
Daniel Kahneman, in yet another study, gave test subjects either an empty mug, nothing or chocolate.  They could trade or choose between two other objects. Half of them wanted the mugs, but those who already had mugs did not want to give them up – about 86% of participants, showing the desire to keep the possessions a person already has.

How to make hard decisions easier

Choices are hard, you see. I guess you understand now. No matter what, some choices you make will always be hard. However, some of these decision-making theories might just help you understand your own choices.
We don’t always have a rational reason to make decisions. They cannot separate from our identity, our location, or what helps us decide what to wear. Maybe we will be able to make wiser choices and help others make proper decisions too, as long as we understand psychological influences and factors that affect our decisions.
References:
  1. https://www.psychologytoday.com
  2. https://www.forbes.com
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
About the Author: Sherrie

Sherrie is a freelance writer and artist with over 10 years of experience. She spends most of her time giving life to the renegade thoughts. As the words erupt and form new life, she knows that she is yet again free from the nagging persistence of her muse. She is a mother of three and a lifetime fan of the thought-provoking and questionable aspects of the universe.

COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 



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publicado por achama às 19:50
Sábado, 27 / 04 / 19

What Is the Gambler’s Fallacy and How It Affects Your Decisions ~ Sherrie.

What Is the Gambler’s Fallacy and How It Affects Your Decisions.

By Sherrie.

April 26, 2019


 

Do you make decisions based on probability, or take the chance? Maybe you have a gambler’s fallacy thought process.
If you flip a coin and do this three times, and it lands on heads, can you say the next toss will also land on heads? Your answer may well determine whether you have gambler’s fallacy or not.

What exactly is the gambler’s fallacy?

Researchers Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahnemanrationalized thought processes related to the fallacy of gambling on their research paper “Judgement under uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases” 1.
They said: “Many decisions are based on beliefs concerning the outcome of an election, the guilt of a defendant, or the future value of a dollar. These beliefs express themselves in statements such as “I think that…” or “chances are….” Or even “It is unlikely that…” and so forth.”
These statements use heuristic principles. People rely on these to reduce the complex tasks of assessing probabilities. They can also predict values to simpler judgmental operations.
Going back to the coin-flipping example. A decision maker, using rational thinking, knows the chance of another coin flip landing on heads is 50-50. However, according to Tversky and Kahneman’s definition, it’s never by chance that winning streaks happen, so we shouldn’t adopt this belief.
It’s a misconception many call the gambler’s fallacy.  Research has shown this fallacy is alive and well in a multitude of everyday scenarios. In fact, there is evidence that it can cause bias in decision making.

How can it impact your decision making?

Tversky and Kahneman’s research describes three heuristics that are used to make judgments under uncertainty. These include representativeness, availability of instances or scenarios and adjustment of an anchor.
These heuristics summarizes that Tversky and Kahneman, are highly economical and usually effective, but they lead to systematic and predictable errors. A better understanding of these heuristics and biases could improve judgments and making decisions in situations of uncertainty.
This “better understanding” is present in other recent research. This research shows how individuals might, in subjective cases, be biased against decisions.
Decision-Making under the Gambler’s Fallacy: Evidence from Asylum Judges, Loan Officers, and Baseball Umpires” by Daniel Chen, Tobias J. Moskowitz and Kelly Shue 2 is one example.
Their research found that with all else equal the judge approves the case before an asylum seeker has higher points of 3.3 % within fair situations. This was true with several settings that were different.
They noted that it is likely that a judge influences decisions related to a previous event and that with both negative or positive decisions and previous cases of similarity, The sequence lengths will be increased.
Similar happenings occurred in India. Completed research came from loan officers who were also students. Reviews of processed files were completed by the same officers. Recommendations were considered on the subject of loan approval.
Pressure was placed on true assessment at various levels. This was because of schemes faced for different reasons. The previous review of the files helped authors study how well and fair the officers made decisions. Plus, they were able to explore whether loans on recommendation were, on average, performing better.

Can circumstances affect the gambler’s fallacy?

Looking at the same research of the loan officers, a basic plan rewards loans despite the quality of these loans. Loan officers who previously rejected loans, even though incentives were good, had a small decrease in chance of approval in the review when the loan before was approved. There was little concern about bias when accuracy with strong incentives were present.
There is also evidence of this in the sporting world. The researchers looked at baseball and analyzed umpires in the major leagues. After 1.5 million pitches were analyzed, between 2008 and 2012, batters did not swing when going to bat.
The researchers then controlled many situations of the game including the speed of the pitch, count of pitches, what happens in the game, the winner, and if the home team had the batter. Whatever data that was collected was their reliance. To track speed and understand trajectories in the major league, they had to use the PITCH/system.
When a pitch was a strike, umpires rarely called the next one a strike. In fact, this was 1.5 % true. There was a bias even more if two calls were the same. The next call has a higher percentage in this bias.
When it comes to regretful calls do umpires make subsequent calls? Is it fair? Is there a gambler’s fallacy? Umpires were reluctant to make an opposing call after an incorrect call but felt comfortable with this same act after a correct decision. This was noticed by researchers.

Here are the facts as we know them

“Fairness concerns and a desire to be equally nice to two opposing teams are unlikely to explain our results.”
The gambler’s fallacy can be seen in studies by various researchers where identical situations and numbers of decisions are going in the same direction and happening close together.
Experienced decision-makers took less notice of this at all. And this could be a reason for concern.
References:
  1. https://www.researchgate.net
  2. https://academic.oup.com
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
About the Author: Sherrie

Sherrie is a freelance writer and artist with over 10 years of experience. She spends most of her time giving life to the renegade thoughts. As the words erupt and form new life, she knows that she is yet again free from the nagging persistence of her muse. She is a mother of three and a lifetime fan of the thought-provoking and questionable aspects of the universe.

COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 



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publicado por achama às 00:43
Sexta-feira, 26 / 04 / 19

Why Kant Philosophy Is Extremely Relevant to Modern Society ~ Alexander

Why Kant Philosophy Is Extremely Relevant to Modern Society.

By Alexander

https://www.learning-mind.com/

April 25th, 2019.

 
 

 

What can Kant philosophy offer to modern people? The answer is: surprisingly much.

Immanuel Kant was born in 1724 in Königsberg, Prussia. Kant philosophy thrived during theenlightenment period. This was an intellectual and philosophical movement that swept across Europe in the 18th century. A major component of this movement was the gradual decline of religious belief, hence, the growth of secularism.
Kant recognised this developing phenomenon in society and sought to remedy it. For many centuries, religion was the source of guidance and instruction for people on how to live a good and moral life. With the decline in religious belief, where would people find this guidance? Kant attempted to answer this question and concluded that people would be able to replace religion with one thing: reason.
If we use our intelligence, rationale and exercise our critical faculties, Kant thought that we are capable to determine such things like what is right and what is wrong. In an increasingly secular society in the 21stcentury, Kant philosophy is very relevant to the modern day. We can apply Kant’s ideas to many aspects of our lives, especially when considering morality.

Moral philosophy

Kant’s moral philosophy is a theory of deontological ethics. This sounds much more complex than it is. But in short, it is a theory that determines the morality of an action. It is based on whether the action being carried out is in itself moral, not based on the nature of the consequences of that action. What you do should be the way of determining a moral act, not the outcome of the act.
How do we determine whether an action is moral? Kant philosophy tells us that it is reason. Human beings are free and conscious beings who have the capability to rationalise whether or not an action is right or wrong. We all have the ability to do this. Kant believed that this would not only make you a better person but would also add value to the world.
A lot of the time, we will have to choose between duty (our responsibility to fellow man) and desire (what we want). To act dutifully, nobly and in an honourable way is how to carry out a moral act. We must resist our selfish wants in order to achieve this. But how do we determine what our duty or our responsibility is? For this, Kant gives us a principle to refer to and follow called The Categorical Imperative.

The Categorical Imperative

The Categorical Imperative is a term first coined in Kant’s work, Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (1785). He summarises it in one phrase:
“Act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law”
We can paraphrase this with much more recognisable and simpler terminology. Treat others as you would like to be treated, or do to others what you would want to be done to you. A similar phrase even appears in The Bible: “love thy neighbour as thyself” as well as in the Confucian Golden Rule.
It should be thought of in a wider sense as well. What would happen to society if everyone acted in the way that I am? It instructs us to detach ourselves from our own self-interests. We should approach the situation in a completely unbiased perspective – to put ourselves in someone else’s shoes.
The Categorical Imperative is a rational and decisive principle that we need to follow in order to determine what our duty is. At the same time, we should also separate ourselves from our selfish and potentially destructive desires. We can act morally and selflessly once we recognise this, improving ourselves (and society) in the process.
This code of conduct requires us to exercise our rational and critical faculties. Only then we will be able to determine between the right and wrong action. This is integral to Kant philosophy.
In Kant’s eyes, to act in a rational way is to act in a moral way. If everyone adheres to this, it would mean that we could all work towards a universal principle. This principle allows for not just the betterment of ourselves but also society as a whole.
 

Examples of Using Kant Philosophy and The Categorical Imperative

 

You are sitting for an exam.

You consider cheating, as a good grade in this exam would secure a place at university. And you think it is ok because there is a slim chance that you will get caught out.
However, how would you feel if you sat the exam in accordance with the rules and someone else cheated, dishonestly achieving a good grade and you didn’t? It would be unfair. What if everyone cheated on the exam? If this happened, people would dishonestly achieve what they don’t deserve. Thus, schools and colleges at large would become unfair and wrongful institutions.

You lie to a friend, saying you are busy because you don’t want to attend a party.

How would you feel if you found out a friend had lied to you? You would feel disheartened and betrayed. If everyone started lying to each other, then our interpersonal relationships would crumble. As a result of this, our communities and societies would become totally corrupt.

Perhaps you are walking in the street and someone just ahead of you drops some money without noticing.

You pick it up because you are short of cash. They haven’t noticed that they have dropped it and won’t know you’ve taken it. So you think little harm will be done. Yet, if you were the one to drop the cash, you would expect that if a pedestrian noticed they would have the decency to alert you and give it to you back. If everyone started taking what isn’t theirs, then society would become chaotic.
These scenarios demonstrate The Categorical Imperative in play. Thinking through the situation rationally will allow us to perform an act morally. Our reasoning, regardless of what we personally desire or want to achieve, drives our moral behaviour.
Acting on our duty to our fellow human beings and to society rather than acting on our desires would mean abiding by The Categorical Imperative. Hence, acting in a moral way.

How Kant philosophy can make you a better person

Kant philosophy is relevant today because of the secular societies that we live in. These societies are without a religious authority and so may seem as if they lack guidance for a moral code of behaviourKant provides a solution to this.
Furthermore, he makes us aware of ourselves as intelligent beings who are capable of tackling difficult questions in life, and who are capable of individually recognising how to become honest, principled and ethical people.
Kant highlights the importance of acting in accordance with reason and in a universal way. By doing this, we improve ourselves as moral individuals but also contribute to a wider aim of moral social cohesion.
References:
 
 

 

 

 

 


 
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

About the Author: Alexander



I am an English and Philosophy graduate and freelance writer and blogger. I have always been fascinated by art, culture and philosophy, and believe they are an integral and important part of all of our lives. My particular interests and passions include Film and ancient Greek philosophy.
 
 



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publicado por achama às 21:13
Terça-feira, 16 / 04 / 19

What Is the Halo Effect and 5 Ways It Distorts Your Perception of Others ~ Caroline Hindle

What Is the Halo Effect and 5 Ways It Distorts Your Perception of Others.

By Caroline Hindle.

learning-mind.com

April 15, 2019. 

 


 

Have you ever thought you could tell what a person was like just from a superficial impression of them? You might have been under the influence of the halo effect.
This term refers to a tendency of people to make global evaluations of people they don’t know based on specific perceived characteristics.

There are several ways in which the halo effect can distort our perception of others:

  1. Physical attractiveness throws us off

The most obvious way the halo effect can influence our perceptions of others is that it can make us think that people who are physically attractive will also have attractive personalities. We tend to perceive them to be generally more successful or capable in their lives.
This psychological effect was first noted by Thorndike (1920) who conducted a study entitled “A Constant Error in Psychological Ratings” on servicemen. In this study, he asked commanding officers to rate soldiers that they didn’t know on intelligence, physique, leadership and character.
The results of the study showed that the officers tended to make assumptions about soldiers based on unrelated characteristics. Specifically, if they rated officers as tall or attractive, they tended to rate them as intelligent or more capable soldiers!
Thorndike also noted that colleagues saw similar effects in other institutions. He mentions that superiors were rating teachers in a school in the very same way. At the same time, these ratings were affecting promotions and salaries for the teachers in question.
  1. First impressions count

Another way the halo effect can influence us is that we tend to stereotype people based on a first impression of them. Solomon Asch conducted a study in 1946 in which he gave participants a list of adjectives about people. He ordered the adjectives either from positive to negative or from negative to positive, depending on the group the participants belonged to:
Group 1
  • Intelligent, industrious, impulsive, critical, stubborn, envious
Group 2
  • Envious, stubborn, critical, impulsive, industrious, intelligent
He found that when the first adjectives in the list were positive, the participants tended to rate the person positively. Similarly, if the first adjectives in the list were negative, the reverse would be true. This is an effect that is related to the halo effect called ‘the primacy effect’.
The primacy effect seems to occur as a result of our paying more attention to the information we get first. As a result, we tend to allow the information we get first to colour our perceptions of the information that we get later.
  1. People’s impressions can be easily manipulated

As more studies on the halo effect were conducted, it became clear that this phenomenon was not as clear-cut as it might at first seem. It would be easy, for example, to assume that this psychological effect is as simple as ‘physical attractiveness makes us think people have positive characteristics’.
Well, no, it is more complicated than that: the way we rate physical attractiveness can be manipulated by other factors as well.
Nisbett and Wilson (1977) did a study with students where teachers presented themselves as warm or cold and gave presentations. Students were then asked to rate them in both their warm and cold guises. When the teachers were in their warm guise, the students rated them higher on physical attractiveness and other positive characteristics.
On the other hand, when they were acting coldly the students rated them negatively on physical attractiveness and a whole host of perceived traits.
Moreover, this study also found that the students making these ratings were completely unaware of how this manipulation of one characteristic was influencing their blanket evaluation of completely unrelated characteristics!
  1. Marketing departments and politicians use the halo effect to their advantage

Two groups of people who are very interested in the halo effect are politicians and marketing departments. Since whether you buy a product or not or whether you vote for a politician or not can be so easily manipulated on so little information, it is easy to see why.
It is also pretty scary to think that people who are looking to profit from either your vote or how you spend your money can so easily sway your opinions. As we have already seen from the studies that psychologists have conducted on the halo effect, your global evaluation of a person can be influenced by physical attractiveness, an appearance or warmth, and even the order in which things are presented to you.
This makes the job of an advertiser or a politician very simple. This is why politicians, for example, needn’t talk about issues at all! All they need to do is appear well-dressed and friendly. You are more likely to make a decision based on how they appear than what they are saying. And they know it very well!
  1. The halo effect impacts your whole life

We have seen that the halo effect makes you a terrible decision-maker in terms of who you choose to run the country or who you choose to listen to as your teacher or doctor. Apart from that, however, it is affecting how other people are judging you, too, on a daily basis.
People are making snap judgements about your capabilities and your whole personality based on superficial impressions of you all the time. This can have huge implications: how you dress, your speaking voice, or whether you are coming across as warm and gregarious could be affecting your likelihood of getting a promotion or the size of your salary.
Your boss or colleagues are probably making these judgements regardless of how good you are at your job. In fact, if somebody says something bad about you to someone who doesn’t know you, that could change their whole perception of you, based simply on the fact that they heard something bad about you before meeting you.
And worst of all…?  – the people forming these impressions of you have no idea that they are doing it!

It is worth keeping in mind how much the halo effect can influence us from all of these perspectives.

The bottom line is that although sometimes we can judge people correctly on very little information, we really shouldn’t overestimate how good we are at making judgements.
From the outset, the first psychologist to conduct a study on this subject, Thorndike (1920), showed that people were making false evaluations of others based on this psychological phenomenon.
Later, Solomon Asch showed us that all they need to do to manipulate our impressions of something as positive or negative is to order positive and negative traits in a certain way. Nisbett and Wilson (1977) showed us that not only can we be easily manipulated, but we have absolutely no idea it is happening.
So next time you make an evaluation of somebody, whether it be a co-worker, a potential friend, or a potential leader for your country, try to make sure that you are making a decision about them for the right reasons. Or even better, try not to make any snap judgements without having solid evidence to support your views.
Do you think you have ever been affected by the halo effect, either in forming judgements of others or as regards how others have judged you? Tell us about your experience in the comment section.
References:
  1. Britannica.com
  2. Griffin, A. M., & Langlois, J. H. (2006). Stereotype Directionality and Attractiveness Stereotyping: Is Beauty Good or is Ugly Bad?. Social cognition24(2), 187–206. doi:10.1521/soco.2006.24.2.187
  3. Nisbett, R. E., & Wilson, T. D. (1977). The halo effect: Evidence for unconscious alteration of judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(4), 250-256 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.35.4.250
  4. Surawski, M.K. & Ossoff, E.P. (2006). The Effects of Physical and Vocal Attractiveness on Impression Formation of Politicians. Curr Psychol 25: 15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-006-1013-5
  5. Thorndike, E.L. (1920). A constant error in psychological ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 4(1), 25-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0071663

 




About the Author: Caroline Hindle

 

 

Caroline Hindle is a freelance writer, editor, and translator based in the UK. She has an MA in Ancient World Studies but has a wide spectrum of interests, including philosophy, history, science, literature, politics, morality, and popular culture.

 
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publicado por achama às 18:53
Sábado, 13 / 04 / 19

6 Types of Moral Dilemmas in Life and How to Resolve Them ~ Alexander

6 Types of Moral Dilemmas in Life and How to Resolve Them.

By Alexander

https://www.learning-mind.com/

April 13th, 2019.

 
 

 

What are moral dilemmas?

Moral dilemmas are situations where an individual has to make a choicebetween two or more clashing options.
These options are often not pleasing to the individual and are usually not truly morally acceptable either. We can identify moral dilemmas by recognising that our actions in these given situations have moral and ethical consequences.
We must choose between which actions to take. However, we may not be happy with any choice, and none of them can be considered fully morally acceptable.
Our first point of order might be to consult any personal moral beliefs or societal ethical and lawful norms in order to resolve such difficulties. Yet, this is often not enough. It may not point towards the best action to take, and it may not even be sufficient in tackling the moral dilemma.
We must find ways of resolving these challenging situations in order to produce the least suffering possible. To do this, it is useful to identify the different types of moral dilemmas that we may find ourselves in.

6 Types of Moral Dilemmas

There are several categories of moral dilemmas within philosophical thought. They can seem complex, but learning the basics of them can help identify them and mould a solution for them:

Epistemic moral dilemmas

Epistemic’ means to do with the knowledge of something. This is what this dilemma is about.
The situation involves two moral choices that conflict, but the individual has no idea which choice is the most morally acceptable. They don’t know which is the most ethically viable. They need more information and knowledge surrounding the two options before making an informed decision.

Ontological moral dilemmas

Ontological’ means the nature of something or the relation between things. The options in this dilemma are equal in their moral consequences.
This means that neither of them supersedes the other. They are fundamentally on the same ethical level. Therefore, the individual cannot choose between the two.

Self-imposed moral dilemmas

A self-imposed dilemma is a situation that has been caused by the individual’s mistakes or misconduct. The moral dilemma is self-inflicted. This can cause a number of complications when attempting to make a decision.

World-imposed moral dilemmas

A world-imposed dilemma is a situation where events that we can’t controlhave created an unavoidable moral conflict.
An individual must resolve a moral dilemma, even though the cause of it is beyond his/her control. For example, this could be in times of war or a financial crash.

Obligation moral dilemmas

Obligation dilemmas are situations where we feel we are obliged to opt for more than one choice. We feel we are obliged to carry out an action from a moral or legal standpoint.
If there were just one option that is obligatory, then the choice would be easy. However, if an individual feels obliged to opt for several of the choices in front of them but can only choose one, which one should they choose?

Prohibition moral dilemmas

Prohibition dilemmas are the opposite of obligation dilemmas. The choices that are offered to us are all, on some level, morally reprehensible.
They can all be considered as wrong, but we must choose one. They could be illegal, or just plain immoral. An individual must choose between what would normally be considered as prohibited.
These are examples of some of the types of moral dilemmas that may arise. Our actions will affect not just ourselves, but many other people as well.
So, we should thoroughly consider the action before we carry it out. However, they are complex and problematic, and resolving them may seem an impossible task.

How to resolve them?

The largest struggle in trying to resolve a moral dilemma is recognising that whatever action you take, it will not be completely ethical. It will just be the most ethical in comparison with the other choices.
Philosophers have attempted to find solutions to moral dilemmas for centuries. They have discussed and attempted to find the best ways to resolve them, in order to help us live better and reduce the suffering that we may face.
Here are a few pieces of advice to help resolve moral dilemmas:

Be reasonable, not emotional

We have a greater chance of overcoming these struggles if we logically work through them. Analyse the aspects of the dilemma in order to better conclude what action is the greatest good. Emotion can cloud our judgment of what may be the best ethical outcome.

Choose the greater good or the lesser evil

Perhaps the soundest piece of advice is to conclude which choice allows for the greatest good, or the less evil. This isn’t simple and will take much consideration.
However, if there is an action that is on balance morally superior, despite other personal or social implications, then it is the best action to take.

Is there an alternative?

Analysing the situation in greater detail may reveal alternative options that were not immediately obvious. Is there an alternative choice or action that will resolve the dilemma better than the ones you have in front of you? Take time to recognise if there is.

What are the consequences?

Weighing up the positive and negative consequences of each action will give a clearer picture of the best choice to make. Each option may have a number of negative consequences, but if one has more positive consequences and less negative, then it is on the balance the right action to take.

What would a good person do?

Sometimes a useful thing to do would be to just simply askWhat would a good person do?
Imagine yourself as a truly virtuous and moral character and determine what they would do, regardless of your own character and the personal or social factors that may influence your decision.

Resolving moral dilemmas will not be easy

The dilemmas that we face will be complex and arduous. The advice given by philosophers will aid us when trying to resolve them.
However, it is not as straightforward as using one piece of advice to solve a single dilemma. Often, it will be a combination of many of them that will give us the best chance of taking the correct action. Most of the time, all of them will be relevant in every dilemma that we face.
But there is one thing that all of these methods of resolutions promote: the importance of reason. Moral dilemmas can seem so over-facing that our emotions can prevent us from making an informed decision. Or, they can misguide us into making the wrong decision.
Taking a step back to dissect and analyse the dilemma will allow for a better perspective on the situation. This allows you to see more clearly the consequences of each action, the goods and evils of each action and any alternatives that may present themselves.
However, perhaps the best piece of advice is just recognising that resolving moral dilemmas will not be easy. It will be difficult and may cause us deep anguish as we wrestle between conflicting moral options.
We are better equipped to face these dilemmas if we are aware of this. Thinking reasonably, and not being overwhelmed by the dilemma, will be a good start as well.
References:
  1. https://examples.yourdictionary.com/
  2. https://www.psychologytoday.com/
 

 

 

 

 


 
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

About the Author: Alexander



I am an English and Philosophy graduate and freelance writer and blogger. I have always been fascinated by art, culture and philosophy, and believe they are an integral and important part of all of our lives. My particular interests and passions include Film and ancient Greek philosophy.
 
 



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publicado por achama às 17:15
Sexta-feira, 18 / 01 / 19

7 Hidden Causes of Fear That Could Explain Why You Avoid Some Things in Life ~ Sherrie.

7 Hidden Causes of Fear That Could Explain Why You Avoid Some Things in Life.

By Sherrie.

January 18th, 2019 

 

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We, as humans, are afraid of many things, sometimes developing severe phobias. So, what are the hidden causes of fear? What are the reasons for these reactions?

When I was a little girl, I was afraid of the forest surrounding my house, but only at night. During the day, I ran through the woods without a care in the world. What made the difference between my time in the forest during the day, and my fear of what lurked there in the darkness. It’s strange if you think about it. What are these causes of fear?
Upon analyzing my fears, I come to a conclusion. I am afraid of the unknown. Since it was dark in the forest when I was afraid, this meant I could not see what dwelled there. It’s safe to say that the darkness covers the unknown and these unknown things cause feelings of fear. As an adult, I still suffer from the fear of the unknown, and many of us do.

The hidden causes of fear

Children being afraid of the dark is just something that most people understand, without fully understanding. Much like many other situations, we don’t really question the causes of fear.
But there are other kinds of fears, less tangible but just as important, and these other fears are the ones that can keep us from reaching our full potential. Now’s the time to analyze the causes of fear and understand a bit more about ourselves. Let’s take a look at a few reasons why we’re frightened.

1. Failure

One of the most common causes of fear is failure. So many of us refuse to leave our comfort zones because we are afraid of doing something wrong, something that could damage our lives forever. The fear of failure can be seen in those who procrastinate in taking steps toward things like new careers, education, or starting a relationship.
The fear of failure is often hidden behind the reasoning of why you shouldn’t take that step forward. It’s also camouflaged as self-sacrifice as well. Sometimes, instead of doing something to better yourself, you may choose to focus all your energies on others.
Doing for others is good, but not when you forget about your own goals and potential. Learn to recognize the signs of fear of failure in its early stages so you can improve your life accordingly.

2. Decidophobia

Yes, decidophobia is a real thing. It’s basically the fear of making decisions. Personally, I think my second child has this problem. Everything he does has to be thought over carefully, even the simplest of tasks. I believe that inside he is wrestling with the fear of making the wrong decision, and so he takes extreme measures of time to make the decision in the first place.
So, in my son’s case, his strategy is that if he takes long enough, the decision will become clear. In my experience, this is not true. It seems that if I take too long making a decision, it actually becomes much harder.
The fear of decision making can be crippling, stealing so much time from the rest of your life. So, why not practice forcing yourself to make quicker decisions and walk away. It will be painful, but it will help you see the fallacy in your logic.

3. Negative scenarios

One of the causes of fear revolves around the stories you play in your head. For instance, when you cannot reach a friend by phone, you may start to worry. When this happens, your mind starts to compensate for the absence of explanation.
In other words, if you don’t know where someone is or if they are okay, then your brain fills in the gap. Many times, these fabrications are negative.
While not everyone ruminates like this, many do. Building negative scenarios in your mind feeds your fear. If you start believing that your absent friend has been in an accident, then you start to fear those things. You actually fear far-fetched ideas.
If you allow yourself to think positive things instead, then you decrease your fears and breed peace.

4. Trust issues

So many of us have trust issues of some kind or other. That’s why we often have fears that something bad will happen. I remember telling friends about the walls around me. I built all these walls because of the hurtful things that happened in the past. Unfortunately, these walls kept the good things out as well.
I have trust issues, let’s just put that out there to help you understand. I am in constant fear of being betrayed by one person or the other. It affects most aspects of my life and I hate it. I try to relinquish these fears, but something happens that, again, fortifies that untrusting mindset.
All I can say is, we just have to try harder to break down the wall and let people love us. After all, it’s possible that they actually have good intentions.

5. Insecurities

This cause of fear is similar to trust issues, but not exactly the same. While insecurities can cause trust issues which in turn, can cause fears, insecurities alone can cause different sorts of fears.
Let’s say you are insecure about your weight and so you are afraid to wear certain things to the beach. You fear ridicule and you fear rejection. Insecurities have the power to destroy your self-image and that’s why it’s so important to practice self-love and realization in your life.
I often suffer from insecurities, but I stop myself and think about what I’m worth. My worth as a human being does not change according to things people say about me or how they treat me. I want you to remember this as well.

6. Perfectionism

One of the causes of fear that can really limit your life is perfectionism. If you think it’s important to be perfect, then any failure would be devastating.
So, if you sense an event would cause you to make mistakes, then you will not go to that event. You might not even date certain people in fear that they would see your imperfections. It can be quite crippling actually.
Since you have a fear of imperfection, you will often do nothing. This is the severe form of perfectionism. You may feel that if you partake in social activities or anything at all, you won’t be able to feel the same about yourself if not seen as perfect. You may have friends, but honestly, they will be few.

7. Past trauma

I think one of the most common causes of fear would be past trauma. Since I am in the sharing mood, I will share even more. I was abused, and I believe I have shared this many times. Because of my past trauma, I fear many things, especially people in general. Yes, I guess you can say I have a case of anthropophobia (fear of people).
Past traumas cause PTSD, anxiety and also physical health problems. Unfortunately, we don’t often address the common fears they produce. Past traumas can affect our social life, spiritual life, family life and more. Because of what happened to us, we will often avoid relationships or career changes.
Do an inventory of your life and see if anything from your past connects with your present fears. It could be interesting.

Fears aren’t the end of the world

Despite how prevalent your fears are in your life, there’s always hope for change. The causes of fears may be many and complex, but with understanding, you can find the key to unlock these fears. I hope this has helped you learn a bit more about yourself, and I wish you well.
References:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 
About the Author: Sherrie

Sherrie is a freelance writer and artist with over 10 years of experience. She spends most of her time giving life to the renegade thoughts. As the words erupt and form new life, she knows that she is yet again free from the nagging persistence of her muse. She is a mother of three and a lifetime fan of the thought-provoking and questionable aspects of the universe.

COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.

 
 




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Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.

 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 

 

No religious or political belief is defended here. (Investigate yourself)

 

Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 

If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 


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publicado por achama às 23:31
A Luz está a revelar a Verdade, e esta libertar-nos-á! -Só é real o AMOR Incondicional. -Quando o Amor superar o amor pelo poder, o mundo conhecerá a Paz; Jimi Hendrix. -Somos almas a ter uma experiência humana!

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