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Segunda-feira, 30 / 03 / 20

What Is Cognitive Ease and How It Blocks Your Critical Thinking.

What Is Cognitive Ease and How It Blocks Your Critical Thinking.

Janey Davies, B.A.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 29th, 2020.

 
 

 
Now before you start reading this article, I just want to promise you it is not a political piece. I am only using an event in recent British politics to highlight a way of thinking called cognitive ease.
Last December, the Conservative Party won the General Election with a huge majority not seen since WWII. This is despite the fact that many voters disagreed with their policies and preferred the Labour manifesto. So what went wrong? Cognitive ease, dear readers. Cognitive ease.
I say again, don’t worry, this isn’t a political article. It’s the easiest way I can tell you about this particular way of thinking. Let me explain. Going into the election the Conservatives had a very brief and succinct message. It was: ‘Get Brexit Done’
On the other hand, the Labour party was wishy-washy about where they stood on Brexit. Their leader told the UK he would be an ‘honest broker of the people’ (whatever that meant, no one really knew). He wouldn’t take sides and the Labour party message was one of ‘we’ll go with want the people want’, or something like that. I don’t recall. And that’s the problem.
The Conservatives won a massive majority. After the dust had settled, many people cited the clear message from the Tories about Brexit. It was easy to understand they said. They knew what it meant. It was catchy, concise, and simple to remember. It chimed well with the public. Audiences took to it.
On the other hand, no one understood what Labour was trying to say.
The Conservatives won because they took advantage of cognitive ease. So what exactly is it?

What Is Cognitive Ease and How It Works

Put simply, cognitive ease is the ease in which our brains process information and this then has a direct impact on how we then view that information. In other words, if something is easy to understand, like ‘Get Brexit Done’, we immediately understand it and we view it in a positive way.
Not only that, but the easier a thing is to process and understand, the more time and effort we’ll invest in it. Conversely, when something becomes harder to understand, and we need to take more of a mental effort, this leads to a negative view. In fact, we can become suspicious, distrustful and lose confidence.
The problem is that not everything in life is easy to understand. If it was, Einstein would never have come up with the theory of relativity. So why are we drawn to cognitive ease?
It’s because we are most likely to believe what is familiar and what is easy. Going back to the ‘Get Brexit Done’ slogan again, even when members of the opposition told the British public that Brexit absolutely would not ‘be done’ in a matter of months (which was what Boris Johnson had been saying) because it would take years to negotiate the trade deals, we all ignored them and voted him in.

Familiarity Breeds Cognitive Ease

So the phrase became so familiar that in the end, it was the truth. Studies show that if something is repeated enough times, we believe it. There’s an old saying: ‘a lie travels around the world several times before the truth is putting its shoes on‘.
This repeating something until we are familiar with it is the mere-exposure effect. Many people use this to their advantage, including politicians. The purpose of repeating a certain phrase is that it gives us a sense of cognitive ease. Our brains don’t have to work that hard because we’ve heard it before, therefore, it must be true.

Simplicity Is Key

Again I’m using the Brexit phrase because it is so simple it was so effective. When something is simple, it requires less processing and that gives us cognitive ease.
For example, if I give you two options, Option A is very simple to understand and Option B is extremely difficult, then I ask you to choose which option you prefer, statistically, you are more likely to say Option A.
This is because you find option A easier to understand and we like things we understand. We find them easier to process. They take less mental strain.

Cognitive Ease Validates Our Existing Beliefs

But there’s another reason why cognitive ease is such a pervasive thought behaviour and that is the information we think is true and right and that we already understand makes us feel better.
Information that is consistent with what we already believe validates our opinions. We are more likely to accept information that already fits in with our belief systems, with our values. It’s like big green ticks along all our confidence boxes.
Conversely, information that is inconsistent with what we believe is held up to much greater scrutiny. We don’t easily accept it as we do information we already believe in. In fact, the opposite is true.
We instantly distrust it, we look at the source of the information, and we dislike the characters that are talking about the information. We find reasons to dismiss the information.
This is because it is taking us much greater cognitive processes to dissect the information than the simple or familiar stuff.
The problem is that cognitive ease is a cognitive bias and a shortcut to processing the world around us. As with all cognitive biases, they can distort our thinking. So how do we stop falling into the trap of cognitive ease thinking?

How to Avoid Cognitive Ease Thinking

  • Accept different views
  • Don’t believe because something is simple, it is true
  • Don’t believe because you’ve heard it before, it is true
  • Listen to as many different people as you can
  • Don’t get trapped in an echo chamber
  • Be wary of the feel-good response that cognitive ease thinking gives you
  • Start accepting that feeling uncomfortable is a sign you are thinking properly

Final Thoughts


It’s hard to escape the trap of cognitive ease. When we feel validated, we get a rush of confidence and our mood is lifted and we are happy. But it’s important to realise that some factions of society use cognitive ease as a way of fooling the public. So be on your guard. Is something too simple? Do you keep hearing or seeing it? It could be cognitive ease.


Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 17:59
Terça-feira, 24 / 03 / 20

5 Ways Impact Bias Is Making You Unhappy

5 Ways Impact Bias Is Making You Unhappy

Lottie Miles, M.A.

learning-mind.com

Posted March 23, 2020.

 
Impact Bias unhappiness.

 


 
 
When we dream of winning the lottery, we imagine that we will always be happy. But what if the way we imagine the future is not reflective of how we truly experience it? The impact bias explores the phenomena whereby we tend to overestimate our emotional response to future changes in our environment.
 
In this post, we outline what impact bias is, 5 ways it is making you unhappy, and how you can seek to address these issues.
 
What Is Impact Bias?
 
It refers to the tendency to overestimate how much future events will affect our mood. We also tend to overestimate how long a given emotion will last as a result of major events in our lives. This is particularly true of extreme events whether they are positive or negative.
 
When it comes to extremely negative experiences, this could be down to something Gilbert metaphorically describes as the ‘psychological immune system’. If we imagine an extremely negative event in the future, this is unlikely to be triggered. However, in a traumatic event, it is likely to kick in and enable us to take a positive outlook on a seemingly inescapable situation.
 
When it comes to extremely positive events, if we imagine them, we tend to focus solely on the positive change to our circumstances. However, if we come to actually experience an extremely positive event, our focus will be broader than the extremely positive event.
 
Events in our daily life, from a rough night’s sleep to challenges in personal relationships, will be in our purview. This is also true of negative events where we may ignore positive aspects of our lives when imagining something traumatic in the future. As such, impact bias is also apparent when we imagine positive and negative events.
 
“The great source of both the misery and disorders of human life, seems to arise from over-rating the difference between one permanent situation and another” Adam Smith, the Theory of Moral Sentiments
How does impact bias make you unhappy?
 
So what does this all mean for our own happiness? Here, we outline 5 ways impact bias can make you unhappy and what you can do to avoid this.
 
1. ‘The grass is greener’ thinking
 
We all like to think that we are good predictors of what will make us happy. However, according to research by Wilson & Gilbert (2003), this is not the case.
 
We might think that our lives will be improved if only we can get a bigger house, a faster car, a promotion, or a new partner. However, when we seek to predict our emotional response to changes in our future, we almost always fail.
 
We may invest a lot of time and energy in the anticipation of a new dawn of positivity. Unfortunately, when the moment arrives and we realize nothing much has changed, this can lead to severe disappointment. Being aware that we have a tendency to reach for the next thing indeterminately, can help us learn to appreciate what we have in the here and now.
 
2. False expectations of wealth and happiness
 
Similar to ‘the grass is greener’ analogy, much of what we expect of the future never turns out to come true. This is particularly apparent in studies of wealth, such as books like “The Spirit Level” by Katie Pickett and Richard Wilkinson.
 
People often intuitively expect that as their wealth increases, their happiness will continue on a correlative upwards curve. However, the spirit level shows how beyond middle-class security, or essentially comfortable subsistence living, the correlation between money and happiness almost disappears.
 
If we focus too much on money and wealth rather than on what truly makes us happy, we may not be able to recognize the source of our unhappiness.
 
3. Narrow focus
 
When we think about the future, we tend to focus on one thing. If we plan a change in our life, we imagine only the change and not everything that stays the same. However, unless we move out into the woods and cut off all contact with society, most decisions we make will only affect a small percentage of our overall lived experience.
 
As such, when thinking about the future, it is important to try and broaden our horizons. Consciously widening your focus will help you avoid impact bias.
 
4. Things won’t be as good (or as bad) as you think
 
If you win the lottery, will you be happy? If your relationship finishes, will you be devastated? Would you never be able to cope with losing a vital sense or a limb?
 
People may intuitively think that they know the answers to all these questions. However, our intuition may not be as good as we think. Moreover, if we fail to recognize the dominance of one of our competing fast and slow thinking systems, we may fail to reap the benefits of slow thinking according to science.
 
Equally, when we envision the future, we fail to account for the human ability to make sense of what happens to them. Humans seek to rationalize what has happened and find underlying reasons, whether good or bad. When we do this, we dampen the impact of any event on us, reducing the effect of the good and the bad.
 
This is perhaps best highlighted by a study comparing the happiness of lottery winners and people who had lost the use of their limbs. A year after each event, the happiness levels of each group were the same.
 
5. Failing to live in the now
 
“The secret of health for both mind and body is not to mourn for the past, worry about the future, or anticipate troubles, but to live in the present moment wisely and earnestly” – Buddha
 
We cannot accurately predict our level of happiness (or unhappiness) in the future. Does this mean that any expectations we place on happiness in the future are necessarily a waste of time?
 
Clearly, our hopes for the future play a positive role in our present mental well-being. Thus, knowing about the impact bias shouldn’t make us stop dreaming. However, it is important to be aware that our expectation will almost certainly not be matched by reality.
 
Moreover, ultimately, the present is the only experience that exists in time. If we dwell on the past or the future, we often allow the present to pass us by.
 
Practices such as yoga can help you train the mind to be present in the moment and there are numerous other life lessons you can learn from it. Focusing on enjoying the present is one of the key ways of overcoming the impact bias and stop us from planting seeds for future unhappiness in our minds.


 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

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publicado por achama às 00:46
Terça-feira, 17 / 03 / 20

Outcome Bias: How It Leads You to Disaster and How to Avoid It

Outcome Bias: 

How It Leads You to Disaster and How to Avoid It

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

March 17th, 2020.

 
outcome bias.
 
 
 
Cognitive biases shape our everyday experiences and influence our decision-making. But one bias, in particular, can be extremely dangerous – the outcome bias.
 
What Is an Outcome Bias?
 
The outcome bias can make you focus on the end result and ignore the risks along the way. When we already know the outcome of a specific task, we can become blind to the dangers that might present during the process.
 
  • “When people observe successful outcomes, they tend to focus on the results more than on the (often unseen) complex processes that led to them.” Tinsley, Dillon, Madsen
 
This usually happens when we have repeated a task and achieved a good result at the end. This gives us the impression that every time we undertake this task, the results will be good.
 
But lots of things can happen during the process.
 
For example, imagine you live in an area prone to flooding. So far, in the twenty years you have lived in your house, the floodwaters have never been close to reaching your property. Do you buy flood insurance?
 
Many people would say no. The floods have not affected you for twenty years. But then the following year you see exceptional levels of rain and the river banks burst, flooding your house.
 
Studies show that if a person experiences a near-miss where they’ve escaped a potential hazard, they are less likely to take protective action. They’ll have an “I was alright last time, it will be alright again,” attitude.
 
Instead of evaluating the situation as it unfolds, they are focusing on past outcomes to inform their future decisions. But this is a rapidly changing world. So why do we feel the need to concentrate on the results, rather than the process?
 
Why do we experience it?
 
Human beings are continually trying to make sense of the world and to do this, we have to take shortcuts in our cognitive processing. We can’t evaluate every single new experience and try and decode it.
 
As a result, we learn these cognitive shortcuts. In the outcome bias, we do this by evaluating a situation against a previous one. If the previous situation had a good outcome, then we’ll chalk that up to a good decision. It’s a little like we’re using the power of retroactive hindsight when we focus on the outcome. It worked before, it will work again.
 
But is the outcome bias such a bad thing? Surely learning from past experiences is a good thing for humans?
 
Yes, it is, but the problem with the outcome bias is that we are not learning from our previous experiences. We are simply replicating them. And that’s where it gets dangerous. Because we fool ourselves into thinking that our decisions don’t matter, and they do of course.
 
Famous examples of disastrous outcome bias
 
Deepwater Horizon Oil Rig
 
In April 2010, a gas blowout safety mechanism failed on BP Gulf’s oil ring. The blowout ignited which caused the rig to sink, triggering a massive oil spill that wrecked wildlife and killed 11 people. This accident is one of the worst environmental disasters in American history.
 
But why did it happen? There had been warning signs.
 
The crew on the rig called it ‘the well from hell’ because of numerous technical problems. For a start, the main pipe that led into the well didn’t have enough centralizers in place to keep it straight. In addition, the drillers had removed the drilling mud too soon which lead to an unstable pipe.
 
The night before the blowout crew had performed a negative pressure test on the pipe to see if it was leaking oil and gas. Basically, this meant removing the heavy mud and replacing it with lighter seawater. In order to see if pressure built up the well was shut down. Pressure-build up is a sure sign that oil and gas were seeping into the well.
 
The tests showed that pressure had indeed built up, but BP managers and rig crew disagreed on the results. The test had to be repeated as no one could agree. After repeating the test now everyone agreed they had a good result and many crew members went to bed.
 
But it wasn’t a good result.
 
Over the next few hours, hundreds of barrels of oil and gas were leaking out and travelling up the pipe with increasing momentum. This roiling mass of pressure burst through the safety blowout and just kept going. Eventually, it ignited, blowing up the oil rig.
 
An ensuring investigation took years to complete, but it found a catalogue of errors that lead to this disaster. BP executives had experienced dozens of near-misses in the industry but with no major consequences.
 
However, each near-miss was down to sheer luck or circumstances, not good decision-making. For example, wind direction, or using different safety equipment. But instead of raising alarms and being carefully investigated, each near-miss was viewed that the safety procedures were working.
 
The Challenger Space Shuttle
 
Most of us can remember the horrific sight of the Challenger Space Shuttle breaking up in mid-air.
 
In January 1986, 73 seconds after it was launched, NASA’s Challenger space shuttle exploded. Seven astronauts were killed instantly, including a teacher. Broadcast live, this launch happened with millions of spectators around the world watching. So what went so drastically wrong?
 
Investigators attributed the accident to a failure of an O ring seal. This was a sealing ring that should have protected two joints in the lower parts of the rocket. The seal was designed to stop extremely hot gases from leaking from these two joints.
 
However, it broke, the gas escaped causing foam to break off an external rocket tank. This created shards of debris that pierced a hole through the wing of the space shuttle and causing it to explode.
 
Many people questioned why the launch went ahead as the initial recommendation was to cancel, due to the extreme cold temperatures on that day. However, the decision to launch was made.
 
The following investigation showed that doubts had been initially raised by the failure of the O rings on previous flights. But they were effectively ignored because their failures had never caused damage before.
 
In fact, Richard Feynman, a professor of theoretical physics and part of the investigation, stated:
 
“There were many seals that didn’t have any problem, and so it is obviously a random effect. It depends upon whether or not you get a blowhole or you don’t get a blowhole. So if within a particular flight it happens that all six seals don’t get a blowhole, that’s no information.”
 
Mars probe
 
And I can show you another example of NASA’s failure to properly investigate an anomaly in space travel which led to disaster.
 
During its 1998 journey towards Mars, the Mars Climate Orbiter kept drifting off-course. Actually, it drifted four times and each time analysts on Earth had to make small adjustments to correct it.
 
Scientists did not try to find the cause of the drifting of a $200 million spacecraft. Instead, they carried on correcting the trajectory. As it approached Mars, instead of entering into orbit, it crashed and broke up in the atmosphere.
 
NASA investigators later discovered that the programmers had mistakenly used English measurements instead of metric ones when they set the code for the journey. A mistake easily rectified, but because it wasn’t causing much concern and they could fix it during its journey, they didn’t look into the drifting.
Four ways you can avoid outcome bias
 
Of course, we’re not all in charge of expensive oil rigs or space shuttles, but that doesn’t mean we shouldn’t be wary of outcome bias. Here are four ways to avoid it:
 
Don’t act under pressure
 
Feeling under pressure leads to hastily-made decisions where we could be tempted to rely on the outcome, rather than the procedure.
 
Don’t rely on previous experiences
 
Of course, it is natural to examine past scenarios and make judgements against those. But where near-misses are concerned we should take each case on an individual basis.
 
Look at the cause, not the result
 
Again, this is difficult but we need to see what is happening now, and not concentrate on the results of what happened before.
 
When in doubt, assume the worse
 
Just because some experience worked out before, doesn’t guarantee that it will have a favourable outcome again. Always assume the worse.
 
Final thoughts
 
Remember, just because you’ve had good results time and time again, doesn’t mean you can predict the same results this time around.
 
References:
  1. onlinelibrary.wiley.com
  2. sas.upenn.edu
  3. hbr.org


Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 17:59
Sexta-feira, 13 / 03 / 20

5 Benefits of Slow Thinking, According to Science

5 Benefits of Slow Thinking, According to Science

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted March 12, 2020.

 
Benefits of Slow Thinking.

 

 
In a world where everything inexorably requires us to speed up, most people’s intuition tells them that being faster is better. However, according to research, our intuition may not always be as good as we think it is. Moreover, thinking slow may have several benefits over fast thinking in a variety of settings.
 
In this post, we will outline the debates about slow vs fast thinking and 5 benefits of slow thinking, according to science.
 
Fast Thinking Vs Slow Thinking
 
People often associate thinking fast with intelligence, strength, and being funny. In this vein, Malcolm Gladwell’s interesting book ‘Blink’ champions thinking without thinking.
 
Gladwell argues that intuition is the result of meaningful work undertaken by individuals and is more like intelligent design than some magical property from within. This understanding leads Gladwell to argue that spontaneous decisions are good or sometimes even better than decisions we carefully plan. However, this position fails to recognize the value of slow thinking.
 
In the book ‘Thinking Fast and Slow’, Kahneman argues that the human mind is made up of two systems. The first relies on fast, instinctive, and emotional action. This system is linked to our survival instincts, helping us to quickly respond to danger. The second relies more on logic, deliberative thought, conscious effort, and taking time – or being slow.
 
When we do difficult Math, we are usually forced into using this second system. As such, these systems can both be beneficial at times. However, they can also come into conflict. If we let system 1 dominate too much, then we will miss out on the potential benefits of thinking slow.
 
5 benefits of slow thinking, according to science
 
Here, we outline 5 ways that slowing down your thinking can be beneficial for you and society at large.
 
Improved mental health & emotional control
 
Studies like “The Rediscovery of Slowness: Exploring the Timing of Cognition” have shown that the ability to use slow thinking processes can be characteristic of a healthy brain. They also found that an inability to adaptively regulate emotional responses to challenging situations was a common trait in numerous forms of psychopathology.
 
Similarly, a 2015 study found that thinking slowly could be beneficial in cases of psychosis. When patients were supported to slow down their thinking processes and recognize fast thoughts, they were able to bring down levels of paranoia.
 
Reduce Stress
 
In the world today, our fast-paced lives can lead us to feel like we never have enough time to do anything. This naturally arouses our sympathetic nervous system, the part of our autonomic nervous system that puts us into fight or flight mode, heightening our stress levels.
 
On the other side of our autonomic nervous system is the parasympathetic nervous system. This helps us to produce calm and relaxed states. Thinks like mindfulness seek to activate this system by using techniques drawing on our slow thinking systems. Check out our article about relaxation techniques for coping with negativity, anxiety and stress that will help you to benefit from slow thinking.
 
Prevent biased thinking
 
Slow thinking allows us to recognize when our thoughts and feelings may be being directed by automatic responses. It also helps us to recognize how this might be causing us to react in certain ways.
 
The situation could be feeling that you have been ignored, spoken over, or pretty much anything. This could make us feel angry or jump to assumptions about why this happened. If you find yourself in such a situation, try taking a step back and imagining yourself outside the situation you are personally in. Try to reason through why it might have happened. Then, reflect on this before acting.
 
By imagining yourself outside of a situation, you make it possible to see different perspectives and improve objectivity. You will likely find your initial response quickly dampens in extremity by taking this time and considering more ‘data’. This helps to avoid confirmation biases affecting your decisions. Cognitive reappraisal like this is also beneficial for mental well-being.
 
Make better decisions
 
Thinking slowly can help you master the art of decision making. A classic example of slow thinking fostering better decisions is demonstrated by something called the Cognitive Reflection Test. Based on 3 questions, this test is designed to temp human intuition into answering incorrectly.
 
In a study of 3,428 people, 83% answered at least one question, with 33% answering all 3 incorrectly. The test serves to highlight that intuition is not always as good as you think it is. Understanding this can help people realize that spending more time on decisions can enable them to take different actions with improved results.
 
Studies have also shown that slow thinking can help people make better decisions that are noticeable at the macro level. For example, a McKinsey Quarterly report found that leaders of business will be more successful in their investments and strategic efforts by thinking slowly.
 
Improve Research
 
There has long been growing pressure in academia to produce fast results, with a heavy focus on the number of publications. This outweighs considerations of quality-driven research done at a slow and methodical pace.
 
Studies have shown that this has actually led to reduced quality in research and increased mistakes. Indeed, Lakens & Evers’ 2014 study found statistical evidence that more productive researchers, measure by publication output, produce the least reliable research with less statistically significant results.
 
Final Thoughts
 
The benefits of slow thinking should not mean that we seek to banish swiftness from all of our actions. Both thinking fast and thinking slow have important benefits for our mental health and well being. However, taking the time to slow down our thinking is vital in our fast-paced world. It helps us to recognize our emotions, make improved decisions, and ultimately leads to better mental health.


 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
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and https://www.facebook.com/mel.tavares.75


A Trusty with Privacy Search 
Alternative to Google
startpage.com

Alternatives to YouTube
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brighteon.com
 
 



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 20:54
Terça-feira, 14 / 01 / 20

4 Signs of a Micromanaging Boss and What to Do If You Have One

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted January 11th, 2020.

 
micromanaging boss.

 
 
 

 
The day to day grind of working in an office can lead one to think that their experience is the norm. However, having a manager that monitors everything and a lack of freedom at work can harm both your performance and well-being. In this post, we explore the 4 signs that you have a micromanaging boss and what you can do to deal with them.
 
What does it mean to micromanage?
 
The practice of micromanagement isn’t restricted to the workplace. However, this is where micromanagers are often found.
 
Micromanagement refers to exerting excessive control over a person or a situation. This can occur within a social context, at work, or even in relationships. An obsession over the minute detail over what someone is doing, rather than looking at the bigger picture is a key characteristic of someone who micromanages.
 
Sometimes, micromanagement can take on a bullying persona where one person attempts to completely control and influence the actions and behavior of another. If this sounds all too familiar, then it may be that your boss is micromanaging you.
 
In the next section, we look at some of the familiar traits of a micromanager in the workplace.
 
4 signs that your boss is micromanaging you
 
1. Your freedom is restricted
 
Do you feel like your boss is constantly looking over your shoulder? Or that you have to run everything (even small things) by them first? Feeling a lack of freedom in your job is a sure sign that you have a micromanaging boss.
 
Good managers trust their staff, as they recognize that they are qualified for the role they are undertaking. A boss that is partial to micromanagement does not feel this trust and doesn’t allow their employees to make decisions for themselves.
 
Autonomy at work is an important means of keeping you interested in your job as it gives you room to be creative. Feeling trusted to make decisions is also essential in a work environment to ensure you feel valued and empowered.
 
2. Your boss is reluctant to give you training
 
Another indication that you have a micromanaging boss is if they’re reluctant for you to undertake any training or development opportunities. This comes from the fear that through upskilling their staff, they will decrease their own value and importance. This aspect of being micromanaged can feel particularly restrictive as it makes it difficult to progress in your career.
 
So, if you’ve noticed your manager won’t share their knowledge with you or brushes over training opportunities, it is likely they are guilty of micromanaging.
 
3. They can’t see the big picture
 
Part of being a good manager comes from being able to see the bigger picture and trusting that their employees have their individual tasks in hand.
 
A micromanager, however, is unable to do this. They are obsessed with the minute detail within projects. This means that instead of being free to just ‘get on with it’ you’re constantly forced to update your boss on what you’re doing.
 
This could be in the form of regular reports, constant team meetings to feedback on progress, or a persistent email thread that feels incredibly unproductive. It can feel like you spend most of your time updating your boss on what you’re doing rather than actually doing the work itself.
 
If this sounds like your experience, then it’s likely your boss is micromanaging the work you do.
 
4. They don’t like to delegate
 
Another trait of a micromanaging boss is that they don’t like to delegate. All of the points above ring true of a person who lacks faith in others, and this aspect of micromanagement is no different.
 
A micromanaging manager will often refuse to pass on important tasks to their team as they feel they are the only ones qualified to undertake them. This can lead to an overwhelming workload for them, and a feeling of discontent amongst other team members.
 
Difficulties in delegating can also lead to unnecessary delays and projects that feel like they are never-ending.
 
How to deal with a micromanaging boss?
 
Unsurprisingly, showing a lack of faith in the team, a refusal to help team members develop, and the refusal to delegate leads to an unsatisfactory work life for those under the leadership of a micromanager. However, it doesn’t have to be like this. Here are some tips on how to deal with your micromanaging boss.
 
1. Be honest
 
It can seem daunting to criticize the behavior of your manager. However, it may be that they don’t realize the impact that their micromanaging is having.
 
Next time you have a one-to-one scheduled, prepare what you want to say to your manager and write down some examples of when their micromanaging has gone too far. Highlight how their managing style is impacting on your ability to do your job and your well-being at work. An open and honest conversation can feel scary beforehand, but the benefits are likely to be well worth it.
 
2. Be one step ahead of them
 
If you’ve been working under a micromanager for a while, you can no doubt anticipate when and what they are planning to ask you. By anticipating this beforehand you can provide the answers to their questions before they have the chance to breathe over your shoulder.
 
This could be in the form of an email at the start or end of the week to update them on any progress. In showing them that you’re fully on top of things, it may give them the confidence to give you the space you need.
Final Words
 
Handling a micromanaging boss can feel like a job in itself. It can mean that you feel incredibly restricted in your work and affect your happiness in your job.
 
Opening up to your manager that their managing style is not working for you can feel like a huge hurdle to jump over. However, it can lead to a much-needed discussion around how you can best work together to make the work environment a happy and productive place.
 
References:

  1. https://www.rd.com
  2. https://www.forbes.com

 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

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publicado por achama às 20:58
Terça-feira, 24 / 12 / 19

Maximizers and Satisficers: Which One Are You and What Does It Mean?

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted December 23rd, 2019.

 
Maximizers and Satisficers.

 


Decision making is an unavoidable feature of our lives. However, researchers have found that some of us are better at it than others. Psychologists have grouped people into two distinctive categories: maximizers and satisficers.

In this post, we look at the meaning behind the terms ‘maximizer’ and ‘satisficer’. And help you to explore which term best describes your approach to decision making.

What does the concept mean?

To put it simply, maximizers are individuals who are constantly striving to make the best decision that derives the maximum benefit. Whereas satisficers spend less time over a decision and are content with an option that is ‘good enough’.

Maximizers vs. Satisficers: Which one are you?
Let’s take a look at these categories in more detail and go through some examples to help you to determine which camp you fit into.
Maximizers

Imagine the scenario, you need to buy a new car and believe you have found the perfect model in your local garage. However, despite this, you know there are several other garages to visit in the area. You, therefore, decide to visit all of these before making your decision. Sound familiar? A maximizer finds it difficult to commit to a decision until they have explored all of the other available options first.

Maximizers are most likely to experience ‘FOBO’ the term coined by US venture capitalist Patrick McGinnis. FOBO stands for the ‘fear of better options’, a feeling which maximizers are all too familiar with. When faced with many options in front of them, a maximizer will deliberate over the selection and often experience a feeling of remorse after making a decision.

Maximizers are prone to regretting their decisions and contemplate what could have been rather than being satisfied with their choice.
Satisficers

Satisficers have a lot easier time making decisions than maximizers. They have a clear set of criteria beforehand and make a decision based on this. Referring back to the example above, a satisficer would have purchased the first car that met their criteria. They would not have felt the need to look around the other garages.

The US Nobel Prize-winning economist Herbert A. Simon came up with the concept of ‘satisficers’ in 1956. He created the term by combining the words ‘satisfying’ and ‘sufficing’. Simon explainedthat humans need only ‘very simple perceptual and choice mechanisms to satisfy [their] several needs’ and in first considering what they seek to achieve from a certain choice, it is easier to reach a satisfying decision.

Satisficers, therefore, approach a decision with an awareness of their needs and requirements. In doing so, they can select an option that suits and satisfies them.

How can your decision-making ability impact your life?
So, does being a maximizer or a satisficer impact on your overall life experiences and satisfaction? Unsurprisingly, the way you approach decisions can significantly impact how you feel about them.

This concept has been explored by numerous researchers. They have used the maximizers versus satisficers theory to explore how such a state determines an individual’s life satisfaction and attainment.

Bruine de Bruin et al (2007), for example, explored the connection between socioeconomic status, cognitive ability, and decision-making style. The research found that those with a stronger impulse to maximize on their decisions actually obtained worse life outcomes.

A satisficer’s ability to enjoy their decision also comes from the fact that it is based on their own criteria and needs. Whereas, as Starry Peng (2013) points out, maximizers are more likely to base their choice on external choices such as social status, reputation or reviews. The preoccupation with selecting the ‘best’ possible choice, therefore, can often mean that maximizers fail to consider their own needs and desires.

Constantly deliberating over the available options doesn’t necessarily mean that you are satisfied with your overall choice. Yang and Chiou (2010), looked into the decision making processes of those looking at online dating sites. Their study found that the availability of more search options lead to worse choices as it reduced an individual’s cognitive resources, making it harder for them to ignore irrelevant information and screen out unsuitable options.

Embracing what is ‘good enough’
Of course, there is the possibility that individuals can show characteristics of both maximizers and satisficers. Some people love to trawl the internet, investigating the pros and cons of a certain product and feel satisfied that they have chosen the best, fully researched option. The situation isn’t clear cut. However, according to psychologist Barry Schwartz, we have a lot to gain from taking the satisficers’ approach to life.

Schwartz recognizes that freedom of choice can bring autonomy and liberation to people. However, when we’re faced with too much choice, this can lead to reduced happiness and increased anxiety.


In Schwartz’s research, he increasingly found that when faced with an exhaustive amount of options, individuals question their decisions and blame themselves if the option they chose isn’t perfection. Referring to this concept as ‘The Paradox of Choice’, Schwartz encourages us to settle for what is ‘good enough’ rather than always striving for the perfect option.

The terms ‘maximizers’ and ‘satisficers’ help us to gain insight into our own decision-making processes. In a world where choices can seem endless, recognizing that many decisions we make are ‘good enough’ can go a long way in reducing anxiety and increasing our overall life satisfaction.
 
 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 04:08
Sexta-feira, 20 / 12 / 19

FOBO: The Reason You Struggle with Making Decisions and How to Overcome It.

Lottie Miles.

learning-mind.com

Posted December 18th, 2019.

 
fobo.

 


I’m sure that you have all heard of Fomo, or the ‘fear of missing out’, but have you heard about the ‘fear of better options’ (Fobo)? Fobo is consuming many of our thought patterns and affecting our behavior for the worst. The more anxious sister of Fomo, Fobo is attributed as the reason why some of us struggle to make even the simplest of decisions.

In this post, we take a closer look at the reasons behind Fobo. We will also give you some helpful steps to overcome the difficulties you may be having with making decisions.

What Is Fobo?

The freedom of choice we have access to in the modern world is indeed a privilege. However, with so many things to choose from, it can lead us to make no decisions at all. This is what the fear of better options relates to. In other words, when we are faced with a multitude of options, the fear of missing out on the best one leads us to a state of indecision.

The term Fobo was coined by the US venture capitalist Patrick McGinnis, who also came up with the term Fomo. According to McGinnis, Fobo is the “coping mechanism” we use to deal with the fear of making the wrong decision in case if “something better comes along”. However, the persistence of Fobo in our lives can lead to not only a general dissatisfaction in our own life, but also cause our friends, family, and colleagues to despair with us also.

McGinnis defines Fobo as being an “affliction of affluence” and is, therefore, restricted to the privileged who have the benefit of power and money to give them so many options. This is an affliction, therefore, that can also be used by large corporations, as well as individuals, as a justification for “not doing something”.

Discussion around the demotivating power of choice is not entirely new. Iyengar and Lepper’s study in 2000 concluded that individuals who had fewer options derived greater satisfaction from the decisions they made.

The concept of ‘maximizers’ and ‘satisficers’ has also been a popular phenomenon in psychology when discussing individuals’ approaches to decision making. ‘Maximizers’ are those that base their decisions on the maximum benefit later on. Whereas ‘satisficers’ settle for a decision based on more modest criteria (and less research).

The lack of commitment that maximizers show to their decisions, according to Joyce Erlinger from Florida State University, makes them less satisfied with their choices in the long term.

How to Overcome Fobo?
If the concept of Fobo is ringing true for you, then fear not. There are some steps you can take to improve your decision making power and overcome the constant fear of what better options are waiting for you around the corner. Here are some tips to set you in the right direction:
1. Recognize that you can never be aware of all your options
While it is normal to want to select the best option in all areas of your life, it is helpful to recognize that it’s impossible to examine all of the potential options available. Acknowledging this fact is a key part of beginning your journey to be released from the restraint of Fobo. It can also be beneficial to acknowledge that there may be multiple ‘best’ options. So, in making a decision, you’re one step closer to getting one of those.

2. Be clear about what it is you want
Fobo can lead to hours of research and deliberation. This results in a spiral of indecision, confusion and, ultimately, frustration. To overcome this, try making a set of clear criteria of what you want to get out of your decision. Make sure you restrict yourself to 3 or 4 criteria. Once you have found those criteria in an option, go for it.
3. Be honest with yourself
McGinnis states that an element of Fobo can derive from resistance to, or fear of, saying no to something. We may delay our decision by giving a tentative ‘maybe’ to an option which, when you’re honest with yourself, you know is not right for you. To prevent delaying the negative, saying no immediately can prevent the escalation of Fobo.
4. Set yourself a time limit
Your indecisiveness does not only affects your own experiences, but it can also influence those around you. Waiting for a decision can be a stressful time for others. Not to mention putting you in the bad books with those closest to you. Setting yourself a time limit to make a decision can be an effective way to improve your decision-making ability, and lead to greater satisfaction with your choices.

For instance, you’ve been given a few options for a Friday night but are worried about choosing the best option. In this instance, giving yourself a time limit of Wednesday to decide ensures that you can enjoy your weekend and prevent annoying your friends.
Final Thoughts

Having a fear of better options (Fobo) can have serious effects on your ability to enjoy your life. Never making a decision may result in you missing out on fun opportunities or important life chances. Fortunately, it is possible to tackle this obsession with finding perfection by following our simple steps.
 

 

Lottie Miles

 






 
About the Author: Lottie Miles


 
Lottie Miles is a professional researcher and writer with a passion for human rights. She has 4 years of experience working within the NGO sector and has a Masters Degree in Social Policy. She has a keen interest in exploring ways in which happiness habits can help to improve mental health and wellbeing. In her spare time, she likes doing crossword puzzles, painting and traveling.
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 02:27
Quarta-feira, 18 / 12 / 19

How to Master Self-Discipline in Your Life with 7 Tips

 

By Selenha Tomas 

Guest Authorlearning-mind.com

December 16th, 2019

 

Self-discipline.
 


Self-discipline is one thing we all struggle with. From eating “just one more” doughnut to waking up late every morning. It is all a matter of how self-disciplined we are, and it can be applied to all fields of life.

Some people like to live their lives by the book, and they are natural talents when it comes to self-discipline. But for the rest of us, it is like a skill. As such, it is something that we can learn and strive to master from early childhood.

Why Do We Need Self-Discipline?
The problem is, even though we have been introduced to the concept of self-discipline from early childhood, if you are not ready to fully commit to it, it does not get much easier with age. When we were kids, our mothers did not allow us to eat sweets before lunch. As adults, we can eat whatever we want whenever, but that does not mean we should. So instead of having a parent who will hide all the candies, now we have to hide them from ourselves.

Power of will, self-control, you can call it whatever you like, it is one of the key features of every successful person. The good news is that it can be taught. Even if you were not so great with it as a child or teen, it is never too late. Not only can you take over control of your life, but you can also learn how to be, and stay, self-disciplined.

We gathered here some of the most useful tips for becoming a true master. So, if you feel ready to make a change, keep on reading.
Tips on Mastering Self-Discipline
1. Set Your Goals


What are your goals? Do you want to eat better, sleep more, study harder, run faster, or be more productive at work? You have to know where you are going and what you want first. Only then can you create a list of things you need to do in order to reach your goal. It is all based on practice and developing healthy habits.

In the beginning, it is never going to be easy. However, after a while, your established routine is not going to be so annoying. In fact, it is going to become something you will do without thinking too much about it. Start writing a weekly planner and make a schedule which you will follow.
2. Acknowledge Your Weaknesses
Whether it is a slice of pizza at 11 PM, binge-watching, or procrastinating your work tasks, keep it real and be aware of your weaknesses. This is the only way to overcome them. Stop making excuses and start spending your time more wisely.

Bad habits are so tempting, and it is so easy to cheat. But think about the time and energy you are wasting. Instead of ordering fast food, put that money away and save it for travelling. Find something good to replace your unhealthy cravings.

3. Baby Steps
Many people tend to start some big changes from Monday or next week. But the thing is, you should not introduce all the changes at once. This is because you can not successfully turn your entire life upside down in one day.

Start with those changes that are doable. Slowly, make adjustments without putting too much pressure on yourself. Then gradually introduce new rituals or tasks. Eventually, you will get the result you wanted. There are no shortcuts. Self-discipline is like a learning process. Therefore, if you want to pass it, you have to go through all the stages.
4. Healthy Habits


Regardless of what your goals are, you should not forget about two essential things, sleeping and eating well. These two are the base, the core of self-discipline. So if you are not eating healthy or sleeping enough, you cannot consider yourself for a self-disciplined person.

These two are especially important for people who are trying to lose weight. But also in general, poor sleeping habits can trigger an eating disorder, insomnia, REM sleep behaviour disorder, and plenty of other things that will get on your way.
5. The Power of Will
It is all in your head. You are your biggest competitor. Likewise, the only boundaries that exist are the ones in your head. If you believe that you can not do this or that, then you probably are not going to be able to do it.

This willpower is based on our beliefs. As a result, it can either hinder our success or enhance it, depending on our inner beliefs. This can be tricky. For start, it has a lot to do with self-esteem, rational thinking, and personal subconscious obstacles.

6. Plan “B”
In general, it is always good to have a backup plan. But in situations like this, when you are trying so hard to change yourself, any small failure can be discouraging. That is why it is always good to have a plan B.

If you know that you are going to be in a tempting situation, think in advance. Put together ideas on how to stay in your lane, without breaking your rules. This type of strategy is something that psychologists like to call implementation intentions.
7. Treat Yourself
It is good to have small milestones and to reward yourself to boost your motivation. But that reward should not consist of things you are fighting against. For example, junk food, or playing video games the entire night. An idea of a reward waiting for you will give you the strength to continue. This is because a reward system is a powerful tool for success, and it will keep you focused on your goal.
Final Thoughts
People are creatures of habit, and somehow we tend to love the bad ones, especially. However, we should not allow our habits to control us. Our guide contains some general steps and tips that can be applied to any life situation which requires self-discipline. We hope it will help many of you. All those things you already know, but you never actually tried them.

Remember, all good things take time. So instead of rushing into changes, and then giving up on everything even quicker, take some time, be patient, be stubborn, and do it right. Don’t forget that once you establish your self-discipline, you need to nourish and maintain it because it will always depend on your mindset.

 

 

 
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Selena Thomas is a content writer from Counting Sheep who loves sharing tips on healthy lifestyles. A writer by day and a reader by night, she’s fond of writing articles that can help people in improving both physical and mental health. Also, she loves travelling and inspires people on her blogs.

 

 

 

 

COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.

 



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Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 

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publicado por achama às 03:16
Quarta-feira, 11 / 12 / 19

What Is Projection Bias and How to Avoid It at Work

Francesca Forsythe.

https://www.learning-mind.com

December 11th, 2019.

 
 
 
What you believe is true and what is actually true may not be the same thing, and this can lead us to projection bias.
 
When you’re working on an important project or just working with others, it’s important to understand other people are different from ourselves. If we are focused on something which means a lot to us, it’s easy to assume it will be just as important to others.
 
This can lead us to overlook the considerations and priorities of others. When this happens, it makes it very difficult to work with others as you can lose their interest or simply annoy them. This is called projection bias and it is vital to understand it to be able to mitigate its effects and work efficiently as a team.
 
What Is Projection Bias?
 
Projection Bias is the belief that others have the same priorities, attitudes or beliefs as we do. This is true however similar we are to the other person, as what we believe to be important, we consider to be important to others.
 
We are all inclined to believe our ideas are the best, especially if we have certain experiences others don’t. However, it is important to understand projection bias so that we can negate its negative impact.
 
Projection bias occurs when we are too caught up in our own beliefs and desires that we don’t understand the other person. Projection bias is linked to consensus bias which leads us to believe that others think like us and will agree with us. When suffering from projection bias, we ignore the thoughts of others because they don’t align with our own.
 
Imagine you and your team have been given an important project. You consider the first step to take on some market research to understand your consumer. You might believe this to be the most obvious and successful first step.
 
However, your coworker might believe the first step is to understand the product in order to market it effectively. This causes tension because you don’t agree and you might dismiss your coworker’s idea.
 
Why Does Projection Bias Happen?
 
When we are experienced, we tend to overestimate the regularity of our own ideas and best practices. We also have a certain idea of our own future success based on our previous successes.
 
This can make it difficult to empathize with others who may not share our expertise. As such, we use our current state as an anchor point for our decisions rather than being open-minded to the opinions of others.
 
How to Avoid Projection Bias
 
Recognize It
 
When you are aware of your own expertise in an area, this is where it might affect us most. The first step in avoiding projection bias is recognizing you may be suffering from it.
 
Recognize the areas in which you have particular strengths. When faced with a situation where you are working with others in this area, note that the bias might occur here.
 
Keep Your Mind Open
 
Secondly, try to stay open-minded. Just because you have experience in a certain area does not mean that your methods are perfect. Don’t let your own expertise narrow your thinking, because best practice is constantly changing.
 
Stay open to ideas that differ from your own and remember that others might not necessarily think the way you do. We are all capable of learning and adapting our work to improve.
 
When in a team situation, listen to others and respect what you hear.
 
You may not agree with them, but allow them to speak and consider their views. Listening is the key to making others feel respected. You cannot demand respect from others if you don’t give it to them. Give others time to explain their ideas and reasons behind them.
 
You might actually find yourself agreeing with their thought process, even if you don’t agree with the idea. When you don’t agree, it is okay to be critical and to ask pointed questions. This allows you to stretch your thinking but also helps others to grow.
 
Maintain an open dialogue and refrain from shutting down a conversation because you don’t agree. Building on each other’s ideas can be greatly beneficial both within a team but also in the final product.
 
Consider a collaboration of methods to attack the problem from many different angles. By formulating a holistic approach, you may find yourself working faster and to a higher standard.
 
Final Words
 
When making important decisions or working on big projects, we are all guilty of failed decision making. There are a number of biases that can affect us on a daily basis. It is important to recognize what these biases are and that we are not immune to them.
 
Identifying where we might be affected by projection bias is the first step in ensuring it does not impact on our work. It might take a little practice to get it right at first, but after time you will find yourself to be much more open to others. Working on yourself is the first step to working well with others.
References:
  1. https://scholar.harvard.edu
  2. https://www.cmu.edu
 
 

Francesca Forsythe





 

About the Author: Francesca Forsythe

Francesca is a freelance writer currently studying a degree in Law and Philosophy. She has written for several blogs in a range of subjects across Lifestyle, Relationships and Health and Fitness. Her main pursuits are learning new innovative ways of keeping fit and healthy, as well as broadening her knowledge in as many areas as possible in order to achieve success.
 
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 
Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

 
No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
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publicado por achama às 22:11
Terça-feira, 03 / 12 / 19

4 Leadership Styles and Examples Where They Can Be Used

Jamie Logie.

December 2nd, 2019. 

leadership styles.

 
 

 
Are you effectively leading people or not using the right leadership styles when needed?
 
You can probably think back to certain leaders in your life and the leadership styles they used. An effective leader can manage people effortlessly without having to be overbearing or ruthless. The best leaders are the ones you don’t even notice leading but can motivate and improve everyone around them.
 
Leadership is the ability to get amazing achievements from ordinary people. If this is the leader you would like to be – in any area of life – it helps to learn different leadership styles. This article will look at 4 styles of leadership and examples for where to use them.
 
What Are Some Key Leadership Styles?
 
As a leader, your job is to get things done by leading others to success. This can be on the grand stage of the leader of a country, down to running a volunteer charity. Whatever type of influence you have, leadership is all about getting the best out of others to accomplish a goal or task.
 
Your leadership style will depend on a few variables, such as the team you are working with or specific people within that team. A good leader can recognize when a certain style is needed and will pick the right one depending on the specific end goal. There are many styles of leadership, but here are a few of the best to help accomplish this.
 
1. The Structural Leadership Style
 
This style of leadership is a very straightforward style. Everything is laid out in black in white. Everyone knows what needs doing, why it needs to be done, and when it needs to be done by. This style of leadership is one that places more importance on yourself, and it’s important to recognize this.
 
You are the one in charge of picking the people, assigning them to the various tasks, and managing them with the expectation they will produce great work. The main responsibility falls on your shoulders with this style as you are the one calling all the shots. You do not need any input from other people and what you say, goes.
 
You would use this leadership style when team members need to be rewarded or disciplined. You would also use this style when you have a team that is already motivated, full of experts, and needs little direction. You don’t want to use the structural leadership style all the time, as it can lead to team members feeling overwhelmed. This style works best in a crunch time scenario.
 
2. The Participative Style Of Leadership
 
This style is when you put your team first. When you’re leading people this way, it shows that you really care about them. When you lead this way, you build more bonds and friendships. There is a focus on spending time with the team members and showing that you care. The best way to use this style of leadership is to treat your team members the same way you would treat a family member.
 
There is no task-master mentality here, and the leadership is all about respect. This creates a feeling of belonging for the people you lead and you tend to get better results from them this way. They get more of a feeling of ownership with what they are working on as they feel more connected and valued. Decisions are made by consensus and members have more input, hence being called participative.
 
You would use the participative leadership style when you need new ideas and fresh perspectives. It is also good to use it during times of stress and when team members are feeling overwhelmed. They will feel heard and listened to, and it helps to build and maintain trust.
 
3. The Servant Style
 
The servant style is taking the participative style to the next level. With this style of leadership, you serve the role of serving your team. The easiest way to approach this style is to treat others how you want to be treated aka managing others the way you want to be managed.
 
You make sure that everyone understands their jobs fully and provide any needed tools. This style helps to bring out the peak performance of your team members. This style may be the most rewarding for them as they feel catered to and appreciated. They are listened to and their ideas matter.
 
An example of when to use the servant style is if you find yourself with a diverse team. This would be a team where you need to personalize your management for each member. You may also want to consider this leadership style if you are starting out somewhere new or with a new team. This will help you build trust, respect, and loyalty.
 
You may not want to use the servant style for too long, however, as it may lead to a lack of direction for the team. It also may lead to a lack of authority and your team ending up running the show.
 
4. The Freedom Style
 
This is a style of leadership that requires a lot of faith in your team. With this style, you give your team a task and then basically stay out of the way. You will chime in only when needed. Your role here is to point the team in the right direction and then leave it up to them.
 
You obviously need the utmost confidence in your team, but if you’ve led them well up to this point, they should be able to thrive. This style is not recommended if you are just starting out in leading people. You need a great track record showing your ability to get results out of people. You also need a lot of expertise and a highly skilled team that doesn’t need much supervision.
 
This is an approach taken by the Pixar company: give a mediocre idea to a strong team and they will find a way to make it great.
Final Thoughts
 
There isn’t one best leadership style, as these 4 different ones are valuable in their own way. The effective leader is not the one who just intimately knows different styles of leadership but knows when to use them at the right time. Whether you use the freedom, servant, participative, or structural leadership style, you ultimately will know how to get the very best out of people.
 
References:


  1. https://www.researchgate.net/
  2. http://article.sapub.org/
 

About the Author: Jamie Logie

 


 

Jamie Logie is a personal trainer, nutritionist, and health and wellness specialist. Jamie also studied sociology and psychology at Western University and has a counseling diploma from Heritage Baptist College. He has run a blog and top-rated podcast on iTunes called "Regained Wellness". Jamie is also a contributing writer for places like the Huffington Post, Thrive Global, LifeHack and has an Amazon #1 book called "Taking Back Your Health".

 

 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 09:22
Sábado, 30 / 11 / 19

What Is Swedish Death Cleaning and Why You Should Practice It at Any Life Stage

Jamie Logie.

November 29th, 2019. 

 

 
 
If you’re looking for more organization in your life, you need to look into Swedish Death Cleaning.
 
This might be a brand new phrase to you, but it’s one that’s worth getting familiar with. Swedish Death Cleaning has to do with organization, and I’m sure you could use more of that in your life. But it goes far beyond just cleaning up around you.
 
This article will get you familiar with this method and why it’s something that you should practice at any stage of your life.
 
What Is Swedish Death Cleaning?
 
Think of Swedish Death Cleaning as decluttering. The big concept behind this is that as you declutter the mess around you, you declutter your mind. That’s the simple concept of it, but it goes deeper.
 
Look at your life at around the age of 50. You would have lived a large percentage of it, and though it may seem morbid, you are closer to the end.
 
This can now become about not leaving a ton of stuff behind that people have to clean up after you. Death Cleaning can be done at any time obviously, but the age of 50 is the ideal time to remove a lot of unnecessary things from your life. This will help you live a healthier happier life but also doesn’t burden those who would have to inherit and deal with all the stuff you’ve left behind.
 
In Sweden, they call this: “döstädning” and it is a combination of the words “dö” and “städning” which means “death” and “cleaning” respectively.
 
Swedish Death Cleaning does sound morbid, but it’s actually about freedom and living a happier life. When you remove excess clutter from around you, you open up the surrounding space. The things you keep and pass on will be of greater value and more meaningful – as opposed to just a bunch of junk.
 
This helps you to remember that you are not immortal and that there are responsibilities that you will leave behind. The idea is to leave as little a burden as possible.
 
Why Is Swedish Death Cleaning So Beneficial?
 
So that’s a good overview but, again, you need not wait until later in life to apply this. The sooner you start with removing unnecessary items from your life, the better. You may have heard about removing items that don’t bring joy to your life, and this is a good approach to take here too.
 
Swedish Death Cleaning is taking a good hard look at what you really don’t need. You are looking to permanently reorganize your life to make it more optimal and enjoyable. It is also a good exercise for the mind, and it helps you decide on what is truly valuable to you.
 
You also get a good dose of nostalgia as you get to remember why certain things are important for you. It helps you in remembering the past and appreciating what you have got. Swedish Death Cleaning is also something you don’t want to put off as it may help your mental health.
 
Paring down the items in your life lets you focus on the more important things making you happier. It also helps you to realize that happiness doesn’t come from stuff but from relationships. The more you focus on material possessions, you are more at risk to be unhappy, anxious, and even have low self-esteem.
 
It will also make you feel more productive and motivate you to tackle other projects and duties. Swedish Death Cleaning also can help you deal with the concept of your own mortality. It’s a tough subject, but many people don’t give it much thought – or avoid it altogether.
 
Acknowledging death is important to get a better sense of your self, how others see you, and how you want to be remembered.
 
Where Do You Start with Swedish Death Cleaning?
 
This style of cleaning is more than just dusting and rearranging the furniture. You are making conscious decisions to remove a majority of unneeded objects. The secret here is to not take everything on at once. If you try to overhaul everything in your life right away, it’s just going to leave you frustrated and defeated.
 
Instead, focus on one area at a time before moving on. And start SMALL. A good place is starting with your closets. You can devote all your attention to what you need and don’t need but not as overwhelming as trying to go through the garage or basement.
 
From there, you can move on to bigger projects such as going through the bathroom, then a living room. Take your time with each area and don’t feel that you have to do it all right away.
 
When you devote enough time to each area, you make it more likely to focus and finish it. As you move through these rooms and areas, you can gradually get bigger, such as going through your bedroom.
 
After progressing with these first areas, you should find yourself motivated and encouraged to tackle larger projects such as the basement, garage, or storage unit. And that’s why you want to start small. You need to build up this skill to become more efficient at it.
 
It’s also why you want to save the largest projects for the end. By that point, you should be an expert at deciding what has value and what I do not need. You will have tapped into your emotions that help you decide this and will have become better at letting things go.
 
Final Thoughts
 
You can see now that Swedish Death Cleaning is more than just “tidying up.” This is a psychological practice that helps you control your life and prepare you for the future.
 
It helps you consider your own mortality and makes you aware of the impact you have on the lives of others. It also hopefully helps you to take stock of your own life, find out what is truly meaningful, and leave the right type of legacy behind.
 
References:
 
 

About the Author: Jamie Logie

 


 
Jamie Logie is a personal trainer, nutritionist, and health and wellness specialist. Jamie also studied sociology and psychology at Western University and has a counseling diploma from Heritage Baptist College. He has run a blog and top-rated podcast on iTunes called "Regained Wellness". Jamie is also a contributing writer for places like the Huffington Post, Thrive Global, LifeHack and has an Amazon #1 book called "Taking Back Your Health".
 

 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 06:11
Sexta-feira, 29 / 11 / 19

How to Deal with Job Burnout and Achieve Work-Life Balance

By Valerie Soleil.

learning-mind.com.

Posted November 28th, 2019. 

 


 
Technically speaking, burnout implies the cessation of operation of a jet or a rocket engine. Projecting this definition onto the office landscape, job burnout closely relates to work stress. Indeed the term ‘burnout’ in this context was first introduced by Freudenberger (1974). He pointed to the occupational hazards professionals are exposed to when working under difficult conditions.
 
Job Burnout: Facts and Stats
 
Although burnout can happen in any job sector, professionals who are at a high-risk exposure to experiencing it include:
  • Doctors
  • Nurses
  • Firefighters
  • Police officers
  • Social workers
  • People in design-related jobs
  • Business development
  • Retail workers
  • Sales
 
Overall, 63% of U.S. workers admitted that their unhealthy lifestyle choices were caused by stress at work. In fact, job burnout got so widespread that in 2019 the World Health Organization included it into the International Classification of Diseases. Thus, recognizing it as a medical condition.
 
Narrowing the long list of job burnout symptoms to the top three, we should mention the following major red flags. These flags are signals that one should to stop, reconsider one’s work situation, change it or ask for help:
  • Energy depletion
  • Negativism/cynicism towards one’s work
  • Reduced professional efficacy
 
So, these are the major red flags that indicate job burnout, but what puts a person at risk in the first place?
 
 
Risk Factors That Can Lead to Job Burnout
  • Long hours and schedule mismanagement
  • Lack of job security (especially valid for freelancing and part-time employment)
  • Low reward (the motivation killer number one)
  • Lack of ability to set/categorize priorities
  • Perfectionism (one of the factors ‘responsible’ for procrastination resulting in low morale)
  • Total focus on numbers/analytics (leading to chasing the wrong priorities)
Lack of boundaries between work and life
  • Excessive interaction
  • Numerous digital apps
 
The anxiety resulting from being exposed to the factors listed above eventually leads to:
  • Mental overactivity
  • Restlessness
  • Loss of concentration
 
In case the irritation becomes the permanent reaction to the job environment, you might feel provoked to go ballistic. Then again, you may get snappy with people you never intended to hurt.
 
This is a ‘classic’ burnout scenario. Fortunately, there is a proven antidote to take control before physical and emotional exhaustion hits you. It is called balance.
 
Why You Need to Keep Balance
 
You can invest all your energy, effort, and mental focus into work. However, over time, you might notice that you finish the day by feeling overwhelmed and lacking focus. First, you can feel a lack of motivation and pleasure. Whereas sometime later it can progress to forgetfulness and fatigue.
 
Ironically, you need a balance between work and life. Not only to experience the state of internal and external wellbeing but to be better at work. Indeed, aside from the health benefits, balance is important for assisting you in achieving your goals without taking shortcuts on the important things in life. For example, friendships, hobbies, or activities that fill you up.
 
Paraphrasing the famous quote by Warren Buffet on the ability to say no as the tipping point for reaching true success. We can suppose the ability to maintain balance to be the point that keeps you fired up about your work without causing job burnout.
 
“The difference between successful people and really successful people is that really successful people say no to almost everything.” Warren Buffett
 
So what do you need to do in case you feel at the borders of burnout? Make it a goal to restore balance. And the best way to start is? Stop and retreat to rest and take a step back to give your mind time to pacify.
 
It will allow you to see where exactly your priorities setting went messy and where you lost visibility of the key component. This is, of course – you. Once you managed to clear your mind, you can start strategically choose to distribute your focus. Particularly when it comes to maintaining your wellbeing. You can start by trying the practical tips we offer below.
 
How to Deal with Job Burnout: Practical Tips
 
 
In the workplace
 
Track your work time
 
With the current digitally-mediated lifestyles, it is easy to lose track of the time we spend working or just surfing the net. So applying a simple time tracker could be a game-changer. By knowing the precise amount of time you dedicate to work will help you set priorities.
 
It is known that people tracking what they do considerably (and immediately!) improve their performance. In addition, and, what is even more important, it raises awareness. This helps avoid over-scheduling and overloading.
 
Organize your ideal workspace
 
It is crucial you minimize the stress factors. For instance, poor lighting, noise, and polluted air. Ideally, you need natural light, noise-cancelling earphones, and a well-ventilated office.
 
If you cannot have total silence at work opt for ‘right’ music
 
The music without lyrics proves to make you more energized and productive. There is a lot of research available on this topic now. So, taking the time to understand what works best for you is a wise move for maintaining your mental health.
Automate routine
 
With the diversity of digital tools, it is easy to choose those that would assist you in facilitating work. In addition, eliminating tedious tasks off your schedule. For example, consider using task planners, online calendars, grammar editors, and design creators. All of these applications save time and minimize job daily demands).
 
Plan ahead
 
Sounds like a no brainer, but the trick is, you need to plan two big tasks prior to the day you want to perform them. It will reduce pressure and prevent over-commitment and emotional toll.
Make just a few decisions
 
This tip is of special value for those who want to embrace the leadership role. It might sound unconventional but, actually, it keeps you from feeling trapped in the pseudo productivity abyss. Confusing busy and productive leads to focusing on the quantity instead of quality. Moreover, it causes decision fatigue.
 
Outside the workplace
 
To amplify and support our natural ways of being, we should:
  • Be aware that after work you can feel decision fatigue which is responsible for impulse purchasing
  • Try to plan the out-of-work time with the same efforts you are investing in planning your work; simply because you owe yourself ‘me’ time
  • Say no to work-related emails and calls after your working day is over
  • Manage your diet and sleep routine as they are the basis of physical and mental wellbeing.
 
Paradoxically, you can avoid job burnout by managing your time off and giving your body extra care. Walking and exercising let you get rid of the burden of screens everywhere. In addition, they keep you active and healthy. Remember, a healthy body helps to instil in your mind the ‘idea of enough’ not to slip into the burnout pit.
 
Final Thoughts
 
 
 
Burnout may make people feel tired out and cynical about work duties, so preventing the occupational hazards that might deprive us of realizing our full potential must never slip off our daily agenda.
 
Check on the statements that prove you are currently NOT prone to burnout:
  • My work is interesting and fulfilling.
  • I do not feel tired before I arrive at work.
  • I mostly talk about my work in a positive way.
  • When I work, I feel energized.
  • I do not need much time to relax after work.
  • I cope with work pressure quite well.
  • It doesn’t happen often that do my job mechanically.
  • I’ve got enough energy for my leisure activities
  • The tasks I do during the working day seem fine to me.
  • I’m engaged in my work.
 
If you feel that you cannot relate to most of these statements, it’s probably time to put yourself on pause. Then you can reconsider your work routine and restore work-life balance.
 
Remember that once burnout creeps into your life, it is a sign you are in need of drastic change. Take it as the time to take a break.
 
Time to apply a new strategy to manage it all – because you can.
 

Valerie Soleil


 



 
About the Author: Valerie Soleil


Valerie Soleil is a writer with over 5 years of experience and holds a bachelor degree in law and a B.A. in Psychology. She is a physical & mental health enthusiast who constantly expands her knowledge about the mysteries of the human body and mind. Some of the activities Valerie is particularly passionate about are traveling and reading because they help her broaden her horizons.
 
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 

 



 

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publicado por achama às 08:59
Domingo, 24 / 11 / 19

How the Psychology of Money Subtly Affects Your Personality and Life

Sherrie Hurd.

learning-mind.com

Posted November 24, 2019.

psychology of money.


 
 
What is the psychology of money? Yes, you heard it right, there are many psychological aspects and they do influence the way we live.
 
Most people think only in the terms of, “make money/spend money/invest money/save money” or something to that effect, but the subject of the money goes much deeper than that.
 
 
In fact, there are psychological reasons why we spend, make or save money. There are also reasons for the way we secretly feel about its place in our lives.
 
How does money truly affect us?
 
Believe it or not, there are several ways that money affects us psychologically. It can even sometimes feel as if we’re slaves to it, always finding reasons to buy things and fewer reasons to save. But that’s only for some. For others saving money comes easier, and yes, it’s all psychological.
 
A few secrets of the psychology of money
 
Supernatural money
 
One of the first things that I want to get out of the way is the supernatural stigma that’s attached to money. This includes gambling, curses, and other strange ideas which mix your mindset with money. When it comes to gambling, money is seen as a reward for luck and risk alike, depending on which one you believe in.
 
Some people believe that too much money can be a curse, or the lack of money is from a curse. Some spiritual individuals see money as “the root of all evil”, but let’s face it, money is just an object in and of itself. But who am I to judge these beliefs.
Money breeds entitlement
 
Sometimes and with only some people, money causes a change in personality, for the worst, that is. When some people come into a greater financial status, their personalities change, taking on a sense of entitlement. To them, this change means a change in how they can treat others, and how others should treat them.
 
Although from this standpoint, we can see how ridiculous that is, just win the lottery and see if you feel any different. I bet most of us would look down our noses just a bit more than usual. Of course, that’s just an assumption, but a well-researched one.
Less money, more empathy
 
Although this might sound silly, those of lower-income have a better sense of how other people feel, thus more empathetic. Wealthier people, although intelligent in their own right, seem to pay less attention to those things.
 
You see, when you have plenty of money, you tend to be more occupied with purchases and savings, even investments, not people surrounding you. I’m not saying that you care, it’s just money keeps you busy in a much different way.
 
Lower-income people are concerned with making ends meet, getting bills paid, and also saving. The thing is, I’ve noticed more lower-income people giving money to others when they needed money themselves. They could feel as the others felt and understand the plight of being near the poverty level.
 
The fear of losing money is also less prevalent among the lower-income population because concerns are built on empathy. Fellow people are more important than worrying about a financial solution.
More money, judged and envied
 
On the flip side of the psychology of money, you will find many poorer people making false judgments against wealthier people. Many feel that people who have a lot of money are cold and snobby.
 
Some lower-income people even envy the wealthy and see them as being greedy because they don’t share, whether or not they actually do share or not.
 
The rich aren’t trusted and the bigger the corporation, the more “evil” they must be. Even though this is a loose assumption of what some people think, it forms the way they feel about money itself. Secretly, this sort of psychological effect of money is causing rifts between lower and higher-income groups.
 
Wealth and happiness
 
A common question: “Does being rich mean you’re happy?” Well, I have an easy answer for that. No. In fact, there seems to be a higher rate of depression and narcissism in the wealthy than in lower-income groups. Overall, however, it really doesn’t make much difference whether you’re rich or poor.
 
Happiness can be found in many places, including areas that require no money at all. Even though the psychology of money has slipped into the idea of happiness, fewer people are depending on money as their source of success. Isn’t that fascinating?
 
Financial avoidance, leading to anxiety
 
There comes a time where money becomes a problem, your spending or investment habits have become the problem. There also comes a time when important decisions need to be made involving money in some way, and there can be various situations. Here’s where psychology connects with money.
 
So many of us are stricken with procrastination or even worse, avoidance, which is a bit different where the money is concerned. We avoid financial situations we need to take care of, and the situation generally gets worse, causing anxiety. When they get worse, many people use avoidance once again, causing more anxiety.
 
The fear of facing the problem becomes tremendous. If you would face the problem, yes, the anxiety would temporarily reach extreme levels, but as you work through the mess you’ve made, anxiety gradually reduces and so does your problem.
The psychology of money can also be good
 
Although worrying about money and judging others with money are negative frames of mind, you could also strive to reach goals, as well. You could use psychological factors to work for you and not against you.
 
You must remember, each culture has a certain way of viewing money. While some see it as everything, others see little value in this sometimes “worshipped “ exchange, believe it or not. So, it depends on where you are, who you are, and, again, your psychological view of money.
 
And I’ve only scratched the surface of the psychology of this coveted possession. Money has become somewhat of a taboo subject.
 
Most people, unfortunately never dig any deeper than obtaining, saving, investing, and spending of money, as I said before. So, before you brush the topic off, think about money a bit harder, and ask yourself one question.
 
“What are the psychological effects that money has on my life?”
 
You might learn quite a bit about yourself.
 
References:
 
 
Sherrie Hurd

 

 

Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us. 

 
 

 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 18:47
Sábado, 23 / 11 / 19

3 Ways Freedom of Thought Is Being Compromised Today and What to Do

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

November 22nd, 2019.

 
FREEDOM OF THOUGHT.
 
 

 
Luckily, the majority of us have free speech, but what about freedom of thought? Surely we own our thoughts? There is nothing that can influence them? I mean, we are not living in some dystopian future where we have to monitor what we think. And as far as I’m aware, no one can delve into our minds to know exactly what we are thinking.
 
But we are being influenced. So how is this happening and what can we do about it?
 
Why Freedom of Thought Ιs So Important
 
First of all, why is the freedom to have an uninfluenced thought process so important? Undoubtedly, the Theory of Mind (ToM) is what sets us apart from other animals. This is the ability to think and to process thoughts. It’s what makes us human. But what exactly is a thought?
 
Thinking allows us to make sense of the world around us. Therefore, a thought is a single product of this thinking. The way we ponder, process emotions, plan for the future, daydream about a loved one, construct a mental shopping list, or go over an argument in our minds. These are all examples of different thoughts.
 
Lots of things influence our thoughts. Our senses, past experiences, our environment, what we read, see and hear our family and friends, basically everything around us. Thoughts are important because they lead to decisions and actions. They affect us in our daily lives. We make choices based on our thoughts. Anything from what kind of sandwich to eat at lunch to who we’ll vote for at an election.
 
Therefore, freedom of thought is essential. We don’t want anyone or anything influencing our way of thinking. But research shows this is exactly what is happening.
The Way We Think Is Changing
 
We have made great strides in psychology over the past few decades. In the 19-century, a person with a mental illness would be labelled ‘feebleminded’. Fast forward to the 21-century and we now have 265 actual mental disorder diagnoses in the most recent DSM-5. We should know how freedom of thought can be compromised. Instead, the very advances in understanding the human mind are being used to restrict it.
 
Likewise, the way technology works now compared to even a decade ago is far-reaching. Was the term ‘fake news’ even a thing 10 years ago? Who had heard of Russian troll farms or bots a few years ago? However, these technological innovations are manipulating our thoughts, even though we still believe we have the freedom to think the way we do.
How Freedom of Thought Is Compromised
Psychological Understanding
 
Understanding the way we think is crucial if you want to manipulate it. Now experts in psychology know all about mental biases, how we make decisions and what influences our behaviour.
 
So, how does this work in the real world? Say you were a small company selling your products. You wanted to increase sales. You would use every psychological trick in the book to get your customers to buy, not only in the first place but repeatedly. This is a basic example of how thought and the freedom to think clearly are compromised.
 
 
Anyone with this knowledge can use it to their advantage. For example, politicians, social media sites, large brands. Politician play on their voter’s natural stereotypes or biases. Big brands exploit customer’s mental affiliation with their logos and symbols. Social media sites have a huge pool of data, ready to be captured, analysed and put to use.
Social Media Manipulation
 
Talking of social media, the founder of Facebook got into a lot of trouble in 2014. He admitted to a ‘mood experiment’ carried out on its users. In a vast experiment, the social media site found that by posting certain information on people’s pages it could make them feel more positive or negative.
 
Now, obviously this has far-reaching ramifications. We assume Facebook is not purposely manipulating the way we feel. But this is just the tip of the iceberg.
 
Facebook has recently acquired a ‘mind-reading’ company. The company makes a wristband that decodes electronic signals from the brain. The purpose? To control your computer with your mind. As one Facebook member said:
 
 
“Oh. Look at that. Facebook’s newest venture: harvesting thoughts,” Facebook member
 
But Facebook isn’t the only one who is using mindreading tech. Other major computer tech firms, such as Microsoft, are also in the game of gathering up our thoughts and restricting our freedom in the process.
Advanced Technology
 
We are certainly influenced by social media. Many of us, in fact, get our news from online sources, and not the paper versions. This is highly susceptible to manipulation. In fact, only yesterday, one political party was severely warned by Twitter for changing their Twitter name to FactCheckUK, during a contentious leader’s debate in the UK.
How to Ensure Your Thoughts Are Not Manipulated
 
We often react instinctively and quickly. This reflex action comes from the old reptilian part of our brain. This old ancient brain makes quick mental shortcuts. It has to, in order for us to survive. It helped our ancestors quickly make decisions that were life-saving.
 
 
But, in today’s world, we don’t need this rapid reflex-thinking so much. The problem with thinking instinctively and quickly is that we rely on past stereotypes. And this is where biases can occur.
 
We can stop these biases by taking a reasonable amount of time to think and then make our decision. In this way, we weigh up all the evidence, not just what is being presented to us, but what we research ourselves. Then we can make an informed choice.
 
Furthermore, if we have a clearer understanding of how our minds work, we can spot the manipulators a mile off. Don’t con a con I always say!
Tips to Protect the Freedom of Your Thoughts
Don’t make instant decisions
Allow yourself the space to walk away and come back to the issue
Think about why you are getting so emotional
Has what you have read/watched quickly reinforced your own beliefs?
Are you only getting the same views echoed back to you?
Take time to get other people’s views
Don’t be pressurised to make a choice
Participate in discussions where others share an opposing view
Final Thoughts
 
It’s hard not to feel instantly gratified when someone agrees with you. Or when you get your bias confirmed. It is much harder to step back and analyse your own way of thinking.
 
Are you really expressing your own thoughts? Or has your freedom been compromised? Ensuring that we have the freedom to think an authentic thought is essential. Otherwise, how will we ever know if the choices and decisions we make are from our true self?
 
References:
Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 13:34
Sábado, 09 / 11 / 19

4 Most Interesting Memory Theories That Explain How Our Brain Works

By Valerie Soleil.

learning-mind.com.

Posted November 9th, 2019. 

 

 



 
Memory has long been a concept too difficult to describe by even the smartest scholars. We have become more knowledgeable over time. However, we still do not know enough about the complexities of the human mind when it comes to theories about memory.
 
Theories That Explain Memory Encoding, Storing and Forgetting
 
“Without memory, there is no culture. Without memory, there would be no civilization, no society, no future” Elie Wiesal
 
In order for information to become a memory, it needs to have a form. At present, there are three main types: Visual (picture), Acoustic (sound), and Semantic (meaning). So, a song, a beautiful sunset, or a poem has to be manipulated into a code that the brain understands for it to become a memory.
 
The Multi-Store Memory Model
 
Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) devised one of the first memory structures and theories. In order to become a memory, information has to pass through three stores.
 
The first of which is the sensory memory store.
 
This lasts up to a quarter of a second. This holds any and all sensory experience around an individual (what they see, hear, taste). Encoding in this specific store is sensory specific. Most of the information which passes through this store decays very quickly unless the individual pays attention to it.
 
Once an individual pays attention to a specific sensory input, it then enters the short-term memory store.
 
The duration in this store can be up to 30 seconds and it can only hold 7 (+ or – 2) items (Miller, 1956) depending on the individual. Encoding in this store is mainly auditory. But, this information cannot enter the longterm memory store until it has been rehearsed.
 
The long-term memory store is mainly unlimited in terms of duration and capacity.
 
As this store cannot be tested there is no limit to how long a memory can stay in it. The majority of information in the long-term memory store has to be rehearsed from the short-term memory store. The encoding of the memories is semantic, but can also take other forms.
 
The multi-store memory model has received support due to evidence backing up the idea of a respective short-term and long-term memory store. However, some argue that the model may be oversimplified and favour other theories such as the working memory model.
 
The Working-Memory Model
 
Baddley and Hitch (1974) developed an alternative memory theory slightly more advanced and complex than its predecessor. They replaced the idea of a short-term memory store. Instead, they proposed the idea of multiple separate stores within short-term memory. The “working memory”.
 
The first aspect of the working memory model compared to other memory theories is the central executive. This has several roles. The first of which drives the whole system of working memory.
 
Furthermore, it also allocates information to the other stores within the working memory system whilst tackling cognitive tasks such as problem-solving
 
The visuospatial sketchpad essentially deals with visual or spatial information. We use this for navigation. it allows us to move around, depending on where objects are in our environment.
 
The last store within the working memory system would be the phonological loop. This refers to any auditory information and holds speech-based information for up to two seconds.
 
The articulatory process (our inner voice) is located within the phonological loop. We repeat and rehearse information using the loop. As a result, we store this information for longer.
 
The working memory model is supported by dual-task studies. Results prove that individuals can complete two tasks at the same time where each task requires different working memory systems.
 
Furthermore, the working memory model does not over-rely on placing importance on the idea of rehearsal for the retention of memories.
 
How We Forget (Based on Memory Theories)
 
These two memory theories concentrate on how memories are stored. However, there is little information on how or why we forget.
 
Ebbinghaus (1885) tested his own memory. He found that retention at the time of learning is 100%. However, this drops very quickly a couple of days after learning. After a few weeks, forgetting slows down but there remains a decline in retention.
 
He proposed that there are a few ways to increase the likelihood of retaining information for a longer period of time without forgetting. The first was the representation of the memory (e.g. people might find it easier to remember information using mnemonic techniques). Additionally, spaced out repetition also helps speed up retention dramatically.
 
However, there are various factors which are dependent on how one’s rate of forgetting is affected. This includes, but is not limited to:
  • The meaningfulness of information (we are more likely to remember personal information).
  • Second of all, the representation of information (simple, shorter chunks of information are easier to remember).
  • Thirdly, physiological factors such as stress and sleep.
 
Flashbulb Memories
 
Flashbulb memories (Brown and Kulik (1977), refer to memories which do not need rehearsal in order to be remembered. This is one of the memory theories which suggests that there is some information which is so emotionally and biologically arousing it causes immediate retention.
 
One example may be that millions of people are able to give detailed accounts of their day on 9/11. Some may include extremely mundane and repetitive tasks. These would be usually unremarkable. However, they are remembered with vivid clarity due to the significance of the date.
 
Final Thoughts on Memory Theories
 
Overall, our memories are extremely complex. Current memory theories are placing us on the right track. But the question on many people’s minds is, will we ever know about the true nature of human memory?
 
References:
 
 

Valerie Soleil

 



 
About the Author: Valerie Soleil


Valerie Soleil is a writer with over 5 years of experience and holds a bachelor degree in law and a B.A. in Psychology. She is a physical & mental health enthusiast who constantly expands her knowledge about the mysteries of the human body and mind. Some of the activities Valerie is particularly passionate about are traveling and reading because they help her broaden her horizons.
 
 
Copyright © 2012-2019 Learning Mind. All rights reserved. For permission to reprint, contact us.
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 

 



 

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publicado por achama às 22:34
Domingo, 03 / 11 / 19

The Difference between Objective and Subjective Truth and the Illusion We All Believe

Francesca Forsythe.

https://www.learning-mind.com

October 30th, 2019.

 



 
How do we know whether our truths are the real truths, or is the truth simply an illusion?
 
What Is the Difference Between Objective and Subjective Truth?
 
Truth is a continuous concept in all places, all situations and at all times. However, what one person believes to be the truth may not be agreed on by someone else. On the other hand, there are other truths, which everyone believes to be true.
 
For example, I doubt you would disagree with me that the year has 365 days, or that the internet exists. How else would you be reading this article? This gives us two different species of truth: objective and subjective truth.
 
However, there is a famous saying that in any situation, there are three truths: your truth, my truth, and the real truth. This saying exemplifies what we are talking about when we ask the question of what the difference between objective and subjective truth is.
 
So, let us explore these different kinds of truth and the illusions they can lead us to believe.
 
What Is the Objective Truth?
 
Objective truth is something that is true for all people, no matter what their culture or religious beliefs. These truths are fundamental truths. I don’t need to tell you the exact temperature of fire to tell you that fire is hot. In the same way, I don’t need to tell you that you need food to survive.
 
Objective truths are, therefore, recognized by all people, whether or not they realize they are recognizing it.
What Is the Subjective Truth?
 
Subjective truth is similarly based on a person’s beliefs but not all people may agree with it. This kind of truth is present in things like religion. One person may believe that the existence of God is the truth, where another person may not.
 
People also form their own judgments of the truth of a situation based on the information they have. However, this judgment may change should this person receive some new information.
 
For example, I may believe that my friend has not invited me to their party and be mad at them. Yet, when I find out that they simply forgot to send the invitation, I am no longer mad at them as it was a simple mistake.
 
Subjective truth is, therefore, my truth.
 
How Do Objective and Subjective Truths Interact?
 
  • Situations such as this exemplify the saying that there are three versions of the truth. When having a conversation with a friend, they may take something I say the wrong way.
  • My version of the truth containing the meaning of what I said (subjective truth).
  • My friend’s version of the truth that I meant it differently (subjective truth).
  • The third version of the truth is inclusive of what I said, how it was meant, but also the way in which I said it which led to my friend’s misinterpretation. This third version of the truth is the objective truth.
 
The more information I have about a situation or the facts relevant to it bring me closer to the objective truth. Until I know everything there is to know about a situation, I cannot say I know the objective truth about it.
 
Therefore, the only objective truths we really have are those fundamental truths on which everyone can agree at all times, which do not require further inquiry.
 
The Illusion of Truth
 
The truth is important to us because we never want to be wrong about something. However, the downside of this is that we are constantly looking for truth. This can lead us to a truth fallacy, where we believe something to be true which really isn’t.
 
Repetition Is Truth
 
Our brains are susceptible to believing something to be true if we hear it several times. Many people believe that the Great Wall of China is visible from space because they’ve heard it so many times. However, this is not true.
 
Other examples of this are that bulls hate the color red, or that we only have five senses. Neither of these is true, but we have heard them so many times that we believe them to be.
 
 
Scientists have regularly found that subjects are much more likely to believe something to be true if they hear it repeatedly. This repetition gives us cognitive ease which plays an important role in daily life. It allows us to feel more secure in what we know and in our interactions with the world.
 
It is important to understand how the illusion of truth works. By understanding this phenomenon, it allows us to be more critical of the ‘facts’ we hear constantly. With this critical thinking comes the power to seek out actual truths and get closer to the objective truths of the world.
 
The world is a complex, sometimes confusing place to live. The constant changing manner of science and nature makes it almost impossible to know the objective truth of our circumstances. Subjective truth allows us to maintain a level of security, but it is not infallible.
 
Final Thoughts
 
The only truth which can be really trusted is objective truths, but these take a lot of work to find. We are constantly learning, and the pursuit of knowledge is vital to understand the line between what we believe to be true and what is fundamentally true.
 
References:
 
 
 



 

About the Author: Francesca Forsythe

Francesca is a freelance writer currently studying a degree in Law and Philosophy. She has written for several blogs in a range of subjects across Lifestyle, Relationships and Health and Fitness. Her main pursuits are learning new innovative ways of keeping fit and healthy, as well as broadening her knowledge in as many areas as possible in order to achieve success.
 
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 
Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

 
No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 


All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 
 
 
 

 
 
Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily
 
 
 
 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 01:47
Sexta-feira, 12 / 07 / 19

5 Examples of Herd Mentality and How to Avoid Falling into It ~ Sherrie.

5 Examples of Herd Mentality and How to Avoid Falling into It.

By Sherrie.

July 11th, 2019

 
 
 
It’s easy to fall into the herd mentality without even thinking. Following the leader isn’t always good.
People may not be animals, but they still often exhibit a herd mentality. What this means is they tend to congregate in groups to perform certain objectives or uphold common beliefs. There are ways that herd mentality can benefit us in the short term, I will not lie, but there are also reasons why we should avoid this train of thought altogether.


Unlike mob mentality

Individuals who operate in herds are different than those who contribute to mobs. Mobs are often seen as violent or aggressive groups. Being in a herd is basically being a part of the “in crowd” or adhering to a majority mentality. We see this in religious organizations and school affiliations.
Here are examples and explanations of the herd mentality.

1. Black Friday
I’m starting with one of the largest global phenomena in recent times – Black Friday. If there was ever a more moldable herd of people, it would be this group. Every year, on Thanksgiving day and the weekend following, Black Friday hits most retail stores and online sites offering ridiculous discounts in pricing.

When this happens, people go mad. More and more individuals are following the masses into this hysterical mode of shopping. Following the leader has never been so massive, and it doesn’t seem like it’s going to be slowing down any time soon.

2.Investing

The herd mentality can also be seen in investments as well. Instead of making independent decisions, many will make moves depending on emotions and instinct. Social aspects are also a huge part of how people herd together to invest in certain stocks.
Investors will make rash decisions solely based on what their close friends are doing. Most people choose to do what others do simply because of the fear of embarrassment or the fear of being wrong. This fear of being wrong sometimes even goes against the better judgment of making a different choice that seems more logical – a judgment call that could be more profitable in the long run.

3. Choosing restaurants

Being a part of a herd also shows when looking for a place to eat. Let’s be honest, if you saw two restaurants that were almost exactly alike, one was crowded and one was almost empty, which would you choose? I think you would choose the busy and crowded one.
At least, this is true if you have a herd mentality. Many people think that if a restaurant is busy, the food must be better, and yet, it could only be a coincidence. This is a simple example, but it’s true, isn’t it?

4. Social groups

Just like in high school, the herd mentality can rear its head during adulthood. When it comes to making friends and being a part of a social group, people tend to gravitate toward larger groups or groups of popular and extroverted individuals.
In school, peer pressure told us that we were outcasts if we weren’t friends with certain people. Unfortunately, this attitude carries into later life more often than you think. Pay close attention and you may see a herd of people comprised of identical mentalities.

5. Beliefs/spirituality

As I mentioned earlier, herd mentality can be present in belief systems as well. There are many self-professed teachers in this area who are more than willing to share “truths” to others.
A following sometimes develops, not entirely unlike a cult, I venture to say. A person’s beliefcan quickly become a community’s belief. The bigger the community the larger the influence for others to join.

Why is herd mentality unhealthy?

Hey, let’s look at herd mentality this way – if you have a huge group of people of sub-par intelligence, and you add a few highly intelligent people to the large group, do you think the group will become smarter? No.
With the herd mentality, the intelligence level of the group does not change when a different form of stimulus joins. It’s usually the opposite. Most of the time, if intelligent people decide to join such a group, their higher intelligence is dormant to the group, or rather ignored.
All in all, I think we should avoid the herd mentality, and here are a few ways to do that.

Accept conflict

Instead of conforming to the norm, choose the other choice, so to speak. Stop going the easy route and agreeing with people, just because you live with them or they are part of your family. They could even be friends.
It’s easy to become part of the herd, and going against the grain is hard… but you must choose conflict in order to pull away from this mentality. You should practice saying no, get used to confrontations, and choose that road that many others abandon. This is how you start.

Know thyself

Who are you? I mean, if no one else existed, who would you be? Most people identify themselves with some connection to another. When I was younger and married, I often identified as a wife or a mother.
Here’s the thing. One way to find out if you are falling into herd mentality is to spend time with yourself. Find out what makes you happy without any influence of another human being. This is how you know yourself and this is how you sever from the majority rules concept.

Disagree some more

Yes, I mentioned saying no, but you must go further. Stop agreeing with people just because you feel they are going to be picked for promotions or because they’re the popular group. If you feel like disagreeing, then do it.
Sometimes just disagree to surprise the majority and shake up the room. Taking a stand against the majority vote, for instance, will help you further achieve your individuality and tear away from the group. After all, who really knows where these herds are going anyway?

It’s never too late to leave the herd

If you’ve been following the herd for a while now, you can still change this mentality. After a while of following the masses, you may feel a part of yourself dying. This is a wake-up call that you’re falling in deep.
Take some time and look at what your following, who you’re following and why. You may be surprised by what you find. Maybe you can avoid falling into the herd mentality altogether if you’re lucky.
References:
  1. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk
  2. https://www.sciencedaily.com
 

 

 
About the Author: Sherrie

Sherrie is a freelance writer and artist with over 10 years of experience. She spends most of her time giving life to the renegade thoughts. As the words erupt and form new life, she knows that she is yet again free from the nagging persistence of her muse. She is a mother of three and a lifetime fan of the thought-provoking and questionable aspects of the universe.
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 

 
 

 
Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 
 
 



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


More @ http://violetflame.biz.ly and 
https://rayviolet.blogspot.com/




 

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publicado por achama às 23:29
Sábado, 29 / 06 / 19

The Bandwagon Effect: How It Affects Your Decisions without You Knowing

The Bandwagon Effect: How It Affects Your Decisions without You Knowing.

By Janey Davies.

June 28th, 2019.

 
 

 



 

We all like to think we are completely unbiased when we make decisions, but, actually, there are a number of things that influence us. One of them is the Bandwagon Effect.

What is the Bandwagon Effect?

The Bandwagon Effect is a psychological cognitive bias in which people do, say or believe something, despite their own beliefs because they see others doing it. Therefore, it must be right.

Where did it originate?

Nowadays, the saying is most associated with politics, consumer behaviour and the stock market. But where did it come from?
Most of us have heard of ‘jumping on the bandwagon’, which suggests joining or supporting others in something that’s likely to have a favourable outcome. What you might not know is where this phrase originated from.
In the 19-century, performing bands played on carts during carnivals and street parades. These were called bandwagons. As the band played and the wagon went from street to street, the musicians encouraged people to jump on the bandwagon so they could carry on listening to the music as they played.
It wasn’t until 1848, however, that the phrase ‘jump on the bandwagon’ came about during the presidential campaign of US senator Zachary Taylor. Dan Rice was a clown campaigning for Taylor and while promoting him he encouraged potential voters to ‘jump on the bandwagon’ to show support for Taylor.
At the same time, he suggested that anyone who wasn’t on it was missing out on the fun. His campaign was ultimately successful. Zachary Taylor became the US president in 1849.

Examples of the Bandwagon Effect:

  • Facebook post has a lot of ‘likes’, so it gets even more.
  • An item of clothing becomes fashionable because lots of people start wearing it.
  • A beauty product sells out because everyone wants it.
  • Stocks soar as people invest in a particular company.
  • A political party is performing well in the polls and gets increased support.
  • You start a new diet because everyone else is on it.

How does the Bandwagon Effect affect us?

Herd mentality

“Collective fear stimulates herd instinct, and tends to produce ferocity toward those who are not regarded as members of the herd.”  ― Bertrand Russell
Herd mentality is another name for people following the same patterns of behaviour. Examples of this are queuing up all night for the latest Apple smartphone, parents having to buy the must-have toy for Christmas, and Black Friday. These are relatively harmless examples of a herd mentality, but when can the effects become dangerous?
In 2008, the US housing market crashed. When it became obvious that many homeowners would not be able to pay their mortgages, investors, instead of remaining calm, went into a herd mentality and panicked. Once a few starting selling shares, the rest quickly followed which led to one of the biggest financial disasters in US history.

Manipulation

No one likes to admit that they are being manipulated, but we look for validation of our beliefs every day. For instance, when you go to book a holiday, you might go on TripAdvisor, when you buy a product online, you may read the customer reviews. Even something as innocuous as watching a film, we’ll check out the rating and it will influence our choice.
So is this manipulation or being selective? Well, it depends. Studies have shown that we’ll pay more for a product if other people recommend it.

Voting

We all like to think we are on the winning side when it comes to voting for a candidate. Studiesshow that voters who are undecided are more likely to vote for who is ‘expected to win’. This is a clear case of the bandwagon effect.
But the media also plays a huge role in influencing society. Whoever controls the media can decide whether they want to give a candidate positive or negative coverage. Once a politician has the popular vote, it is easy to skim over our rational thoughts. They have the backing of the nation and the majority of voters, and the majority of us can’t be wrong, surely?

Fear and the Need for Belonging

Why is it so hard to escape this particular cognitive bias? Because we all want to belong and that’s why it is important to align ourselves with a group. Outsiders don’t do well in society. They get singled out, bullied, made fun of and isolated.
Studies have shown that as a result, teenagers are most susceptible to the bandwagon effect and it’s not surprising when you consider how much they want to fit in. As we get older, we grow in confidence. We become more assured of our beliefs and we feel able to confront those who don’t share the same ideologies as us.
Of course, there is another reason and that is that we all like to think we are right. And when we join likeminded people on our particular bandwagon, it reassures us that we are on the right path. Moreover, once we have formulated an opinion, either side of an argument, we’ll find everything we can to support that opinion. Whether it’s facts, reviews or people.
So is it possible to avoid this effect or are we destined to remain on the bandwagon? There are ways we can stop jumping on one in the first place.

How to Avoid the Bandwagon Effect

  • Take some time before you make a decision.
  • Get feedback from other sources and compare your results.
  • Make decisions on your own, away from people that share similar views to you.
  • Think about alternative views.
  • Put yourself in the other person’s situation.
  • Try and take emotion out of the scenario.
We all like to think we exercise free will over our actions. Perhaps with a little forethought and knowledge, we will be able to in future.
 
References:
  1. Medium.com
 
 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

About the Author: Janey Davies.

Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 


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https://rayviolet.blogspot.com/



 

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publicado por achama às 07:47
Domingo, 16 / 06 / 19

What Is Introverted Thinking and How It Is Different from Extroverted One ~ Janey Davies.

What Is Introverted Thinking and How It Is Different from Extroverted One.

By Janey Davies.

June 15th, 2019.

 
 

 



 

Did you know that the Myers-Briggs Personality Theory uses our way of thinking to separate us into introverted and extroverted individuals?

If this is a surprise to you, then you’re not the only one. I thought the personality traits of introverts and extroverts extended only to external behaviour. For example, the way we act around others, whether we like social contact or whether we prefer to be left alone.
For instance, a typical introvert will tire easily in company and find solitude the best way to recharge their batteries. On the other hand, extroverts love to be the centre of attention and find alone time hard to deal with.
However, I didn’t realise that we could also think in an introverted or extroverted way. So what exactly is introverted thinking?
You might imagine that when we think, we do so in a kind of social and personal vacuum, but that’s far from the truth. Every experience, every connection, every person we’ve ever met colours our thinking process. As a result, when we think, we bring up all this knowledge and it shapes our thoughts.
So, it stands to reason that someone who is, by nature, more of an introverted person is not suddenly going to start thinking in an extroverted way. But it’s actually more complicated than that. There are very clear differences between introverted and extroverted thinking. And some you might not have thought of.

Differences between Introverted Thinking and Extroverted Thinking

Introverted Thinkers:

  • Focus on what’s in their head
  • Deep thinkers
  • Prefer concepts and theories
  • Good with solving problems
  • Use precise language
  • Natural followers
  • Get projects moving
  • Need to know how things work
Examples of Introverted Thinkers:
Albert Einstein, Charles Darwin, Larry Page (Co-founder of Google), Simon Cowell, Tom Cruise.
Introverted thinkers don’t mind mess and chaos because it allows them to sift through the mess to find answers. They like to analyse a situation before they make a decision.
They will gather all the necessary information they have on the subject, measure it carefully against what they already know, and see if it corresponds or not. Any new information gets stored for later use, anything that’s incorrect gets tossed.
They continue to work in this way, re-evaluating every situation until they are satisfied they have the right conclusion. Having said that, they are always open to new information because at the end of the day they want the truth.
They have an almost obsessive need to know how things work and, as a result, are renowned for coming up with new inventions. They understand complex theories which they can then use in the real world.

Extroverted Thinkers

  • Focus on the real world
  • Logical thinkers
  • Prefer facts and objectives
  • Good with planning and organising projects
  • Use commanding language
  • Natural leaders
  • Get people moving
  • Need to know how people work
Examples of Extroverted Thinkers
Julius Caesar, Napoleon Bonaparte, Martha Stewart, Judge Judy, Uma Thurman, Nancy Pelosi (US Speaker of the House).
Extroverted thinkers can’t stand mess. They are typically much-organised people who need to know where everything is before they can either start work or begin to relax. You won’t find an extrovert with a messy desk. Moreover, if you are messy and disorganised, just ask one to help you and you won’t ever regret it.
Extroverts are direct people and this applies to their approach to life. They won’t faff about. They make quick decisions, take the fastest route or skip lunch to make a meeting. They plan in advance, schedule appointments and know exactly when their train or bus is due to arrive.
Also, they stick with what they know and don’t like new information because it might mess up their carefully thought-out plans.

5 Signs You Might Be an Introverted Thinker

ISTPs & INTPs use introverted thinking.
  1. You don’t believe everything you read.
Do you find you are always fact-checking before you repost on Facebook? Did you question your tutors at school? Do you take things with a pinch of salt? These are all signs of introverted thinking.
  1. You like to take your time when making a decision
No one can accuse you of making rash decisions or acting on impulse. You won’t be rushed when it comes to important decisions.
  1. You’re not afraid of arguing your point of view.
Some people don’t like confrontation, but that’s not you. If you believe you are right, you’ll back yourself, even if it makes you unpopular.
  1. Sometimes you find it hard to explain your position
Just because it makes sense to you doesn’t mean it’s easy to tell someone else.
  1. You don’t follow normal societal routines
People that follow their own path, whether it’s getting up late and working until midnight, or going vegan, natural rule breakers are internal thinkers.
 

5 Signs You Might Be an Extroverted Thinker

ENTJs and ESTJs use extroverted thinking.
  1. You like facts and figures
You have a tendency to believe and trust people. You look to experts to give you advice and you’re happy to follow it.
  1. You can’t bear people who procrastinate
There’s no ‘doing it tomorrow when you can do it today’ for you. In fact, you don’t get the point of putting something off and you can’t understand why someone would.
  1. You’ll make a decision quickly
People can rely on you in a crisis because of your quick thinking and the fact that you are not afraid of making hard choices.
  1. You are able to vocalise your thoughts
You can easily externalise your inner thoughts to others. It’s part of how you can communicate easily and get the job done.
  1. You like rules and regulations
Following the rules allows things to run smoothly and that lets you plan and organise your world more efficiently.
Did you recognise yourself in any of the above descriptors? If you want to know more, why not see which Myers-Briggs personality type you are?
 
References:

 

 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

About the Author: Janey Davies.

Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 



Archives:


 
 



Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.

 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 

 

No religious or political belief is defended here. (Investigate yourself)

 

Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 

If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 


More @ http://violetflame.biz.ly and 
https://rayviolet.blogspot.com/




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 05:30
Segunda-feira, 03 / 06 / 19

What Is the Barnum Effect and How It Can Be Used to Fool You ~ Janey Davies.

What Is the Barnum Effect and How It Can Be Used to Fool You

By Janey Davies.

June 2nd, 2019.

 
 

 



 

Have you ever read your horoscope and thought that it was amazingly accurate? You might just be a victim of the Barnum Effect.

The Barnum Effect, also known as the Forer Effect, occurs when people believe that vague and general descriptions are accurate representations of traits that belong to them personally. The phrase indicates a level of gullibility and comes from P.T Barnum.
Psychologist Paul Meehl coined the phrase in 1956. In those days, psychologists used general terms to fit all patients:
“I suggest—and I am quite serious—that we adopt the phrase Barnum effect to stigmatize those pseudo successful clinical procedures in which personality descriptions from tests are made to fit the patient largely or wholly by virtue of their triviality.”
But who exactly is P.T Barnum and how did the phrase originate?
Anyone that has seen The Greatest Showman will recognise P.T Barnum as the incredible 19-century circus entertainer behind the story. What many people don’t know is that in his early life, Barnum ran a touring museum.
This was a carnival full of live freak shows and sensational attractions, many of which were hoaxes. In fact, although he may not have said “There’s a sucker born every minute,” he certainly believed it. Barnum was famous in his early years for pulling off incredible hoaxes on his audiences.

Examples of P.T Barnum’s Greatest Hoaxes

 

George Washington’s 161-year-old nursemaid

In 1835, Barnum actually purchased an 80-year-old black slave and claimed she was President George Washington’s 161-old nursemaid. The lady was blind and disabled but sang songs and regaled audiences with stories of her time with ‘little George’.

The Cardiff Giant

Barnum wasn’t the only one scamming audiences in the 19-century. In 1869, workers on William Newell’s land ‘discovered’ the petrified body of a 10-foot giant. The giant was, in actual fact, a statue placed there for the hoax.
So started the exhibition with audiences paying 25 cents to see the giant. Barnum wanted to buy it but Newell had already sold it to another showman – Hannah, who refused.
So Barnum, realising an opportunity, built his own giant and called the Cardiff version a fake. This prompted Newell to say “There’s a sucker born every minute.”

The ‘Feejee’ Mermaid


Barnum convinced New York newspapers he had the body of a mermaid which had been captured by an American sailor off the coasts of Japan.
The so-called mermaid was actually a monkey’s head and torso sewn onto a fishtail and covered in paper-mâché. Experts had already proven it to be fake. This didn’t stop Barnum. The exhibit toured and crowds flocked to see it.

What is the Barnum Effect?

So Barnum started off his career with elaborate hoaxes and fooling large audiences. And that’s how we come to the effect. This effect occurs most commonly when describing personality traits. As a result, mediums, astrologers, mentalists and hypnotists will use it.

Examples of statements that show the Barnum Effect:

  • You have a great sense of humour but know when to be serious.
  • You use your intuition, but you have a practical nature.
  • You are quiet and introspective at times, but you like to let your hair down.
Can you see what’s happening here? We are covering all bases.
One study showed it was possible to run a personality test on college students and then give every student exactly the same description about themselves. Moreover, the students believed the descriptions.
In the now-famous Forer personality test, Bertram Forer gave his psychology students a personality test. A week later he delivered the results by providing each and every one of them a ‘personality sketch’ made up of 14 sentences which, he said, summed up their personalities.
He asked the students to rate the descriptions from 1 to 5. The average was 4.3. In fact, the majority of students rated the descriptions as ‘very, very accurate’. But how come?  They all got exactly the same descriptions.

Here are some examples of Forer’s descriptions:

  • You are an independent thinker and need proof from others before you’ll change your mind.
  • You tend to be critical of yourself.
  • You can at times doubt whether you’ve made the right choice.
  • Sometimes you are sociable and extroverted, but at other times you need your space.
  • You need the admiration and respect of other people.
  • Although you may have some weaknesses, you can generally overcome them.
  • You are easily bored and need variety in your life.
  • You are not using your full potential.
  • You may appear to be disciplined and controlled on the outside, but inside, you can worry.
Now, if you read the above, what would you think? Is it an accurate reflection of your personality?

Why we get fooled by Barnum Descriptions?

Why do we get fooled? Why do we believe general descriptions that could apply to anyone? It could be a phenomenon called ‘subjective validation’ or the ‘personal validation effect’.
This is a cognitive bias by which we tend to accept a description or statement if it contains something that is personal to us or is significant to us. So, if a statement resonates powerfully enough, we are more likely to believe it, without checking its validity.
Consider a sitter and a medium. The more invested the sitter is to make contact with their deceased relative, the harder they will try to find meaning in what the medium is saying. They want to find validation and make it personal to them. But that doesn’t mean it’s true.
The next time you find yourself agreeing with something you’ve read, ask yourself, does this apply to me specifically or is it a general description applicable for anyone? Remember, some people use this as a method of deception.
References:
  1. http://psych.fullerton.edu
  2. https://psycnet.apa.org

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

About the Author: Janey Davies.

Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
COPYRIGHT © 2018 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 



Archives:


 
 



Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.

 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 

 

No religious or political belief is defended here. (Investigate yourself)

 

Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 

If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 


More @ http://violetflame.biz.ly and 
https://rayviolet.blogspot.com/




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
Free counters!

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publicado por achama às 18:32
A Luz está a revelar a Verdade, e esta libertar-nos-á! -Só é real o AMOR Incondicional. -Quando o Amor superar o amor pelo poder, o mundo conhecerá a Paz; Jimi Hendrix. -Somos almas a ter uma experiência humana!

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